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10.2 islam expands


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10.2 islam expands

  1. 1. 10.2 Islam Expands In spite of internal conflicts, the Muslims create a huge empire that includes land on three continents.
  2. 2. Vocabulary Caliph Highest political and religious leader in a Muslim government Umayyads Dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from A.D. 661 to 750 Sunni Branch of Islam whose members believe the first four caliphs are the rightful successors of Muhammad Shi’a Branch of Islam whose members believe Ali and his descendants are the rightful successors of Muhammad
  3. 3. Vocabulary Sufi Muslim who tries to achieve direct contact with God Abbasids Dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from A.D. 750 to 1258 al-Andalus Muslim-ruled area in what is now Spain Fatimid Member of a Muslim dynasty that traced its ancestry to Muhammad’s daughter Fatima
  4. 4. Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam A New Leader • In 632 Muhammad dies; Muslims elect Abu-Bakr to be the first caliph. • Caliph—title for a Muslim leader—means “successor” or “deputy.
  5. 5. Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam “Rightly Guided” Caliphs • The first four caliphs are guided by the Qur’an and Muhammad’s actions. • Jihad—an armed struggle against unbelievers—is used to expand Islam. • Muslims control all of Arabia, and armies conquer Syria and lower Egypt. • By 750, the Muslim empire stretches from the Altantic Ocean to the Indus River.
  6. 6. Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam Reasons for Success • Muslim armies are well disciplined and expertly commanded. • Byzantine and Sassanid empires are weak from previous conflict. • Persecuted citizens of these empires welcome Islam. • People are attracted to Islam’s offer of equality and hope.
  7. 7. Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam Treatment of Conquered Peoples • Muslim invaders tolerate other religions. • Christians and Jews receive special consideration as “people of the book.”
  8. 8. From 632 to750, highlymobile troopsmounted oncamels weresuccessful inconquering landsin the name ofAllah.
  9. 9. Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis Rise of the Umayyads • Struggles for power end the elective system of choosing a caliph • A wealthy family, the Umayyads, take power and move the capital to Damascus.
  10. 10. Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis Sunni—Shi’a Split • Shi’a— “party” of Ali—believe the caliph should be a descendant of Muhammad. • Sunni—followers of Muhammad’s example—supported the Umayyads. • Sufi followers pursue life of poverty and spirituality. They reject the Umayyads. • In 750, a rebel group—the Abbasids— topple the Umayyads.
  11. 11. Control Extends Over Three-Continents Fall of the Umayyads • Abbasids murder Umayyad family; one prince escapes, Abd al-Rahman • He flees to Spain and establishes the Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus. • al-Andalus is a Muslim state in southern Spain settled by North Africans.
  12. 12. Control Extends Over Three-Continents Abbasids Consolidate Power • In 762, Abbasids move Muslim capital from Damascus to Bagdad. • Location provides access to trade goods, gold, and information. • Abbasids develop a strong bureaucracy to manage empire.
  13. 13. Control Extends Over Three-Continents Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands • Independent Muslim states spring up; Shi’a Muslims form new caliphate • Fatimid caliphate—claim descent from Fatima, daughter of Muhammad. • The Fatimid caliphate begins in North Africa and spreads to the Red Sea, western Arabia, and Syria.
  14. 14. Control Extends Over Three-Continents Muslim Trade Network • Muslims trade by land and sea with Asia and Europe • Muslim merchants use Arabic, single currency, and checks. • Cordoba, in al-Andalus, is a dazzling center of Muslim cutlure.