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  • The Islam in World Cultures Project is a collaboration between the University of Texas College of Liberal Arts and the Aga Khan Development Network. In the summer of 2003, 16 educators from Texas joined leaders from the Aga Khan Development Network on a journey to better understand the diversity of Islamic culture. The three-week trip included stops in London, Cairo, Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Mumbai, Delhi, Jaipur, and Agra. The following PowerPoint presentation and activities were developed to help high school students understand the diversity and complexity of the Muslim world.
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  • (Brainstorm) What stereotypes of the Muslim world to Westerners have?
    (Brainstorm) What stereotypes of Westerners do people in the Muslim world have?
  • Religious Fanaticism – Some Muslims have a strict interpretation of how one should live; however, how religion is practiced daily and how religious law should be applied varies widely within Muslim communities and the Muslim world.
    Oppression of Women – Islam was, in fact, a major reform for women and granted them new rights, including the right to agree to their marriage partner, the right to education, and a guaranteed share of family inheritance. Where Muslim women are oppressed, they are being oppressed despite Islam, not because of Islam. Many Islamic societies are old, patriarchic societies where women have been oppressed for thousands of years.
    Advocates of Violence – Most Muslims condemn violence. The Qur'an permits war to defend and expand the Islamic community, but it sets strict limits. No one should be forced to convert and in battle, the lives and livelihood of noncombatants must be protected.
    Hatred of Non-Muslims – Muslim societies through history have tended to be more tolerant of religious minorities – especially Jews and Christians.
    Fundamentally Different Religion – Muslims, Christians, and Jews worship the same god. All three are monotheistic religions with many common doctrines, texts, and beliefs. Jews and Christians are specifically protected in the Qur’an as Peoples of the Book, since Islam considers both the Torah and the New Testament to be revelations from God, though flawed in the process of human transmission. The Muslim greeting is “Salaam o aliekum” (Peace be with you), and the response is “Aliekum salaam.” (And also with you) Sound familiar?
    Arabs=Muslims – Arabs are people who speak Arabic and identify themselves as Arabs. Muslims are those who practice the religion of Islam. Many Arabs are not Muslims, and not all Muslims are Arabs. More than a billion people in the world are Muslims, and fewer than 15% of Muslims worldwide are Arabs.
    Deserts, Turbans, Terrorists – The Islamic world is a diverse world. More Muslims live in fertile plains and fishing villages than in deserts. Clothing and customs for men and women vary depending upon class, education, political structures, location, and preference. In the Muslim world there is wide condemnation of attacks against civilians.
  • Abundance & Wealth – Westerners may enjoy a higher standard of living than most people in Africa, The Middle Eat, and Asia; and many Muslims may assume that all Westerners are rich. American and European socioeconomic levels range from very poor to very wealthy.
    Hypocritical, Democratic Ideals – Western values of democracy, freedom, and economic opportunity are sometimes seen as being only for The West. Citizens of many Western countries work along with non-profit organizations and the rest of the world to help underdeveloped countries and their people become free, democratic, and economically stable.
    Exploitation of Women – Many Westerners would not agree with the view held by some foreign societies that The West’s casual attitude toward sex, fashions that bare women’s bodies, and commercial exploitation of images of women harm women’s dignity and expose them to sexual danger. In reality, women in The West are moving toward greater political, social, and economic parity with men.
    Absence of Morals – The West is sometimes seen by the rest of the world as a sexually permissive society, where causal sexual activity, nudity, teenage pregnancy, single motherhood, HIV/AIDS, and drug use are common. In reality, none of the characterizations is the norm in The West.
    Lack of Family Values – For some outside The West, the high U.S. and European divorce rates and the practice of putting older relatives in nursing homes rather than caring for them in the family home are used as evidence that the Western family structure has broken down completely. Just as there is a vast diversity in ethnicities, religions, cultures and languages in the United States and Europe, there are also broad differences in the definition of family values.
