The History of Islam


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The History of Islam

  2. 2. Early History Islam begins with the prophet Muhammad Islam started in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in the 7th century When Muhammad was 40 years old in AD 160, he claimed to be receiving messages from God that were later recorded into the Islamic Holy book- The Qur’an
  3. 3. The Prophets There are 25 prophets of Islam that Allah(the God) sent. The most important being Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. The prophets were sent to offer guidance and spread Islam and its concepts through the world Muhammad is the last prophet Muhammad is called the “Seal of the Prophets”
  4. 4. How it started Muhammad would share his visions and revelations with other people and try to teach them about Allah and the belief in one God It introduced the five pillars which every Muslim must follow: 1. confession of faith in God and in Muhammad as Gods messenger 2. daily prayer at the five appointed times 3. fasting during the month of Ramadan 4. paying an alms-tax and giving charity to the poor and 5. pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca and its sacred shrine the Kaaba
  5. 5. The Golden Age Islam flourished as a religion during The Golden Age The Golden Age took place during 750-1258 AD It has now become the second largest religion in the world, after Christianity Many people turned to Islam due to its solid belief system Islam spread wide and fast across the world and soon became a major religion
  6. 6. Denominations: Sunni Islam has many denominations but the largest and most well known are the Sunni and Shia Sunni is the largest sect of Islam. Sunni is about 80% of all Muslims). Sunni is the traditional path of the religion Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the right successors to Muhammad and that a caliph should be chosen by all the community
  7. 7. Shia Shia is about 10-20% of Islam It is the second largest branch of the religion They believe in the political and religious leadership of Imam They believe that a caliph is appointed by divine will There are also many branches that pertain to Shia Islam The most famous is the Twelvers who follow a tradition called Jafari jurisprudence.
  8. 8. Short Timeline of Islam c. 570 CE Birth of Muhammad. c. 610 CE Muhammad receives first vision in a cave near Mecca. c. 610-22 CE Muhammad preaches in Mecca. 622 CE Hijira - Muhammad and followers flee to Medina. 624 CE Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr. 625 Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud. 630 Muslims capture Mecca. Kaba is cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad 632 Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph. 680 Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shiat Ali ("party of Ali") or Shia sect.