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Building Design Knowledge: Creating and Disseminating Design Precedent

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An invited lecture at Iowa State University on October 9, 2014. This talk focused on the role of design precedent and knowledge-building within the instructional design community, with specific guidance on preparing design cases for publication in the International Journal of Designs for Learning.

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Building Design Knowledge: Creating and Disseminating Design Precedent

  1. 1. building design knowledge creating and disseminating design precedent colin m. gray, phd OCT 09 2014
  2. 2. about me EDUCATION EXPERIENCE graydesign
  3. 3. research focus HCI DESIGN ISD
  4. 4. research focus HCI DESIGN ISD
  5. 5. my role at IJDL Assistant Editor (2012-2014) Author (Gray et al., 2012) Reviewer (2011-2014) Special Issue Co-Editor (2014, Vol. 5, Issue 2)
  6. 6. my plan for tonight
  7. 7. my plan for tonight Introduce design as a way of knowing
  8. 8. my plan for tonight Introduce design as a way of knowing Explore the design case as a specific form of design knowledge
  9. 9. my plan for tonight Introduce design as a way of knowing Explore the design case as a specific form of design knowledge Briefly outline the writing and review process for IJDL
  10. 10. my plan for tonight Introduce design as a way of knowing Explore the design case as a specific form of design knowledge Briefly outline the writing and review process for IJDL [+ plenty of time for questions]
  11. 11. Tawfik, Trueman, & Lorz, 2013
  12. 12. Tawfik, Trueman, & Lorz, 2013
  13. 13. DESIGNS FOR LEARNING SPACES SPECIAL ISSUE | GUEST EDITOR, JILL PABLE | FALL 2013 | VOLUME 4, ISSUE 2
  14. 14. SPECIAL ISSUE ON HISTORIC DESIGN CASES GUEST EDITORS COLIN M. GRAY & CRAIG D. HOWARD | FALL 2014 | VOLUME 5, ISSUE 2
  15. 15. experience and judgment What knowledge is required to move from a theory, or a strategy, to a particular? Where each instantiation is the “ultimate particular” (Nelson & Stolterman, 2012).
  16. 16. experience and judgment What knowledge is required to move from a theory, or a strategy, to a particular? Where each instantiation is the “ultimate particular” (Nelson & Stolterman, 2012). descriptive theories of: learning psychology development motivation behavior prescriptive theories: explicit implicit
  17. 17. experience and judgment What knowledge is required to move from a theory, or a strategy, to a particular? Where each instantiation is the “ultimate particular” (Nelson & Stolterman, 2012). designer as human instrument: technical know-how process know-how interpersonal know-how judgment experience descriptive theories of: learning psychology development motivation behavior prescriptive theories: explicit implicit
  18. 18. experience and judgment What knowledge is required to move from a theory, or a strategy, to a particular? Where each instantiation is the “ultimate particular” (Nelson & Stolterman, 2012). designer as human instrument: technical know-how process know-how interpersonal know-how judgment experience • appreciation • pattern recognition & matching • discrimination • selection, extension & revision of particulars • invention descriptive theories of: learning psychology development motivation behavior prescriptive theories: explicit implicit
  19. 19. experience and judgment What knowledge is required to move from a theory, or a strategy, to a particular? Where each instantiation is the “ultimate particular” (Nelson & Stolterman, 2012). designer as human instrument: technical know-how process know-how interpersonal know-how judgment experience • appreciation • pattern recognition & matching • discrimination • selection, extension & revision of particulars • invention descriptive theories of: learning psychology development motivation behavior prescriptive theories: explicit implicit
  20. 20. experience and judgment What knowledge is required to move from a theory, or a strategy, to a particular? Where each instantiation is the “ultimate particular” (Nelson & Stolterman, 2012). designer as human instrument: technical know-how process know-how interpersonal know-how judgment experience • appreciation • pattern recognition & matching • discrimination • selection, extension & revision of particulars • invention descriptive theories of: learning psychology development motivation behavior prescriptive theories: explicit implicit
  21. 21. experience and judgment What knowledge is required to move from a theory, or a strategy, to a particular? Where each instantiation is the “ultimate particular” (Nelson & Stolterman, 2012). designer as human instrument: technical know-how process know-how interpersonal know-how judgment experience • appreciation • pattern recognition & matching • discrimination • selection, extension & revision of particulars • invention descriptive theories of: learning psychology development motivation behavior prescriptive theories: explicit implicit
  22. 22. design precedent In most fields of design, the special form of design knowledge called precedent is produced at all levels of expertise, and its dissemination is supported by the entire community in multiple forms.
