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Circulatory System

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Comparative Anatomy of the VERTEBRATE
-Arteries
-Veins
-Capillaries
-BLOOD
-Heart
-Atrium
-Ventricle
-Conus
--The Heart of Amniotes
--Heart of a Bird
--Heart of Reptiles
--Heart of Mammals
--SINOATRIAL NODE
_Morphogenesis of the Heart
_Primitive Heart (Two-Chambered) : Single Circulation Pattern
_AMPHIOXUS
CYCLOSTOMES AND FISHES
INTERMEDIATE HEART ( THREE-CHAMBERED) : Incomplete Double Circulation Pattern
DOUBLE-CIRUIT HEART (FOUR-CHAMBERED HEART): Complete Double Circulation Pattern
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Published in: Healthcare
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Circulatory System

  1. 1. + Circulatory System Zoo 2 :Comparative Anatomy of the VERTEBRATE
  2. 2. + CIRCULATORY SYSTEM - Consist of Heart, Arteries, Veins/Venous Sinuses, Capillaries/Sinusoids and Blood, and of Lymph channels and lymph.
  3. 3. + CIRCULATORY SYSTEM is responsible for transporting materials throughout the entire body. /circle of blood Transport other wastes from cells It helps maintain body temperature by transporting heat
  4. 4. + Arteries -- Muscular and Elastic Walls capable of distention with each intrusion of blood -- Smaller Arteries with a length of 0.3mm or less are Arterioles -- Carries blood away from the heart -Arterioles --> dilate and and constrict reflexly and thereby assist in regulating blood pressure. -->Terminate in blood capillaries -The arteries maintain pressure in the circulatory system much like a balloon maintains pressure on the air within it. The arteries therefore act as pressure reservoirs by maintaining (storing) pressure.
  5. 5. + ARTERIES Aorta: largest vessel (diameter of a garden hose) –receives blood from left ventricle Arteriole: smaller vessels connecting arteries to capillaries
  6. 6. +Veins -- Commence in capillaries -- Carries blood towards the heart -- Have proportionately less muscle -- Elastic tissue and more fibrous tissues than arteries therefore capable of less distention / construction -- Smallest are Venules -The blood pressure in the veins is low so valves in veins help prevent backflow. -act as blood reservoirs because they contain 50% to 60% of the blood volume. -Smooth muscle in the walls of veins can expand or contract to adjust the flow volume returning to the heart and make more blood available when needed
  7. 7. + VEINS
  8. 8. + VEINS
  9. 9. + Capillaries - Generally consist of endothelium (tissues that form single layer of cells lining various organs and cavities of the body) alone. -- Certain are accompanied by mesenchyme (cells of mesodermal capable of developing into a connective tissue, blood and lymphatic and blood vessels) and scattering of smooth muscle fiber. -- Lumen large enough to occupy red blood cells in single file. -Portal System – System of veins terminating in a capillary bed. -Renal Portal System – Where blood from the capillaries of the tail passes in vertebrate -Hepatic Portal System – Blood from the digestive tract, pancreas, and spleen -
  10. 10. + PORTAL SYSTEM Hepatic Portal System Portal System
  11. 11. + BLOOD - A fluid that is pumped by the heart and circulates throughout the body. -- to carry nutrients, oxygen and hormones to all tissues of the body and to carry waste products and carbon dioxide away from the tissues. -One of the Tissues in the Circulatory System -Solids consists of blood proteins ~ Serum - an amber-colored, protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates. -Suspended in the plasma, and carried along in its flow are formed element : -Red Blood Corpuscles (Erythrocytes) – Oxygen-Bearing -White Blood Corpuscles (Leukocytes) – Disease-Fighting -Platelets (Thrombocytes) – Blood-Clotting -
  12. 12. + BLOOD
  13. 13. + TYPES OF BLOOD  RED BLOOD -re responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide.  PLATELETS -are blood cells that help stop bleeding
  14. 14. + TYPES OF BLOOD  WHITE BLOOD - help the body fight off germs
  15. 15. + WHITE BLOOD GRANULOCYTES - help the body fight bacterial infections. The number of granulocytes in the body goes up when there is a serious infection. People with lower numbers of granulocytes are more likely to get bad infections more often.
  16. 16. + Granulocytes Neutrophil - active phagocyte, number increases rapidly during short term or acute infection. Eosinophils - kills parasitic worms and increase during allergy attack.