  • There are approximately 1.3 billion Muslims in the world. The Muslim World is vast and diverse. Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world (especially in Indonesia and Asia). In the Middle East, approximately 130 million Arabs are Non-Muslims (Jews, Christians, Druze, Zoroastrians, and Baha’i). In the United States there are approximately 7 million Muslims who are mostly Indo-Pakistani and African-Americans.
  • It is helpful to use the acronym P.E.R.S.I.A. to examine the influences of the Muslim world on historical and current events.
    P – Political Influences
    E – Economic Influences
    R – Religious Influences
    S – Social Influences
    I – Intellectual and Arts Influences
    A – Area and Geographic Influences
    This acronym can be used to examine any culture area, religion, or time period.
  • Is democracy compatible with Islam? What is the history of political participation in the Muslim world? How were the modern nation-states of the Middle East created? These are all questions we must answer before we can understand the vast complexities that surround political events in the Muslim world.
  • How were the modern nation-states of the Middle East created? The map of the Middle East, as we know it today, was shaped by the events of the first world war. Prior to that time, the Ottoman Empire controlled much of the area.
    The Ottoman Empire (1300-1922) ruled a vast territory that included much of the Balkans, Anatolia, the central Middle East to the borders of Iran, and most of North Africa. It was a multiethnic, multi-religious state ruled through an extensive administration under laws derived from Islam and by the sultan’s dictates. The Ottoman Empire was a world power and a significant player in European politics. In fact, the Ottomans ruled one-quarter of Europe for hundreds of years until the 18th century. By the turn of the 18th century, Ottoman power was beginning to weaken.
    In 1683, the Ottomans had staged an ultimately unsuccessful siege of Vienna, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Less than 100 years later, in 1774, for the first time in their long history, the Ottomans were forced to give up significant Muslim territory to an opponent, Russia, in the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca.
    Structural changes in the wider world ultimately outpaced Ottoman reforms. The growing centralized power of industrialized European nation-states performed more efficiently than the larger, decentralized Ottoman system, and new sea routes to the East circumvented prosperous land routes through Ottoman territories.
    While Ottoman power waned, the influence of the European nation-states grew. All of the great powers of Europe -- Britain, France, Germany, and Russia -- sought to control natural resources, create markets for their industries, and establish colonies around the globe. They competed for political and economic influence in the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, North Africa, and Iran prior to World War I. France occupied Algeria in 1830 and Tunisia in 1881; the British took control of Aden (in Yemen) in 1836 and Egypt in 1882; and Italy occupied Libya in 1911.
  • What role do ethnic minorities play in the Islam? Most governments in the region are dominated by a single ethnic and religious group, but there are significant minority groups that often struggle to maintain their cultural identity and at least some political influence.
    Major ethnic minority groups include the Kurds (in Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria) and Berbers (in North Africa). Members of both of these groups are fighting for greater autonomy within -- or independence from -- their countries, but face stiff resistance. Armenians in Anatolia had similar ambitions in the early 20th century, but their nationalism was seen as a threat by the state, and huge numbers of Armenians were displaced or killed.
  • What are the current political structures in the Middle East and Muslim world? While many Middle Eastern states have superficial democratic institutions or some genuinely democratic components within the state structure, their governments are often oppressive and do not allow open criticism or effective political opposition. Political openness varies widely throughout the Middle East. For example, Iraq is a completely authoritarian state; Iran has an ongoing struggle between political moderates and authoritarian religious leaders; and Morocco has many elements of a functioning democracy. Israel and Turkey do have vigorous and relatively open political debate.
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  • Read the following quote. What implications does this have for the democratization of Islamic countries?
  • PBS Newshour, President Bush, November 7, 2003
    In a speech, November 7, 2003, President Bush called for democratic reforms in the Middle East. During this speech in Washington, the president said Western governments should not back undemocratic regimes in the region. The following is a Newshour report on the President’s speech. A written transcript of the full speech is also available at the PBS Newshour web site listed above and at the Whitehouse web site.
