Alternative Energy Sources


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Alternative Energy Sources

  1. 1. Presented by Anishka Lunawat August 12, 2009 Alternative energy sources
  2. 2. Why the need to look for alternative energy sources <ul><li>All resources on the verge of depletion </li></ul><ul><li>No option left – search is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>To keep all the industries and operation away from the risk of halting due to lack of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>To postpone the time when all resources shall deplete. </li></ul><ul><li>We have borrowed the earth from our future generation and and is not gifted to us by our ancestors. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Trends for energy sources since year 1965 till 2005
  4. 4. Energy Scenario 0.9 % 1202 MW Thermal – Oil 10.2 % 13842 MW Thermal – Gas 53.4 % 71932 MW Thermal – Coal 7.6 % 10175 MW Renewable power 3.1 % 4120 MW Nuclear 24.8 % 34131 MW Hydro Power 64.5 % 86976 MW Thermal Installed Capacity Percentage Source
  5. 5. Energy scenario <ul><li>How long are the fossil fuels going to help us? </li></ul><ul><li>Coal – 200 years </li></ul><ul><li>Oil –20-30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas – 40 to 70 years </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels provide around 66% of the world's electrical power, and 95% of the world's total energy demands (including heating, transport, electricity generation and other uses). </li></ul><ul><li>1. Coal provides around 28% of energy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Oil provides 40 % </li></ul><ul><li>3. natural gases provide about 20%. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Alternative energy resources <ul><li>Now when all of the resources deplete, alternatives need to be ready before hand </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the emergence of </li></ul><ul><li>Solar, </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro </li></ul><ul><li>tidal, </li></ul><ul><li>wind, </li></ul><ul><li>geothermal energy, </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Bio mass </li></ul><ul><li>Bio fuels (for transportation) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Solar Energy <ul><li>One of the most popularized non-conventional source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>It has high initial investment but low maintenance and long life. </li></ul><ul><li>It is simple in construction and use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is non polluting source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Now a days PV Cells, solar water heater, geysers, cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Available all round the year (though in less quantum during rainy and winters) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient for domestic applications. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hydro power <ul><li>This has great potential in India as India has many perennial rivers in the north and Godavari in the south. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro electric generation has multifold benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>As the rivers are Himalayan originated they have ample of water all round the year. </li></ul><ul><li>The reservoir can be developed in a fishing ground, recreational center like gardens etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The exploitable hydro-electric potential in terms of installed capacity is estimated to be about 148,700 MW out of which a capacity of 34,164 MW (24.3%) has been developed so far and 13,616 MW (8.2 %) of capacity is under construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Micro Hydro - hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power </li></ul>
  9. 9. Growth of hydro power Table 3: INDIA'S HYDRO PROJECTS BY 5 YEAR PLAN                                                                                             Plan-wise growth of installed capacity of hydropower. Source: India Central Electricity Authority
  10. 10. Tidal energy <ul><li>Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal energy is generated by the relative motion of the Earth, Sun and the Moon, which interact via gravitational forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic changes of water levels, and associated tidal currents, are due to the gravitational attraction by the Sun and Moon. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wind Energy <ul><li>India, with an installed capacity of about 3000 MW, ranks fifth in the world after Germany, USA, Spain and Denmark in wind power generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind energy now a days has taken up a vital place in the energy scenario in India, yet there is a potential to tap more wind energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Several new initiatives were taken during the year, which includes wind resource assessment programme taken up in uncovered/new areas of States, wind resource and wind shear assessment at 120 m mast and coastal wind resource studies etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Wind power <ul><li>Action has been initiated to commission a total of 22 stations in 12 States namely Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Haryana, West Bengal and Goa </li></ul><ul><li>Onshore wind power potential has been assessed at 45,000 MW assuming 1% of land availability for wind power generation in the potential areas. However, technical potential is limited to only 13,000 MW </li></ul>
  13. 13. Geo thermal energy <ul><li>Geothermal energy offers a number of advantages over traditional fossil fuel based sources. Environmentally,the energy harnessed is clean and safe for the surrounding environment. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also sustainable because the hot water used in the geothermal process can be re-injected into the ground to produce more steam. In addition, geothermal power plants are unaffected by changing weather conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal power plants work continuously, day and night, making them base load power plants. </li></ul><ul><li>It also offers a degree of scalability: a large geothermal plant can power entire cities while smaller power plants can supply more remote sites such as rural villages </li></ul><ul><li>No major success has been achieved except a few cases in Gujarat. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bio fuel and bio mass <ul><li>Bio fuel (if cultivated, then, also called agrofuel or agrifuel) can be broadly defined as solid, liquid, or gas fuel consisting of, or derived from recently dead biological material, most commonly plants </li></ul><ul><li>Bio fuel can be theoretically produced from any (biological) carbon source. The most common by far is photosynthetic plants that capture solar energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly used for transportation purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass refers to living and recently dead biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production. </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass refers not only to plant matter grown for use as bio fuel, but it also includes plant or animal matter used for production of fibres, chemicals or heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass may also include biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>As it is burnt, any emits CO2 it can contribute to Global Warming </li></ul>
  15. 15. Synfuel <ul><li>Synthetic fuel or synfuel is any liquid fuel obtained from coal, natural gas, or biomass. It can sometimes refer to fuels derived from other solids such as oil shale, tar sand, waste plastics, or from the fermentation of biomatter </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thank You Alternative energy sources