ISLAMIC INVASION POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITION IN THE COUNTRY… • Azizur Khan • Tanvi Gujrathi • Akshata Hase • Swapnil Kanse • Nikhil Mehta
ISLAMIC HISTORY• From the oasis cities of Makkah and Medina in the Arabian desert, the message of Islam went forth with electrifying speed. Within half a century of the Prophets death, Islam had spread to three continents. Islam is not, as some imagine in the West, a religion of the sword nor did it spread primarily by means of war. It was only within Arabia, where a crude form of idolatry was rampant, that Islam was propagated by warring against those tribes which did not accept the message of God – whereas Christians and Jews were not forced to convert.
ISLAMIC HISTORY• Outside of Arabia also the vast lands conquered by the Arab armies in a short period became Muslim not by force of the sword but by the appeal of the new religion. It was faith in One God and emphasis upon His Mercy that brought vast numbers of people into the fold of Islam.• The new religion did not coerce people to convert. Many continued to remain Jews and Christians and to this day important communities of the followers of these faiths are found in Muslim lands.Moreover, the spread of Islam was not limited to its miraculous early expansion outside of Arabia. During later centuries the Turks embraced Islam peacefully as did a large number of the people of the Indian subcontinent and the Malay-speaking world. In Africa also, Islam has spread during the past two centuries even under the mighty power of European colonial rulers. Today Islam continues to grow not only in Africa but also in Europe and America where Muslims now comprise a notable minority.
MUSLIM INVASIONS• Mahmud of Ghazni and Mohammed Ghori and their fanatical followers poured down across the Khyber and Bolan passes of the Himalayan ranges into the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains. The Hindu civilization meanwhile passed its prime by the 10th century of the Christian era. Shankaracharya was the last great philosopher of Hindu India. Artistic inspiration died up after 7th to 8th centuries so nothing like the Ajanta was created afterwards. The Last great Poet in Sanskrit was Kalidasa. Universities like Taxila and Nalanda stopped attracting brilliant minds from all over the world.• The feudal decline and the consequent degeneration of society paved way for foreign intervention. Mohmud Ghazni carried out 17 raids in northern India, but this shock treatment did not produce any unified plan of resistance among the Indian rulers. With the best horses the Afghans had no natural barriers once they passed the Khyber-Bolan passes. Alberuni, a great Arab Scholar was fascinated by the "Hindu" Indian thought .He recorded the Hindu_Arabic cultural interaction in many of his works. The Arab scholars adopted and popularized the Hindu Numerals, which are now called ARABIC NUMERALS the world over, 1including the concept of ZERO.
CONQUEST OF INDIA FROM THE NORTHWESTERNROUTE BY THE MUSLIM DYNASTIES IS SUMMARIZEDAND GIVEN BELOW ACCORDING TO CHRONOLOGY. 712 A.D. Arab conquest of Sind. 997- 1030 A.D. Raids of Mahmud of Ghazni. Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithiviraj 1192 A.D. Chauhan. Slave dynasty established by qutb-ud-din - 1206 A.D. Aibak. 1296- 1316 Ala-ud-din Khiljis reign. A.D. 1325- 51 A.D. Muhammad bin Tughlaks reign. 1414- 50 A.D. Rule of Sayyids at Delhi. 1451 A.D. Accession of Bahlul Lodi First Battle of Panipat. Babur establishes the 1526 A.D. Mughal Empire.
THE SULTANS• The Delhi Sultanate came around 1210, under the rule of Qutubuddin Aibek and continued till the foundation to the Mughal Empire was laid by Babar in 1526.• He was followed by Iltumish who completed the QUTB MINAR which stands on the outskirts of Delhi.• A number of Sultans followed, but each rule was punctuated by bloody wars.• Then followed the Tughlugs who transferred the capital from Delhi to Devagiri in the South and they also introduced leather currency, which was a failure.
THE SULTANS• By the 20th century the Muslims after 800 years of domination could convert only 25% of the population of India to Islam.• The Muslims could not rule without Hindu assistance, so many Hindus were inducted into the bureaucracy. This resulted in the development of a new common language, Urdu, which is now spoken in most parts of Northern India.
SOUTH INDIA IN HISTORY• In the absence of large-scale invasion, South India maintained equilibrium till the advent of British rule.• The agrarian integration took place in South India in the beginning of the second millennium.• The agricultural surplus in the Kaveri valley region projected Tanjore ,the Chola Capital under kings like Raja Raja, Rajendra and Kulothunga.• In the 9th century of the Christian era great Tamil works like CHILAPADIKARAM, MANIMEGALAI AND JIVAKA CHINTAMANI were made. Since the west coast of India had a world monopoly of pepper, teak and spices, it attracted a lot of western adventurers.• Between 1000 and 1300 AD, the Hoysala Empire, which had centers in Belur, Halebid, and Somnathpur was at its peak. Meanwhile in northern Karnataka the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar was founded in 1336 by the famous brothers Harihara and Bukka. Its capital was Hampi and perhaps it was the strongest Hindu kingdom.
MUGHAL RULE, AKBARS MAUSOLEUM• This rule started in India with the arrival of Babar, a refuge prince from Samarkhand. Akbar, the Great, followed him. Birbal, the court wit and Tansen, the musician became legendary figures during Akbars period. His religious views can be considered to be the forerunner of the ideas of Mahatma of our times.• Fatehpur Sikri the monumental work of Akbar speaks of his vigor and dynamism. Akbar was probably the greatest of the Mughal Emperors, for he, not only had great military power but he was also a man of culture and wisdom.
MUGHAL RULE, AKBARS MAUSOLEUM• Jahangir (1605-27) and Shahjahan (1527-59) who succeeded Akbar were both pleasure seekers, caring more for power and wealth than reforms and justice. The Mughal Empire is a unique phenomenon in the history of India and it was autocratic to the core. The Mughals had a great passion for monumental architectures. It didnt take long for revolts to take place on all sides and with Aurangazebs death in 1707; the Mughal Empires fortune began to decline sharply.
POLITICAL ASPECTS OF ISLAM• Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Qur‘an, the sunna (the sayings and living habits of Muhammad), Muslim history, and elements of political movements outside Islam.• Traditional political concepts in Islam include leadership by successors to the Prophet known as caliphs, (imamate for shia ); the importance of following Islamic law or sharia; the duty of rulers to seek shura or consultation from their subjects; and the importance of rebuking unjust rulers but not encouraging rebellion against them.• A sea change in the Islamic world was the abolition of the ottaman caliphate in 1924, which some believed meant an end to the Islamic state both in "symbolic and practice terms
MUHAMMAD, THE MEDINAN STATE AND ISLAMIC POLITICAL IDEALS• Islamist claim that the origins of Islam as a political movement are to be found in the life and times of Islams prophet, Muhammad and his successors, (depending on the Islamist). In 622 CE, in recognition of his claims to prophet hood, Muhammad was invited to rule the city of medina. At the time the local Arab tribes of Aus and khazraj dominated the city, and were in constant conflict. Medinans saw in Muhammad an impartial outsider who could resolve the conflict. Muhammad and his followers thus moved to Medina, where Muhammad drafted the medina charter. This document made Muhammad the ruler, and recognized him as the Prophet of Allah. The laws Muhammad established during his rule, based on the revelations of the Quran and doing of Muhammad, are considered by Muslims to be Sharai Islamic law, which Islamic movements seek to replicate in the present day. Muhammad gained a widespread following and an army, and his rule expanded first to the city of Mecca and then spread through the Arabian peninsula through a combination of diplomacy and military conquest.