  • Brainstorm in your small group….YES, the United States SHOULD impose democracy on undemocratic regimes in the Middle East and the Muslim world.
  • Brainstorm in your small group….NO, the United States SHOULD NOT impose democracy on undemocratic regimes in the Middle East and the Muslim world.
  • Students will line up along an issue spectrum from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree. Volunteers will give support for their stance on the issue.
  • The Muslim world has struggled in the 19th and 20th centuries to develop natural and human resources, modernize societies, and raise standards of living. Money from oil has created enormous opportunities for development. States without significant oil resources have benefited by sending laborers to work in richer states. In this section we will examine scarce water resources and the importance of oil and petroleum products has helped to shape the economy of the Muslim world and how further innovations in science and technology continue to assist in the sustainable development of the region.
  • The Muslim world is rich in natural resources. The longest river in the world is the Nile that flows through Sudan and Egypt. The largest desert in the world is the Sahara and it is composed of and surrounded by Muslim countries. Over 50 percent of the known petroleum reserves are believed to lie in the Muslim world. Yet, when you think of the Muslim world, do you think of it as a place with abundant natural resources?
  • Put Land Use and Resources map on overhead. Point out the source of the Euphrates River and follow its path to the Persian Gulf. What are the consequences of the choking off of the water supply to Iraq?
  • Put Oil Production map on overhead. Which countries have the most oil and which countries have the least oil? What are the economic and social implication for these oil rich and oil poor countries?
  • Using the Land Use and Resources map and the Oil Production map, trace a route from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea. Through which countries will an oil pipeline pass through to reach the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea? Are these countries of significant importance to the United States and The West? Why?
  • How the region’s governments will provide jobs, education, and health care to a fast-growing population is a matter of global concern. What connects the Muslim world together in addition to economic and political influences?
  • ”It only requires a very simple act, but the meaning behind it is very deep. You have to believe that there is only one God, Allah, who created the entire universe, and that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is his final messenger on earth. If you recite this, with total sincerity, in front of two witnesses, you have become a Muslim. It really is an simple as that.” – Islam: A Beginners Guide, BBC World.
  • Muslims believe that Islam is a religion that has always existed and was revealed to all people by a series of prophets, the last of which was Muhammad. Who was Muhammad? What do Muslims believe? What are the differences and similarities in Sunni and Shi’a Muslims? How did the Islamic Empire develop and how was the empire affected by the religious crusades? To answer these questions we must begin at the beginning with Muhammad and the Five Pillars of Faith.
  • What do Muslims believe? What is the Muslim faith built upon?
  • There are two main divisions within Islam – Sunni and Shi’a. Ali is the central figure at the origin of the Shia / Sunni split which occurred in the decades immediately following the death of the Prophet in 632. Sunnis regard Ali as the fourth and last of the "rightly guided caliphs" (successors to Mohammed as leader of the Muslims) following on from Abu Bakr 632-634, Umar 634-644 and Uthman 644-656. Shias feel that Ali should have been the first caliph and that the caliphate should pass down only to direct descendants of Mohammed via Ali and Fatima, They often refer to themselves as ahl al bayt or "people of the house" [of the prophet].
    It is important to know and understand the similarities and differences in the two groups.
  • After the death of Muhammad and in a relatively short period of time, the Muslim Empire went grew into one of the most powerful and expansive empires the world has ever known. From Spain to North Africa to Arabia, Persia, Byzantium, and Afghanistan, Muslim society flourished during this period known as The Golden Age of Islam.
    The spread of Islam was not limited by the boundaries of the empire. Muslim merchants established trading in most of the principal ports and cities of Asia and Africa and they built mosques and religious schools. These often became important centers of learning, attracting students from all over the world eager to learn more about Islam and Islamic civilization.