  23. 23. design precedent In most fields of design, the special form of design knowledge called precedent is produced at all levels of expertise, and its dissemination is supported by the entire community in multiple forms. medical design event design interior design game design art direction engineering design software design architecture trade show design publication design lighting design graphic design event design
  24. 24. S1 the same end or serving the same purpose and in situ they are truly unique and an ultimate particular. Design is a process of moving from the universal, general, and particular to the ultimate particular—the specific design (see figure 1.2) (a related • universal absolute truths • general contingent truths • particular • full particular • ultimate particular increasing level of complexity increasing level of abstraction protocols—rules of relationship/interrelationship and performance specifications duals—patterns of relationships/interrelationships and prescriptive specifications connections, composition and form the true the real increasing level of concreteness increasing level of simplicity Figure 1.2 Universal to ultimate particular Nelson & Stolterman, 2012, p. 31
  25. 25. S1 the same end or serving the same purpose and in situ they are truly unique and an ultimate particular. Design is a process of moving from the universal, general, and particular to the ultimate particular—the specific design (see figure 1.2) (a related • universal absolute truths • general contingent truths • particular • full particular • ultimate particular increasing level of complexity increasing level of abstraction protocols—rules of relationship/interrelationship and performance specifications duals—patterns of relationships/interrelationships and prescriptive specifications connections, composition and form the true the real increasing level of concreteness increasing level of simplicity Figure 1.2 Universal to ultimate particular Nelson & Stolterman, 2012, p. 31
  26. 26. what is a design case?
  27. 27. what is a design case? “[a] design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed” (Boling, 2010, p. 2)
  28. 28. what is a design case? “[a] design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed” (Boling, 2010, p. 2) AND
  29. 29. what is a design case? “[a] design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed” (Boling, 2010, p. 2) AND how it came to be as it is
  30. 30. what is a design case? “[a] design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed” (Boling, 2010, p. 2) AND how it came to be as it is
  31. 31. what is a design case? “[a] design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed” (Boling, 2010, p. 2) AND how it came to be as it is ❖ Representation of the design: what is the expected/real experience of the design
  32. 32. what is a design case? “[a] design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed” (Boling, 2010, p. 2) AND how it came to be as it is ❖ Representation of the design: what is the expected/real experience of the design ❖ Context of the design: new design, redesign, presenting problem, redefined problem
  33. 33. what is a design case? “[a] design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed” (Boling, 2010, p. 2) AND how it came to be as it is ❖ Representation of the design: what is the expected/real experience of the design ❖ Context of the design: new design, redesign, presenting problem, redefined problem ❖ Stakeholders/designers: philosophy, bias and/or theoretical stance
  34. 34. what is a design case? “[a] design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed” (Boling, 2010, p. 2) AND how it came to be as it is ❖ Representation of the design: what is the expected/real experience of the design ❖ Context of the design: new design, redesign, presenting problem, redefined problem ❖ Stakeholders/designers: philosophy, bias and/or theoretical stance ❖ Design process: resources, participants, core ideas & influences
  35. 35. what is a design case? “[a] design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed” (Boling, 2010, p. 2) AND how it came to be as it is ❖ Representation of the design: what is the expected/real experience of the design ❖ Context of the design: new design, redesign, presenting problem, redefined problem ❖ Stakeholders/designers: philosophy, bias and/or theoretical stance ❖ Design process: resources, participants, core ideas & influences ❖ Design failures: what went wrong, or opportunities to go another direction
  36. 36. precedent as design knowledge ❖ Precedent is created for other designers, not to build generally-applicable knowledge or guidelines for researchers. ❖ Precedent may be useful for different reasons to different designers—and for different reasons, over time, to the same designer. ❖ This kind of knowledge building must be continuously renewed. It does not build step-by-step toward truths, and is not created in order to provide the basis for later meta-analysis. ❖ Precedent is not used by designers as explicit guidance from one project to be applied to another project, but as a contribution to that designer’s store of patterns, her ability to discern and appreciate the qualities of patterns, and her acts of innovation both in the near and the long term.
