Unit 27 - Renewable And Non Renewable Energy

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Renewable and Non-renewable Energy

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Unit 27 - Renewable And Non Renewable Energy

  1. 1. Renewable vs. Non-renewable Energy<br />Unit 27<br />
  2. 2. What Does Energy Mean to Us?<br />When you hear politicians and scientists say things like “energy consumption” or “energy independence” what does that really mean?<br />
  3. 3. Energy Use<br />Energy is generally divided into two main types:<br />Electricity Production<br />and<br />Transportation<br />
  4. 4. Non-renewable Energy<br />Non-renewable means that the supply can not be replenished. <br />Once it runs out, it is gone forever.<br />Fossil Fuels are the most common form of non-renewable energy.<br />
  5. 5. Examples of Fossil Fuels<br />Coal- Ancient swamps that were buried by sediments. Primarily containing peat moss and other vegetation.<br />Petroleum (Oil)- Primarily algae and plankton that sink to the bottom of the sea and are buried by sediments.<br />Natural Gas- Primarily algae that sink to the bottom of the sea are buried by sediments.<br />They are called fossil fuels because they are the remains of organisms that lived millions of years ago.<br />
  6. 6. Uses of Fossil Fuels<br /><ul><li>Coal- Used to generate electricity.
  7. 7. Used in the steel industry to melt iron
  8. 8. Oil- Used to produce gasoline and diesel.
  9. 9. Used as lubricants, like motor oil.
  10. 10. Used to make plastics and asphalt
  11. 11. Natural Gas- Use to generate electricity
  12. 12. Used to heat homes
  13. 13. Used as an alternative fuel for vehicles</li></li></ul><li>Coal<br />The most abundant fossil fuel in the world.<br />It is estimated that there is about 200-300 years left of coal on Earth.<br />Because it is the most abundant fuel, it is the cheapest. Thus, it is used to generate electricity and in producing steel.<br />Coal represents about 40% of the electricity generated in the United States.<br />It is also the most polluting form of energy today, producing all kinds of toxic chemicals.<br />
  14. 14. Coal<br />
  15. 15. Coal<br />Coal smoke is one of the largest contributors to air pollution and smog.<br />Prior to more modern smoke cleaning technology, coal soot layers coated city buildings and trees.<br />
  16. 16. Coal Power Plant<br />Coal is burned<br />It heats up water to turn it to steam<br />The rising steam turns turbines which generate electricity<br />
  17. 17. Smog<br />Smog is produced by chemicals released by coal powerplants and automobiles.<br />Here is Beijing, China<br />The left image is a “sunny” day with thick smog and on right image is after a rainstorm washed it all out.<br />
  18. 18. Petroleum (Oil)<br />Oil is a thick, black liquid formed from the buried remains of microscopic marine organisms.<br />It is generally trapped under layers of rock and has to be pumped out.<br />But, there are a few spots where it can find its way to the surface.<br />
  19. 19. Oil Wells<br />First you drill down to find a deposit<br />Then you use a oil rig to pump it up<br />
  20. 20. Uses of Oil<br />Oil is converted into many products we use everyday, including gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, lubricants, plastics, among others.<br />Oil represents more than 90% of the transportation energy used today.<br />61% of oil is used for transportation<br />
  21. 21. Oil Refining<br />Oil can be heated and separated into its different components<br />
  22. 22. Diesel Fuel<br />It is used for hauling goods.<br />Trucks, Ships, and Railways use Diesel<br />
  23. 23. Natural Gas<br />It is primarily methane<br />It is used to produce 20% of our electricity<br />It is cleaner burning than coal<br />It is used to heat homes.<br />
  24. 24. Other Uses of Natural Gas<br />The chemical reaction of natural gas is very simple.<br />CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O<br />