  • At the Council of Clermont in November of 1095, Pope Urban made a speech that literally changed the course of history. In it, he stated that the Turks had not only invaded Christian lands but had visited unspeakable atrocities on Christians (of which, according to Robert the Monk's account, he spoke in great detail). This was absolutely false, but it was just the beginning.
    Urban went on to admonish those assembled for heinous sins against their brother Christians. He spoke of how Christian knights battled other Christian knights, wounding, maiming and killing each other and thus imperiling their immortal souls. If they were to continue to call themselves knights, they should stop killing each other and rush to the Holy Land.
  • Humayan’s Tomb, Delhi, India.
  • Muslims think of themselves as members of one family, called the Ummah. It is a family of all Muslims; not just of all Muslims around the world, but of all Muslims who ever existed. Why is it important for people to understand how Islam affects the daily lives of Muslims? How do Muslims apply Islamic teachings to their daily lives?
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  • Women and The Veil
    For many Western women, the veil or “hijab” is a symbol of the oppression of Muslim women. Are Muslim women oppressed by the veil, or is it simply a misunderstanding of traditional values and culture?
  • At the heart of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a dispute over land and borders. The geography of the conflict revolves around the three territorial units of Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, defined by armistice lines drawn after a war in the region in 1948. Since then, military action, settlement and population growth have also shaped the situation on the ground.
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  • Jerusalem: Before 1967The armistice line drawn at the end of the 1948 war divided Jerusalem into two. Between 1949 and 1967, Israel controlled the western part of Jerusalem, while Jordan took the eastern part, including the old walled city containing important Jewish, Muslim and Christian religious sites.
    Jerusalem: After 1967Israel captured the whole of Jerusalem in 1967 and extended the city's municipal boundaries, putting both East and West Jerusalem under its sovereignty and civil law. In 1980 Israel passed a law making its annexation of East Jerusalem explicit. The city's status remains disputed, with Israel's occupation of East Jerusalem considered illegal under international law. Israel is determined that Jerusalem be its undivided capital, while Palestinians are seeking to establish their capital in East Jerusalem.
  • West Bank: Palestinian-controlled areasSince the 1993 Declaration of Principles resulting from the Oslo peace process, there have been several handovers of land to differing degrees of Palestinian control. Currently 59% of the West Bank is officially under Israeli civil and security control. Another 23% of it is under Palestinian civil control, but Israeli security control. The remainder of the territory is governed by the Palestinian National Authority - although such areas have been subject to Israeli incursions during the recent intifada.
    West Bank: Population centresThe areas of Palestinian Authority control are mainly located in Palestinian urban areas – the population centres where much of the fast-growing population lives. These take up about 8.5% of the West Bank. About 2.2 million Palestinians live in the West Bank, together with about 400,000 Israeli settlers - including those who live in East Jerusalem. About 6.7 million people live in Israel, of whom about 1.3 million are Israeli Arabs.
  • In August 1947 when the Indian subcontinent became independent from Britain, all the rulers of the 565 princely states, whose lands comprised two-fifths of India and a population 99 million, had to decide which of the two new dominions to join, India or Pakistan.
    The ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, whose state was situated between the two new countries, could not decide which country to join. He was Hindu, his population was predominantly Muslim. He therefore did nothing.
    Instead he signed a "standstill" agreement with Pakistan in order that services such as trade, travel and communication would be uninterrupted. India did not sign a similar agreement.
  • The Line of Control runs over 700km of forested hills and inhospitable terrain. Defying logic in some places, it splits villages in half and bisects mountains.
    At one time, an estimated 80,000 troops from India and Pakistan faced each other in positions along its route - sometimes dug into mountainsides less than a 100 meters apart - sometimes further back, separated by peaks of over 5000 meters.
    The line has been a source of conflict for almost the entire period of both states' existence.
