The first demonstration of electric light in Calcutta
was conducted on 24 July 1879 by P W Floury &
Co. Mumbai saw electric lighting demonstration
for the first time in 1882 at Crawford Market, and
Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company
(B.E.S.T.) set up a generating station in 1905 to
provide electricity for the tramway. The first
hydroelectric installation in India was installed
near a tea estate at Sidrapong for the Darjeeling
Municipality in 1897.The first electric train ran
between Bombay's Victoria Terminus and Kurla
along the Harbour Line, in 1925. In 1931,
electrification of the meter gauge track between
Madras Beach and Tambaram was started.
Power development in India was first started in
1897 in Darjeeling, followed by commissioning of a
hydropower station at Sivasamudram in
Karnataka during 1902.
Since 1990, India has been one of the fastest
growing markets for new electricity generation
The country's annual electricity generation
capacity has increased in last 20 years by about 120
GW, from about 66 GW in 1991to over 100 GW in
2001,to over 185 GW in 2011.
State-owned and privately owned companies are
significant players generating electricity in India.
As of August 2011, the states and union territories
of India with power surplus were Himachal
Pradesh, Sikkim, Tripura, Gujarat,
Delhi and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
India's central government and state
governments jointly regulate electricity sector in
The table below presents the electricity generation
capacity, as well as availability to India's end user
and their demand
ITEM VALUE DATE
201.64 April 2012
837374 May 2011
118.7 May 2011
933741 May 2011
136.2 May 2011
o Thermal power
Thermal power plants convert energy rich fuel into
electricity and heat. Possible fuels include coal, natural gas,
petroleum products, agricultural waste and domestic trash
India expects that its projected rapid growth in electricity
generation over the next couple of decades is expected to be
largely met by thermal power plants.
o HYDRO POWER
-It is a renewable energy resource.
-2700 twh is generated every year.
The power plants at Darjeeling and Shimsha
were established in 1898 and 1902 respectively
are first in Asia
o NUCLEAR POWER
-Indigenous Nuclear Power Program.
-Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty.
-Nuclear Power supplies.
-Shortage of fossil fuels drive the nuclear investment.
India aims to supply 9% of it electricity needs with
nuclear power by 2032. India's largest nuclear power
plant project under implementation is at Jaitapur,
Maharashtra in partnership with Areva, France.
o SOLAR POWER
o WIND POWER
o BIOMASS POWER
o GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
o TIDAL WAVE ENERGY
Thar Desert project.
Solar Power Reception.
Average Solar Energy incident over India.
Leader in Solar Power Generation.
Asia’s biggest Solar park.
Park generates 214 MW Solar Power.
Awarded for being ecofriendly.
Development of Wind Power increased.
India ranks 5th.
Total installed capacity 16078 MW.
Generates 1.6% of the country’s power.
Rise in the capacity to generate power.
Total wind power generation in Gujrat is 2884 MW.
Suited for rural areas.
Helps in efficient utilization of renewable biological
Low cost Resource.
Ability to have small kw. Scale Power production as
low as 20 KW.
Good potential of producing 10600 MW power.
Not yet Exploited.
Ecofriendly means of power generation.
Total potential 9000MW
Gulf of Cambay & Gulf of Kutch.
Ganges Delta in Sundarban In west Bengal.
Gujrat government’s approval for the Gulf of
Urea Global Ltd. In association with U.S based
company Ocean Energy Industries.
Of the 1.4 billion people of the world who have no
access to electricity in the world, India accounts for
over 300 million.
800 million Indians use traditional fuels –
fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass cakes –
for cooking and general heating needs
The five states with largest power demand and
availability, as of May 2011, were Maharashtra,
Andhra pradesh ,Tamil nadu, Uttar pradesh and
According to a sample of 97,882 households in
2002, electricity was the main source of lighting for
53% of rural households compared to 36% in 1993
India currently suffers from a major shortage of
electricity generation capacity, even though it is
the world's fourth largest energy consumer after
United States, China and Russia.The International
Energy Agency estimates India needs an
investment of at least $135 billion to provide
universal access of electricity to its population.
Gujarat was declared a power surplus state,
with about 2–3 GW more power available than
its internal demand
Over 2010–11, India's industrial demand
accounted for 35% of electrical power
requirement, domestic household use
accounted for 28%, agriculture 21%,
commercial 9%, public lighting and other
miscellaneous applications accounted for the
India's demand for electricity may cross 300
GW, earlier than most estimates
1) India's manufacturing sector is likely to grow
faster than in the past
2) Domestic demand will increase more rapidly
as the quality of life for more Indians improve
3) About 125,000 villages are likely to get
connected to India's electricity grid
1) Government giveaways such as free electricity
for farmers, partly to curry political
favour, have depleted the cash reserves of
state-run electricity-distribution system.
2) Shortages of fuel: despite abundant reserves of
coal, India is facing a severe shortage of coal.
The country isn't producing enough to feed its
power plants. Some plants do not have reserve
coal supplies to last a day of operations.
3) The giant new offshore natural gas field has
delivered less fuel than projected
4) hydroelectric power projects in India's
mountainous north and northeast regions have
been slowed down by ecological, environmental
and rehabilitation controversies, coupled with
public interest litigations.
5) The July 2012 blackout, affecting the north of the
country, was the largest power grid failure in
history by number of people affected.
6) In 2010, electricity losses in India during
transmission and distribution were about 24%,
while losses because of consumer theft or billing
deficiencies added another 10–15%
7) Power cuts are common throughout India and the
consequent failure to satisfy the demand for
electricity has adversely effected India's economic
8) Over 300 million Indian citizens had no access to
electricity. Over one third of India's rural
population lacked electricity, as did 6% of the
India's Ministry of Power launched Rajiv
Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana as one
of its flagship programme in March 2005 with
the objective of electrifying over one lakh un-
electrified villages and to provide free
electricity connections to 2.34 crore rural
This free electricity program promises energy
access to India's rural areas, but is in part
creating problems for India's electricity sector
A Ministry of Renewal and New Energy
announcement claims State Renewable Energy
Agencies are being supported to organize
short-term training programmes for
installation, operation and maintenance and
repair of renewable energy systems in such
places where intensive RE programme are
Renewable Energy Chairs have been
established in IIT Roorkee and IIT Kharagpur.