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A Practice-Led Account of the Conceptual Evolution of UX Knowledge

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The contours of user experience (UX) design practice have been shaped by a diverse array of practitioners and disci- plines, resulting in a difuse and decentralized body of UX- specifc disciplinary knowledge. The rapidly shifting space that UX knowledge occupies, in conjunction with a long- existing research-practice gap, presents unique challenges and opportunities to UX educators and aspiring UX designers. In this paper, we analyzed a corpus of question and answer communication on UX Stack Exchange using a practice-led approach, identifying and documenting practitioners’ con- ceptions of UX knowledge over a nine year period. Specif- cally, we used natural language processing techniques and qualitative content analysis to identify a disciplinary vocab- ulary invoked by UX designers in this online community, as well as conceptual trajectories spanning over nine years which could shed light on the evolution of UX practice. We further describe the implications of our fndings for HCI research and UX education.

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A Practice-Led Account of the Conceptual Evolution of UX Knowledge

  1. 1. YUBO KOU Florida State University A PRACTICE-LED ACCOUNT OF THE CONCEPTUAL EVOLUTION OF UX KNOWLEDGE COLIN M. GRAY Purdue University
  2. 2. UX is an emerging, interdisciplinary context
  3. 3. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2004-01 2004-07 2005-01 2005-07 2006-01 2006-07 2007-01 2007-07 2008-01 2008-07 2009-01 2009-07 2010-01 2010-07 2011-01 2011-07 2012-01 2012-07 2013-01 2013-07 2014-01 2014-07 2015-01 2015-07 2016-01 2016-07 2017-01 2017-07 2018-01 2018-07 UX Design Worldwide Google Trend (2004-2018) Increase in Google searches of “UX design”
  4. 4. Uptake in corporate adoption of UX practices
  5. 5. Rapidly expanding (and diverse) program offerings
  6. 6. User experience: A concept without consensus? Exploring practitioners’ perspectives through an international survey Carine Lallemand a,b,⇑ , Guillaume Gronier a , Vincent Koenig b a Public Research Centre Henri Tudor, 29 Avenue John F. Kennedy, L-1855 Luxembourg, Luxembourg b University of Luxembourg, ECCS Research Unit, Route de Diekirch, L-7220 Walferdange, Luxembourg a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Available online 17 November 2014 Keywords: User experience Survey Definition Concept Practitioners a b s t r a c t For more than a decade, User Experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of Human–Computer Inter- action (HCI). Practitioners and researchers from a wide range of disciplines are daily working with this concept. However, despite many attempts to understand, define and scope UX, one may still wonder whether a consensus has been reached on this concept. In a willingness to address the complexity of this research topic and bring the concept of UX to maturity, a replication of an international survey has been conducted. The main goal of the present study is to get a better understanding of practitioners’ view- points on the notion of UX and to analyze potential evolutions over time in the understanding and prac- tical use of the concept. As both practical and theoretical implications of UX are of the greatest Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Computers in Human Behavior journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/comphumbeh Little consensus over a body of disciplinary knowledge
  7. 7. GAP RESEARCH/PRACTICEACADEMIA PRACTICE
  8. 8. How do practitioners develop and 
 maintain their occupational competency?
  9. 9. What can we do as educators to inform 
 students’ professional development? How do practitioners develop and 
 maintain their occupational competency?
  10. 10. Prior Work on Defining and Demarcating UX Survey of UX researchers and practitioners 
 (Law et al., 2009; Lallemand et al., 2014) Interviews with experiences designers and university students 
 (Tokkonen and Saariluoma, 2013)
  11. 11. EXCHANGING 
 EXPERIENCES DISTRIBUTED
 CRITIQUE PROFESSIONAL 
 DISCLOSURE (Kou & Gray, 2017) (Kou & Gray, 2018)(Gray & Kou, 2019)
  12. 12. EXCHANGING 
 EXPERIENCES DISTRIBUTED
 CRITIQUE PROFESSIONAL 
 DISCLOSURE “Most UX jobs in the software industry are UX/UI frankly. UX =/= UI because UX is much broader.”
  13. 13. EXCHANGING 
 EXPERIENCES DISTRIBUTED
 CRITIQUE PROFESSIONAL 
 DISCLOSURE U1: Why registration rate went down after we tested social login buttons? 
 
 U2: The user was ok as long as there was no commitment.
  14. 14. EXCHANGING 
 EXPERIENCES DISTRIBUTED
 CRITIQUE PROFESSIONAL 
 DISCLOSURE “Hi, well I just graduated with an undergrad in Psych. I've been interested in the UX field for a while. At the moment, I’m sort of stuck on how to proceed.”