    Refer to map…
  • A number of fortunate circumstances came together to make The Golden Age of Islam possible. Thanks in part to Muhammad's assertion that "the ink of scholars is more precious than the blood of martyrs," Islamic leaders valued -- in fact, sought out -- the intellectual treasures of their subject provinces. Further, the Muslim belief that Arabic, the language of the Quran, was the language of Allah himself, led to its standardization throughout the empire as the language of faith and power, and likewise of theology, philosophy, and the arts and sciences.
  • Islamic art is perhaps the most accessible manifestation of a complex civilization that often seems a mystery to outsiders. Through its brilliant use of color and its the balance between design and form, Islamic art creates an immediate visual impact. Its strong appeal transcends distances in time and space, as well as differences in language, culture, and creed. Islamic art not only invites a closer look but also beckons the viewer to learn more. Islamic art is generally separated into two categories – religious art and secular art.
  • Religious art consists of three main elements: A. Calligraphy in various forms of Arabic script (Arabic is the language of the Quran and therefore of God, and has a special significance in Islamic culture); B. Arabesques, scrollwork and other floral or plant-like designs; C. Geometrical designs using a limited number of geometric shapes in many different ways.
  • The Arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. To Muslims, these forms constitute an infinite pattern that extends beyond the visible material world. These forms symbolize the infinite and uncentralized nature of the creation of the One God, Allah.
  • Islam views the depiction of living beings, particularly people, as a potentially blasphemous attempt to rival the creative powers of God and such pictures are rigorously excluded from most religious settings. However, there is a continuous tradition of using figures as part of decorative schemes in non-religious contexts, particularly in the illustration of books.
  • During the early Islamic period there were three major types of wares: the tin-glazed, the luster-painted and the slip-painted wares. Tin-glazed wares, which initially were produced in Egypt and Iraq, were influenced by the Chinese white porcelain and stoneware. It was the whiteness, the translucency and the elegant shapes of these vessels that makes them remarkable.
  • The Seats of Akbar and His Advisors, Moghul Empire, Fatephur Sikri, India
  • The physical geography of the Muslim World varies from desert to fertile soil, and from sea level to high mountainous regions.
  • The Muslim World is an area of both desert and fertile land. The desert is sparsely populated and the fertile land is dense and teeming with people. The Muslim World is characterized by geographic interdependence, rather than a contrast of opposites.
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  • Brainstorm in your small group…
    How do these important aspects of the Muslim world influence current events?
    What difference does this make to me in today’s world?
  • Muslimworld

    1. 1. Understanding The Muslim World University of Texas College of Liberal Arts Aga Khan Development Network Islam in World Cultures Project November 18-21, 2004
    2. 2. By recognizing the stereotypes we hold about others – and others hold about us – we can begin to understand each other better. Think About It!
    3. 3. What stereotypes of the Muslim World do Westerners have? What stereotypes of Westerners do people in the Muslim World have? Think About It!
    4. 4. Stereotypes About Muslims Religious Fanaticism Oppression of WomenDeserts, Turbans, Terrorists Hatred of Non-MuslimsFundamentally Different Religion Arabs = Muslims Advocates of Violence
    5. 5. Stereotypes About Westerners Abundance & Wealth Lack of Family Values Hypocritical, Democratic Ideals Exploitation of Women Absence of Morals
    6. 6. Where is the Muslim World? Arab World Middle East Muslim World U.S.Middle East 130 Million Non-Muslims Arab World 270 Million Muslims Middle East 400 Million Muslims United States 7 Million Muslims 53% Indo-Pakistani 47% African-Americans Muslim World 1.3 Billion Muslims India Indonesia Pakistan Bangladesh Great Britain Canada Audrey Shabbas, Middle East Policy Council
    7. 7. P.E.R.S.I.A. Political Influences Economic Influences Religious Influences Social Influences Area and Geographic Influences Intellectual and Arts Influences
    8. 8. Political Influences
    9. 9. Political Influences • European Imperialism All the great powers of Europe – Britain, France, Germany, and Russia – sought to control natural resources, create markets for their industries, and establish colonies around the globe. – Egypt and North Africa – South Africa – India and South Asian Subcontinent
    10. 10. Political Influences • Ethnic Minorities – Kurds – Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria – Berbers – North Africa – Albanians and Armenians – Eastern Europe
    11. 11. Political Influences • Political Structures Today – Royal families – Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Morocco – Strong leaders – Syria, formerly in Iraq – Democratic governments – Turkey, Iran
    12. 12. Political Influences • Should The West attempt to “democratize” the Middle East and other Islamic areas? • Is democracy compatible with Islam? • What role does religion play in politics in the Muslim world? • What are the pressures for and against democracy in the Muslim world? • Does the United States have the right to remove a government and impose democracy?