  37. 37. where’s the rigor? ❖ Transparency ❖ Authors’ assessment of what is interesting about the case ❖ Explicit statements regarding critical design decisions and their genesis ❖ Failure and negative case analysis ❖ Adherence to the particular ❖ Limit on claims to generalize from the case ❖ Concrete description/representation of the design ❖ Absence of claims to validate theory/models
  38. 38. down to writing
  39. 39. down to writing ❖ Producing a well-written design case is more difficult than it looks ❖ Documentation is desirable at multiple stages of the design process (e.g., sketches, prototypes). ❖ Making the actors and environment from which the design was produced clear to an external audience.
  40. 40. down to writing ❖ Producing a well-written design case is more difficult than it looks ❖ Documentation is desirable at multiple stages of the design process (e.g., sketches, prototypes). ❖ Making the actors and environment from which the design was produced clear to an external audience. ❖ Process is important ❖ Unforeseen obstacles to the creation of the design are valuable components of the design case—not mistakes in “following the process” to be hidden. ❖ The effectiveness or “success” of the design itself is not the criteria for the quality of a design case.
  41. 41. reviewing the case
  42. 42. reviewing the case ❖ Reviewing a design case is harder than it looks ❖ We provide an infrastructure to bring new reviewers onboard who understand our unique mission and can provide feedback to authors ❖ Reviewers address the contribution of the case to design knowledge, points of interest, quality of representation, acknowledgement of design failures, engaging style, and a full rendering of the complexity of the design process
  43. 43. reviewing the case ❖ Reviewing a design case is harder than it looks ❖ We provide an infrastructure to bring new reviewers onboard who understand our unique mission and can provide feedback to authors ❖ Reviewers address the contribution of the case to design knowledge, points of interest, quality of representation, acknowledgement of design failures, engaging style, and a full rendering of the complexity of the design process ❖ Sequential reviews focused on development ❖ There will be value in this precedent that is not foreseeable, so the review is about the quality of the representation, not the quality of the project. ❖ We often assist in helping authors locate the “center of interest” for their case ❖ Availability of multimedia elements to tell the design story in a rich and engaging way
  44. 44. references Boling, E. (2010). The need for design cases: Disseminating design knowledge. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 1(1), 1-8. Howard, C. D. (2011). Writing and rewriting the instructional design case: A view from two sides. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 2(1), 40-55. Nelson, H. G., & Stolterman, E. (2012). The design way: Intentional change in an unpredictable world (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Smith, K. M. (2010). Producing the rigorous design case. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 1(1), 10-20.
  45. 45. contacts at IJDL Elizabeth Boling, Editor-in-Chief eboling@indiana.edu John Baaki, Incoming Assistant Editor jwbaaki@gmail.com Randa Fathy, Editorial Assistant rhassoun@indiana.edu
  46. 46. contacts at IJDL Elizabeth Boling, Editor-in-Chief eboling@indiana.edu John Baaki, Incoming Assistant Editor jwbaaki@gmail.com Randa Fathy, Editorial Assistant rhassoun@indiana.edu Colin M. Gray cmgray@iastate.edu 2624 Howe Hall

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