EARLY DAYS During the early period , man did not have much needs. He lived in forests or in caves. His only concern was food and shelter. He did not even care about his clothing. He remained naked and collected his food from forest and wild animals and roamed freely.
As he progressed his needs and wantsincreased, technologies came into being . Hebegan discovering new things , this led to hiseconomic development.
DEVELOPMENT FROM EARLY LIFE STYLE These days he has been using numerous resources rapidly and rapid uses of these resources has led to their depletion . In the beginning he did not know the use of iron and coal ore. Nowadays he has been using all kinds of conventional and non-conventional source of energy.
ENERGY Energy is "the ability to do work". Machines, humans, and other living beings, need energy to move, or to get things done . Energy exists in many different forms (heat, movement, sound, light, chemical energy, and others), and that it can be converted from one form to another.
RESOURCEResources are everything available in theenvironment such as mineral, labour,livestock etc., A resource is a source orsupply from which benefit is produced.From a human perspective a naturalresource is anything obtained fromthe environment to satisfy human needs andwants.
CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES The earth has plenty of resources that people can use to meet their needs. The earth is a great place where both living and non living things can be found. Plants and animals are living things. Land, water and air are non living things. People use both living and non living things on Earth to satisfy their needs. The materials on earth that people use are called natural resources.
*How human destroy our Naturalresources?*Some people activities are harmful toboth our renewable and nonrenewableresources. To build new roads, peopleblast off mountains killing both plantsand animals. It also creates destructionto their natural habitat. Rice fields areturned into residential or commercialcenters. People cut too many trees forlumber. When all the trees are gone,rains wash away the soil.
Industrialization brings people to buildmany factories. If not properly planned and maintain,this factories emits harmful waste materials thatpollutes the soil, air and water. Too much mining andquarrying for the purpose of getting those preciousmetals and stones eventually erodes the soil. Infarming, some farmers use too much chemicalfertilizers. Too much fertilizer destroys the quality ofthe soil and is harmful to both human and animals.Burning plastics and garbage, and smoke belching carsalso pollutes the air and contributes to globalwarming.
CONVENTIONAL SOURCE OF ENERGY The conventional sources of energy are generally non-renewable sources of energy, which are being used since a long time. These sources of energy are being used extensively in such a way that their known reserves have been depleted to a great extent. At the same time it is becoming increasingly difficult to discover and exploit their new deposits. It is envisaged at known deposits of petroleum in our country will get exhausted by the few decades and coal reserves are expected to last for another hundred years. The coal, petroleum and natural gas are conventional sources of energy.
FOSSIL FUELS Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
THERMAL POWER PLANTA thermal power station is a powerplant in which the primemover is steam driven. Water is heated,turns into steam and spins a steamturbine which drives an electricalgenerator. After it passes through theturbine, the steam is condensed ina condenser and recycled to where it washeated; this is known as a Rankine cycle.The greatest variation in the design ofthermal power stations is due to thedifferent fuel sources.
HYDRO POWER PLANTS Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity consumption, and 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, which continues the rapid rate of increase experienced between 2003 and 2009.
NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCE OF ENERGY Energy generated by using wind, tides, solar, geothermal heat, and biomass including farm and animal waste as well as human excreta is known as non-conventional energy. All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible and do not cause environmental pollution. More over they do not require heavy expenditure.
1. Wind Energy:Wind power is harnessed by setting up a windmillwhich is used for pumping water, grinding grainand generating electricity. The gross wind powerpotential of India is estimated to be about 20,000MW, wind power projects of 970 MW capacitieswere installed till March. 1998. Areas withconstantly high speed preferably above 20 km perhour are well-suited for harnessing wind energy.
WIND ENERGY Country that uses the most wind power is Germany, then areas of Denmark also use a lot of wind power. Next would be the U.S., and Spain follows right behind them. Other users include: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Wales, Republic of Ireland, Scotland, England, India, Japan, New Zealand & South Africa
3. Solar Energy:Sun is the source of all energy on theearth. It is most abundant, inexhaustibleand universal source of energy. AH othersources of energy draw their strength fromthe sun. India is blessed with plenty ofsolar energy because most parts of thecountry receive bright sunshine throughoutthe year except a brief monsoon period.India has developed technology to use solarenergy for cooking, water heating, waterdissimilation, space heating, crop dryingetc.
5. Energy from Biomass:Biomass refers to all plant material and animalexcreta when considered as an energy source.Some important kinds of biomass are inferiorwood, urban waste, biogases, farm animal andhuman waste.
2. Tidal Energy:Sea water keeps on rising and fallingalternatively twice a day under the influenceof gravitational pull of moon and sun. Thisphenomenon is known as tides. It isestimated that India possesses 8000-9000 MWof tidal energy potential. The Gulf of Kutchis best suited for tidal energy.
WAVE ENERGY Waves are caused by the wind blowing over the surface of the ocean. In many areas of the world, the wind blows with enough consistency and force to provide continuous waves. There is tremendous energy in the ocean waves. Wave power devices extract energy directly from the surface motion of ocean waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Next slide we will see how it works in a video.
4. Geo-Thermal Energy:Geo-thermal energy is the heat of the earthsinterior. This energy is manifested in the hotsprings. India is not very rich in this source.
OCEANIC THERMAL ENERGY Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface ocean waters to run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of electricity. However, the temperature differential is small and this impacts the economic feasibility of ocean thermal energy for electricity generation.
Importance of non-conventionalsources of energy:1. The non-conventional sources ofenergy are abundant in nature.According to energy experts thenon-conventional energy potentialof India is estimated at about95,000 MW.2. These are renewable resources.The non-conventional sources ofenergy can be renewed with minimumeffort and money.3. Non-conventional sources ofenergy are pollution-free and eco-friendly