    13. 13. Political Influences “Islam is a complete way of life; it covers the entire spectrum of human activities. Islam means total commitment and subordination of all aspects of life – individual, social, economic, political, international – to God. Hence, Islam is both religion and politics, church and state, joined in a single goal of serving God and implementing His commandments.” Dr. Mumtaz Ahmad
    14. 14. Speech by President Bush, November 7, 2003
    15. 15. Political Influences • YES, the United States SHOULD impose democracy. – Human rights records among the worst in the world – Connections to terrorism – Model democracy might lead other Arab governments to follow – Could remove our troops – Oil prices might dramatically drop
    16. 16. Political Influences • NO, the United States SHOULD NOT impose democracy. – Anti-Western sentiment could grow in the region – environment of distrust – Islam is not fundamentally compatible with democracy – Clash of modernity vs. traditionalism
    17. 17. Political Influences Take a stand! Where do you fall on the spectrum? Do you agree or disagree with the following statement….. The United States should impose democracy on undemocratic regimes in the Middle East and the Muslim world.
    18. 18. Economic Influences
    19. 19. Economic Influences • Water is important for its scarcity rather than its abundance • Disputes over water rights threaten political relationships in the area • Egypt, Iran, and Turkey are the only countries in the region with abundant fresh water sources
    20. 20. Economic Influences • Turkey plans to build a series of 24 hydroelectric dams on the Euphrates River for its growing population and industries that would drastically reduce water to Syria and Iraq • Syria dammed part of the Euphrates River choking off the supply of water to Iraq
    21. 21. Economic Influences • Oil has created opportunities and problems for the Middle East • Nations have learned to manipulate their production of oil as an international strategy • Uneven distribution of oil deposits has created a large gap between rich and poor
    22. 22. Economic Influences • By 2050 Central Asia will provide more than 80% of oil distributed to the US making Afghanistan and Turkey of strategic importance
    23. 23. Religious Influences
    24. 24. Religious Influences • Five Pillars of Islam • Sunni and Shi’a • Spread of Islam • Crusades
    25. 25. Religious Influences • Five Pillars of Islam – Profession of faith – Prayer five times per day – Almsgiving – charity – Fasting from sunrise to sundown during Ramadan – Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
    26. 26. Religious Influences Sunnis- Believe Muslim leadership passes to caliphs elected from Muslim families Support rule of Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman Believe every individual has a direct relationship with Allah Shi’as: Believe that leadership is limited to descendants of Muhammad Reject rule of first three caliphs Feel that imam provides a spiritual link to Allah Accept Muhammad as God’s final prophet Believe that the Qur’an contains the word of Allah Use the 5 Pillars of Faith as a guide for proper behavior
    27. 27. Religious Influences • Spread of Islam – Fatimids and Mamluks in Northern Africa - Cairo (656-661) – Umayyads - Damascus (680 to 750) – Abbasids - Baghdad (750 to 1258) – Muslim Spain - Cordova (711 to1492) – Seljuq Turks and Sultans of Rum - Constantinople(1055 to 1243)
    28. 28. Religious Influences • Crusades – Seljuq Turks took control of Jerusalem in 1070 – By 1095, the Muslim World included the land where Jesus Christ had lived – Christians believed that Christians, not Muslims, should control the holy lands of the Middle East.