  15. 15. 1. What concepts and knowledge categories 
 could characterize this body of UX knowledge? 2. How has the UX knowledge shared 
 on this site evolved over time?
  16. 16. Using POS Tagger to extract unigram nouns (53,281 unigrams) Collecting practitioners’ conversations on 
 UX Stack Exchange (2008-2017; 21,216 Q&A) Qualitative analysis to establish categories (6 knowledge branches). Screening to identify unambiguous words (604 concepts)
  17. 17. Theory (14): affordance(845), theory (444), psychology (360), paradigm (304), fidelity (276), terminology (274), etc. Intermediate-Level Knowledge (24): guideline (2407), principle (1195), Nielsen (635), heuristic (456), norman (341), etc. Tech Basic (179): page (19,952), app (11,329), link (9,258), email (5,603), device (4,857), browser (3,629), etc. Design Basic (24): user (90,938), design (16,373), ux (8,882), experience (7,709), ui (6,301), etc. Interface Elements (146): button (22,630), text (11, 804), form (10,331), list (10,133), icon (9,033), color (7,904), menu (7,514), image (6,399), etc. Interaction patterns (30): interaction (3,919), notification (1,932), confirmation (1,274), update (864), scrolling (771), checkout (730), etc. Commercial (23): price (1354), ad (1259), marketing (905), ecommerce (686), etc. Value (13): law (595), culture (546), gender (345), ip (253), health (144), localization (143), etc. Social (10): developer (2290), stakeholder (627), programmer (432), dev (385), etc. Design Process (21): test (3,647), testing (3257), prototype (1268), workflow (1,044), etc. Design Tool (23): wireframe (3038), mockup (3038), bmml (2092), balsamiq (1998), etc. User Research (27): profile (1,278), persona (1,324), survey (1,118), participant (1,018), interview (500), etc. Accessibility (12) Accessibility (1102), vision(466), blindness (267), wcag (214), disability (123), screenreader (100), etc. Information Architecture (3): Architecture (661), ia (319), sitemap (144) Privacy/ Security (24): password (4312), account (3366), security (1457), validation (1219), registration (898), etc. Usability (6): usability (4,743), readability (602), visibility (322), discoverability (222), legibility (155), learnability (122). User Mental Model (23): feeling (667), perception (591), impression (461), frustration (364), appearance (363), emotion (306), etc. Visualization (3): visualization (477), 3D: 288, 2D: 83 CONCEPTUAL PERCEPTIBLE FEATURES DESIGNER- ORIENTED SPECIFIED KNOWLEDGE BRANCHES BEYONDTHECUBICLE
  18. 18. Theory (14): affordance(845), theory (444), psychology (360), paradigm (304), fidelity (276), terminology (274), etc. Intermediate-Level Knowledge (24): guideline (2407), principle (1195), Nielsen (635), heuristic (456), norman (341), etc. Tech Basic (179): page (19,952), app (11,329), link (9,258), email (5,603), device (4,857), browser (3,629), etc. Design Basic (24): user (90,938), design (16,373), ux (8,882), experience (7,709), ui (6,301), etc. Interface Elements (146): button (22,630), text (11, 804), form (10,331), list (10,133), icon (9,033), color (7,904), menu (7,514), image (6,399), etc. Interaction patterns (30): interaction (3,919), notification (1,932), confirmation (1,274), update (864), scrolling (771), checkout (730), etc. Commercial (23): price (1354), ad (1259), marketing (905), ecommerce (686), etc. Value (13): law (595), culture (546), gender (345), ip (253), health (144), localization (143), etc. Social (10): developer (2290), stakeholder (627), programmer (432), dev (385), etc. Design Process (21): test (3,647), testing (3257), prototype (1268), workflow (1,044), etc. Design Tool (23): wireframe (3038), mockup (3038), bmml (2092), balsamiq (1998), etc. User Research (27): profile (1,278), persona (1,324), survey (1,118), participant (1,018), interview (500), etc. Accessibility (12) Accessibility (1102), vision(466), blindness (267), wcag (214), disability (123), screenreader (100), etc. Information Architecture (3): Architecture (661), ia (319), sitemap (144) Privacy/ Security (24): password (4312), account (3366), security (1457), validation (1219), registration (898), etc. Usability (6): usability (4,743), readability (602), visibility (322), discoverability (222), legibility (155), learnability (122). User Mental Model (23): feeling (667), perception (591), impression (461), frustration (364), appearance (363), emotion (306), etc. Visualization (3): visualization (477), 3D: 288, 2D: 83 CONCEPTUAL PERCEPTIBLE FEATURES DESIGNER- ORIENTED SPECIFIED KNOWLEDGE BRANCHES BEYONDTHECUBICLE