  17. 17. + Granulocytes Basophils - contains histamine, which is discharged as site of inflammation.
  18. 18. + Agranular Leukocytes LYMPHOCYTES MONOCYTES White blood cell; a colorless blood corpuscle capable of amoeboid movement, whose chief function is to protect the body against microorganisms causing disease
  19. 19. + Heart -- a hollow muscular organ of vertebrate animals that by its rhythmic contraction acts as a force pump maintaining the circulation of the blood -- hearts muscles pulsates in response to specific electrolytes -- Walls : Endocardium, Myocardium and Epicardium -- Myocardium – Special type of striate muscles; Thick in the ventricular wall -Epicardium – outer layer of the heart; Lying on its is the Visceral Epicadium -Pericardial Cavity – the pace between pariental and and visceral pericardia which are continous with one another, reflected over the blood vessels that enter and leave. -Coronary arteries – supply all of the heart muscle with blood -Coronary veins - drain blood from the muscular tissue of the heart and empty into the coronary sinus (a collection of veins joined together)
  20. 20. + HEART DIAGRAM Hagfishes’s heart has no nerve supply
  21. 21. + HEART
  22. 22. +HEART DEVELOPMENT -- The splanchnic layer of the hypomere posterior to the pharynx and ventral to the gut become thicker on both sides of the body -- These mesodermal folds form a longitudial tube -- The tube is fixed to surroundings tissues at each end but otherwise becomes free as it passes through an expanded portion of the coelom -- The free section forms four chambers which begin to contract and become the embryonic heart -Newly-Formed embryonic heart has 2 layers : -- The internal endocardium of mature heart has a thick layer of elastic connective tissue under an endothelial lining -- External epimyocardium divides into chambers - -> Epicardium which becomes the serous membrane of organ - -> Myocardium which comprise the cardiac muscle -
  23. 23. + EPICARDIUM outer layer of the wall of the heart
  24. 24. + MYOCARDIUM the middle and thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle.
  25. 25. + HEARTS OF GILL- BREATHING FISHES Fishes other than dipnoans have 4 chambers in a series : Sinus Venosus, Atrium, ventricle, and conus arteriosus.
  26. 26. + Heart of Gill-Breathing Fishes
  27. 27. + Atrium Large thin-walled muscular sac that is a sort of staging are for blood that Is about to enter the ventricle to be propelled toward the gills. From the atrium, blood pours into the relaxing ventricle through an atrioventricular aperture that is guarded by a pair of a one-way valve. These prevents ventricular blood from being pumped back into the atrium when the ventricle conracts.
  28. 28. + Ventricle Has a very thick muscular walls and is the actual pumping portion of the heart. The anterior end is prolonged as a muscular tube of small diameter, the conus arteriosus, which extends to the extreme cephalic end of the pericardial cavity, at which point it is continuous with the ventral aorta.
  29. 29. + Conus Composed chiefly of cardiac muscle and elastic connective tissue. A series of semilunar valves facing forward within the conus prevent backflow with each delivery of ventricular blood, and then slowly constricts, maintauning a steady arterial pressure in the ventral aorta for the flow of blood through the gill capillaries. In teleost is short and has only one set of vavles. Bulbus Arteriosus –the dilated part of the aorta just in front of the heart from which the aortic arches arise in vertebrate embryos and in the adult of many lower vertebrates.
  30. 30. + HEARTS OF LUNGFISHES AND AMPHIBIANS Modification in the heart of lungfishes and amphibians are correlated with aerial respiration by means of swim bladders or lungs. They are enable oxygenated blood returning from the lungs to be separated from the deoxygenated blood returning from elsewhere. Lungfishes and amphibians have bimodal gas exchange, but various species employ air breathing with lungs to different degrees Dynamics of inflow in the pulmonary and systemic veins The extent and localization of atrial septation The partial ventricular septum in lungfishes and the massive ventricular trabeculation in both amphibians and lungfishes Vasomotor reactions in the various outflow vessels from the heart.