    29. 29. Social Influences
    30. 30. Social Influences • The sacred book of Islam is the Qur’an • A compilation of practices, traditions and sayings of Muhammad is the Hadith • Pork and pork products are forbidden and considered unhealthy • Ablution before prayer – washing hands, face and feet
    31. 31. Social Influences • Muslims must abstain from alcohol or drugs • Muslims seek forgiveness from Allah and no one else – asked for through daily prayer • Women’s dress - The outline of a woman’s body should not be revealed
    32. 32. Social Influences • Some women choose to wear the hijab (scarf or veil) to cover their hair • Muslims should always respect their parents, even if they disagree
    33. 33. Women and The Veil
    34. 34. Social Influences • Conflict in Context – Palestinians and Israelis – Partition after World War II in 1947 – One of the most enduring, explosive conflicts in world history – Root in the historic claim to the land which lies between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River
    35. 35. Social Influences • Conflict in Context – Palestinians and Israelis – Jews want to return to the land of their forefathers after persecution around the world – For Palestinians, the last 100 years has brought a long search for a homeland after colonization, expulsion, and occupation.
    36. 36. • Jews declared the state of Israel in 1948 • Between 1949 and 1967, Israel controlled western Jerusalem and Jordan controlled eastern Jerusalem including the old walled city containing important Jewish, Muslim and Christian religious sites
    37. 37. • Israel captured all of Jerusalem in 1967 • Israel is determined that Jerusalem be undivided and controlled by Israel • Palestinians are seeking to establish their capital in East Jerusalem • Israel is able to monitor and control travel in much of the West Bank
    38. 38. Social Influences • Conflict in Context – India and Pakistan – Partition after World War II in 1947 – An estimated ½ million people died in violence – Territories of Jammu and Kashmir remain in dispute – majority Muslim – Both India and Pakistan have weapons of mass destruction
    39. 39. Intellectual and Arts Influences
    40. 40. Intellectual and Arts Influences • Religious Art and Architecture • Secular Art and Architecture
    41. 41. Intellectual and Arts Influences • Religious Art and Architecture – – The Mosque is at the heart of Islamic art
    42. 42. Intellectual and Arts Influences • Religious Art and Architecture – – Arabesque
    43. 43. Intellectual and Arts Influences • Secular Art and Architecture – Princely cycle
    44. 44. Intellectual and Arts Influences • Secular Art and Architecture – Ceramics
    45. 45. Area and Geographic Influences
    46. 46. Area/Geographic Influences • Adapting to Land and Climate • Vast Geographic Differences
    47. 47. Area/Geographic Influences • Adapting to Land and Climate – The rich fertile soil of the Middle East led early civilizations to settle, domesticate plants and animals, and thrive – The hills of Lebanon were forested in ancient times for their fragrant and structurally reliable wood
    48. 48. Area/Geographic Influences • Adapting to Land and Climate – Mountains have provided refuge for oppressed minorities, such as the Ismaili’s in Afghanistan and the Kurds in Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran. – The Indian Ocean has served as a commercial link for thousands of years providing spices, silks, coffee, and tea to countries in The West.
    49. 49. Area/Geographic Influences • Vast Geographic Differences – Desert Climate is Extreme – Fertile Oases Provide Vegetation – Agriculture in Coastal Plains – Mountains Make Survival Difficult – Oceanic Cultures Provide Trade and Commerce
    50. 50. Area/Geographic Influences • Geographic Features Bring Political Power – – Irrigation – Oil – New, high-yield varieties of products – Nutrition and public health are improving
    51. 51. How do these important aspects of The Muslim World influence current events? What difference does this make to me in today’s world? Think About It!