  25. 25. Problems with Fossil Fuels<br />All Fossil Fuels release Carbon Dioxide gas when burned which causes global warming.<br />Burning coal and oil produces toxic pollutants that result in smog, air pollution, lung diseases, and acid rain.<br />Our Fossil Fuels will run out soon, thus we need alternatives!<br />
  26. 26. Renewable Resources<br />These are sources of energy that naturally regenerate themselves.<br />Wind<br />Solar<br />Hydroelectricity<br />Biofuels<br />Geothermal<br />Tidal/Wave Energy<br />
  27. 27. Energy from Wind<br />Wind energy comes from wind turning turbines to generate electricity.<br />It can only be used in regions that have a lot of wind.<br />It is the fastest growing source of alternative energy today.<br />Currently, about 2% of electricity in U.S. is from wind. But, it is over 20% in Denmark!<br />
  28. 28. Wind Farm<br />
  29. 29. Advantages: Wind energy is nonpolluting<br />Disadvantages: <br />Not all places are windy enough<br />Sometimes the wind slows or stops<br />It can kill birds in migratory paths<br />
  30. 30. Solar Energy<br />There are two ways to generate electricity from the sun.<br />Photovoltaic cells<br />Solar thermal energy<br />
  31. 31. Solar cells<br /><ul><li> Must face south to get the maximal sun, if on a roof.
  32. 32. Some systems have the ability to rotate to follow the sun through the day</li></li></ul><li>Solar Thermal Systems<br />Sunlight is focused on a fluid that boils to spin a turbine to generate electricity<br />
  33. 33. Passive Solar Heating<br />Sunlight can be used to save energy without even generating electricity<br />
  34. 34. Solar Energy<br />Solar energy can save money by heating or lighting buildings passively.<br />Solar energy can heat water, saving energy needed for water heaters.<br />Solar energy can generate electricity<br />Solar produces no pollution<br />
  35. 35. Disadvantages of Solar energy<br />It does not work well on cloudy days<br />It does not work at night.<br />It is less effective the further north you go<br />It is difficult to store large amounts of energy in batteries<br />
  36. 36. Hydroelectricity<br />Dams hold large amounts of water back. <br />Water flowing through forces turbines to spin and create electricity.<br />
  37. 37. Run of the River Dam<br />Uses force of the river to push turbines<br />
  38. 38. Gravity Dams<br />Creates a vertical displacement and water is dropped onto the turbines<br />
  39. 39. Hydroelectricity<br />Generates about 20% of electricity in U.S.<br />No pollution and is renewable.<br />But, causes environmental damage.<br />It floods lands, alters rivers temperature and character and can kill fish species<br />
  40. 40. Tidal and Wave Energy<br />In the early stages of development<br />Moving water can spin turbines and generate electricity<br />
  41. 41. Biofuels<br />Using crop waste, leaves, and wood products to generate fuel.<br />Renewable because you can always grow more.<br />Still produces carbon dioxide when burned.<br />
  42. 42. Geothermal Energy<br />Using hot water from the Earth<br />Can only be used in certain areas with volcanic or geothermal activity<br />Iceland is the world’s largest producer<br />If we could drill deep enough, everywhere could have geothermal.<br />
  43. 43. Geothermal Plant in Iceland<br />
  44. 44. Nuclear Power<br />It is a non-renewable resource since the uranium used as the fuel has a finite quantity.<br />
  45. 45. Nuclear Power<br />Nuclear Power is clean and non-polluting. Only water vapor is released. <br />It is the most efficient form of electricity generation available.<br />About 20% of<br />electricity in U.S. <br />is from nuclear<br />
  46. 46. Nuclear Waste<br />The primary drawback of nuclear power is the nuclear waste.<br />The waste is radioactive and have to be stored in secure and safe locations.<br />
  47. 47. Risks of Nuclear Power<br />Nuclear Power is the safest form of energy production. <br />But, a disaster can be devastating with the release of radiation.<br /> An actual nuclear bomb type <br />explosion is not really possible<br />the way the reactors are run<br /> Chernobyl is the only major<br />disaster ever, but it was a<br />poorly run and aging complex<br />

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