  31. 31. +
  32. 32. + LUNGFISHES Heart
  33. 33. + MODIFICATION OF THE HEARTS One modification is the establishment of a partial or complete partition within the atrium (atria), There is a left and right atria. Pulmonary veins empty into the left atrium (the blood on this chamber is oxygen rich) 2nd modification : Formation of a partial interventricular septum/ ventricular trabeculae (shelves projecting form the ventricular wall into the chamber and running mostly cephalocaudal (direction of head to tail) 3rd modification : Formation of spiral valve in the conus arteriosus in many dipnoans and anuran. The valves directs oxygenated and deoxygenatedblood into appropriate channels. 4th modification : Shortened the ventral aorta, so that it becomes nonexistent as embryonic development progresses. Resulting oxygenated and deoxygenated blood that has been kept separated from the heart by septa, traculae, and spiral vales moves from the heart into appropriate vessels.
  34. 34. + The Hearts of Amniotes Amniotes - are animals who shield the embryos of their offspring using extensive membranes or keeping them inside the body, in contrast to most other animals, which lay free-floating eggs in water. - a group of limbed vertebrates that includes all living reptiles (class Reptilia), birds (class Aves), mammals (class Mammalia) -2 atria, 2 ventrticles, and a sinus venoses ( except in adult birds and mammals) -In crocodile sinus is partially incorporates into the wall of right atrium. -Birds and mammals have a sinus venosus during early development but fails to keep pace with the growth of the right atrium into which it empties and finally incorporated into the wall of that chamber. -Sinoatrial Node – section of nodal tissue that is loacted in the upper wall of the right atrium -Interatrial Foramen – An opening of the septum between the right and left atria of the heart, present in the fetus but usually close soon after birth
  35. 35. + The Heart of Amniotes The right and left atria of adult amniotes are completely separated by an interatrial septum Right atrium -> receives blood from the sinus venosus (reptiles) or blood that previously emptied into the sinus venosus (Bird and Mammals) also receives blood from the pulmonary veins Left atrium -> receives blood from the pulmonary veins Mammals each atrium has a earlike flap (auricle), containing a blind, saclike chamber 2 ventricles are completely separated in crocodiliansc (Reptiles), birds, and mammals Other amniotes, the interventrucular septum is incomplete
  36. 36. + Heart of a Bird
  37. 37. + Heart of Reptiles
  38. 38. + Heart of Mammals
  39. 39. + SINOATRIAL NODE
  40. 40. + INTERARIAL FORAMEN
  41. 41. + Morphogenesis of the Heart The heart of all vertebrate commence as a single, almost straight, pulsating tube that receives incoming blood at the caudal end and empties into the embryonic ventral aorta anteriorly. The tube, whether of sharks or human beings, bends to the animal’s right, then twists in to an “S” shape, so that the atrial region, previously at the caudal end, is carried dorsad and cephalad until it lies where it is found in adult fishes. The twisting and bending is probably correlated with the confinement of the rapidly growing heart in a less expansive pericardial cavity. In Amphibians and Amniotes the twisting is carried further, for the atrial region finally lies cephalad to the ventricular region., while internally an interventricular septum completes the division of the amniote heart into right and left sides.
  42. 42. + Morphogenesis of the Heart
  43. 43. + Morphogenesis of the Heart As hatching approaches in birds, the sinus venosus is incorporated almost completely into the wall of the right atrium. In mammals, the sinus venosus fails early to keep up in growth with the rest of the heart and its incorporation into the right atrial wall occurs sooner in organogenesis Oxygen and nutrients from the heart is the first organ to function and does not even before any nerves have reached it to impose a cardiac rhythm. Initial straight tube that will become the heart of sharks and amphibians organizations from paired mesenchymal masses of lateral-plate somatic and splanchnic mesenchyme that aggregate beneath the pharynx to form a single tube. In amniotes a pair already organized endothelial tube is brought together beneath the pharynx, they fus, and a single tube results, In either case, the heart is bilateral contribution of lately-plate mesoderm.
