The History of Islam N ATA S H A G H I C A ERIC CHENG MICHAEL GELLERSTEDT LONDON BYRD
Early History Islam begins with the prophet Muhammad Islam started in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in the 7th century When Muhammad was 40 years old in AD 160, he claimed to be receiving messages from God that were later recorded into the Islamic Holy book- The Qur’an
The Prophets There are 25 prophets of Islam that Allah(the God) sent. The most important being Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. The prophets were sent to offer guidance and spread Islam and its concepts through the world Muhammad is the last prophet Muhammad is called the “Seal of the Prophets”
How it started Muhammad would share his visions and revelations with other people and try to teach them about Allah and the belief in one God It introduced the five pillars which every Muslim must follow: 1. confession of faith in God and in Muhammad as Gods messenger 2. daily prayer at the five appointed times 3. fasting during the month of Ramadan 4. paying an alms-tax and giving charity to the poor and 5. pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca and its sacred shrine the Kaaba
The Golden Age Islam flourished as a religion during The Golden Age The Golden Age took place during 750-1258 AD It has now become the second largest religion in the world, after Christianity Many people turned to Islam due to its solid belief system Islam spread wide and fast across the world and soon became a major religion
Denominations: Sunni Islam has many denominations but the largest and most well known are the Sunni and Shia Sunni is the largest sect of Islam. Sunni is about 80% of all Muslims). Sunni is the traditional path of the religion Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the right successors to Muhammad and that a caliph should be chosen by all the community
Shia Shia is about 10-20% of Islam It is the second largest branch of the religion They believe in the political and religious leadership of Imam They believe that a caliph is appointed by divine will There are also many branches that pertain to Shia Islam The most famous is the Twelvers who follow a tradition called Jafari jurisprudence.
Short Timeline of Islam c. 570 CE Birth of Muhammad. c. 610 CE Muhammad receives first vision in a cave near Mecca. c. 610-22 CE Muhammad preaches in Mecca. 622 CE Hijira - Muhammad and followers flee to Medina. 624 CE Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr. 625 Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud. 630 Muslims capture Mecca. Kaba is cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad 632 Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph. 680 Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shiat Ali ("party of Ali") or Shia sect.