  44. 44. +Primitive Heart (Two- Chambered) : Single Circulation Pattern -- They are nearly straight with 4 chambers, pumping a single stream of deoxygenated blood forward in the body -- A thin walled sinus venosus receives blood from the major veins and empties it through a simple sinutrial valves in a large thick-walled ventricle -- The Ventricle pumps into the conus arteriosus which looks like an enlarged artery and is lined with several rows of semilunar valves preventing backflow of blood as the ventricle fills. -
  45. 45. + AMPHIOXUS Has no heart only a homologous pulsating vessels in the same position where the heart evolved in vertebrate
  46. 46. + CYCLOSTOMES AND FISHES Vary widely in detailed structure The heart is relatively far forward in from the pectorial girdle and under the posterior gills. Atrium is relatively large and usually shifts to a position dorsal to the ventricle TELEOSTS - ventricle is conical with apex pointing posteriorly - have bulbus arteriosus within the pericardial cavity in the position of the conus in the other fishes ELASMOBRANCES – its pericardial cavity is bordered in party by the skeleton As the ventricle contracts, blood enters the sinus venosus and atrium by suction
  47. 47. + CYCLOSTOMES AND FISHES Hearts of FISHES are relatively small due to small volume of blood - Cyclostomes and Fishes have accessory hearts or pumping mechanisms
  48. 48. +INTERMEDIATE HEART ( THREE- CHAMBERED) : Incomplete Double Circulation Pattern DIPNOANS, AMPHIBIANS, and REPTILES : Their heart usually receives both kind of blood, oxygenenated and deoxygenated, without structural separation allowing mixing of the two streams. Atrium of DIPNOI is partly divided by an interatrial septum in to right and left chambers - The sinus venosus delivers deoxygenated blood to the right chamber and the pulmonary veins supply oxygenated blood to the left chamber - The ventricle is partly divided by a large muscular interventricular septum - The large conus no longer contracts and is partly divided by a spiral fold or flap of tissue
  49. 49. + The Atrium of ANURANS is completely divided into right and left chambers by the interatrial septum - The right chamber received deoxygenated blood while the left received blood oxygenated in the lungs - Blood returning from the skin joint the systemic veins allowing mixing of blood on the right side - The ventricle is not divided but mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood is minimal - Both blood may enter the left systematic arch and mix depending on the resistance in the pulmonary circuit INTERMEDIATE HEART ( THREE- CHAMBERED) : Incomplete Double Circulation Pattern
  50. 50. + CHELOANS and SQUAMATE hearts appears during early embryonic development but becomes divided in the adult to form the pulmonary trunk and the independent right and left systemic trunk - Atrium is completely divided into right and left atria - The cavuum arteriosum received blood from the left atrium but has no direct arterial output - The cavuum pumonale does not receive blood directly from the atria; It receives blood from the cavuum venosum through the muscular ridge - The cavuum venosum receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium INTERMEDIATE HEART ( THREE- CHAMBERED) : Incomplete Double Circulation Pattern
  51. 51. + CROCODILIAN heart is quite different from other reptiles -The ventricle is divided by a complete interventicular septum into left and right ventricle -- The pulmonary trunk and left aortic arch open off the right ventricle -- The right aortic arch open off the left ventricle -- A narrow channel at the bases of the two systematic trunks, the foramen of Panizza, connects -- When CROCODILE dives, blood in the right ventricle travel through the left aortic arch joining the systematic circulation and by passing lungs -- Diversion of blood also happens when it is at rest on land going for long intervals without taking a breath INTERMEDIATE HEART ( THREE- CHAMBERED) : Incomplete Double Circulation Pattern
  52. 52. + CROCODILE HEART
  53. 53. +DOUBLE-CIRUIT HEART (FOUR- CHAMBERED HEART): Complete Double Circulation Pattern ADULT BIRDS and MAMMALS – complete double circulation composed of : - Low-pressure pulmonary circuit on the right side of the heart -> Needed to avoid edema and damage to delicate lung tissues -- High-Pressure systemic circuit on the left side of the heart - -> To drive blood through tissues that may have their own internal pressure like contracting muscles -- Atrium is completely divided and smaller than in fishes -- Ventricle is completely divide and stronger on the left side because of the resistance that is greater on the other side -- Adult systematic arch is single - -> It loops to the right in BIRDS and to the left in MAMMALS
  54. 54. + LYMPHATIC SYSTEM The lymph system is a major part of the body's immune system. Lymph and Lymphatic channels are found in all vertebrates Consist of thin-walled lymph channels, lymph, lymph hearts, lymphoid masses and Lymph nodes. In contrast to blood, lymph moves in one direction : Toward the heart. Either Lymph spaces or discrete lymph vessels penetrate most of the soft tissue of the vertebrate other than the skeleton, liver and nervous system.
  55. 55. + LYMPHATIC SYSTEM a network of organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels that make and move lymph from tissues to the bloodstream.
  56. 56. + Lymph Nodes act as filters or traps for foreign particles and are important in the proper functioning of the immune system
  57. 57. + Lymph Duct a great lymphatic vessel that empties lymph into one of the subclavian veins
  58. 58. + FLOW

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