  19. 19. Theory (14): affordance(845), theory (444), psychology (360), paradigm (304), fidelity (276), terminology (274), etc. Intermediate-Level Knowledge (24): guideline (2407), principle (1195), Nielsen (635), heuristic (456), norman (341), etc. Tech Basic (179): page (19,952), app (11,329), link (9,258), email (5,603), device (4,857), browser (3,629), etc. Design Basic (24): user (90,938), design (16,373), ux (8,882), experience (7,709), ui (6,301), etc. Interface Elements (146): button (22,630), text (11, 804), form (10,331), list (10,133), icon (9,033), color (7,904), menu (7,514), image (6,399), etc. Interaction patterns (30): interaction (3,919), notification (1,932), confirmation (1,274), update (864), scrolling (771), checkout (730), etc. Commercial (23): price (1354), ad (1259), marketing (905), ecommerce (686), etc. Value (13): law (595), culture (546), gender (345), ip (253), health (144), localization (143), etc. Social (10): developer (2290), stakeholder (627), programmer (432), dev (385), etc. Design Process (21): test (3,647), testing (3257), prototype (1268), workflow (1,044), etc. Design Tool (23): wireframe (3038), mockup (3038), bmml (2092), balsamiq (1998), etc. User Research (27): profile (1,278), persona (1,324), survey (1,118), participant (1,018), interview (500), etc. Accessibility (12) Accessibility (1102), vision(466), blindness (267), wcag (214), disability (123), screenreader (100), etc. Information Architecture (3): Architecture (661), ia (319), sitemap (144) Privacy/ Security (24): password (4312), account (3366), security (1457), validation (1219), registration (898), etc. Usability (6): usability (4,743), readability (602), visibility (322), discoverability (222), legibility (155), learnability (122). User Mental Model (23): feeling (667), perception (591), impression (461), frustration (364), appearance (363), emotion (306), etc. Visualization (3): visualization (477), 3D: 288, 2D: 83 CONCEPTUAL PERCEPTIBLE FEATURES DESIGNER- ORIENTED SPECIFIED KNOWLEDGE BRANCHES BEYONDTHECUBICLE
  20. 20. Theory (14): affordance(845), theory (444), psychology (360), paradigm (304), fidelity (276), terminology (274), etc. Intermediate-Level Knowledge (24): guideline (2407), principle (1195), Nielsen (635), heuristic (456), norman (341), etc. Tech Basic (179): page (19,952), app (11,329), link (9,258), email (5,603), device (4,857), browser (3,629), etc. Design Basic (24): user (90,938), design (16,373), ux (8,882), experience (7,709), ui (6,301), etc. Interface Elements (146): button (22,630), text (11, 804), form (10,331), list (10,133), icon (9,033), color (7,904), menu (7,514), image (6,399), etc. Interaction patterns (30): interaction (3,919), notification (1,932), confirmation (1,274), update (864), scrolling (771), checkout (730), etc. Commercial (23): price (1354), ad (1259), marketing (905), ecommerce (686), etc. Value (13): law (595), culture (546), gender (345), ip (253), health (144), localization (143), etc. Social (10): developer (2290), stakeholder (627), programmer (432), dev (385), etc. Design Process (21): test (3,647), testing (3257), prototype (1268), workflow (1,044), etc. Design Tool (23): wireframe (3038), mockup (3038), bmml (2092), balsamiq (1998), etc. User Research (27): profile (1,278), persona (1,324), survey (1,118), participant (1,018), interview (500), etc. Accessibility (12) Accessibility (1102), vision(466), blindness (267), wcag (214), disability (123), screenreader (100), etc. Information Architecture (3): Architecture (661), ia (319), sitemap (144) Privacy/ Security (24): password (4312), account (3366), security (1457), validation (1219), registration (898), etc. Usability (6): usability (4,743), readability (602), visibility (322), discoverability (222), legibility (155), learnability (122). User Mental Model (23): feeling (667), perception (591), impression (461), frustration (364), appearance (363), emotion (306), etc. Visualization (3): visualization (477), 3D: 288, 2D: 83 CONCEPTUAL PERCEPTIBLE FEATURES DESIGNER- ORIENTED SPECIFIED KNOWLEDGE BRANCHES BEYONDTHECUBICLE
  21. 21. Theory (14): affordance(845), theory (444), psychology (360), paradigm (304), fidelity (276), terminology (274), etc. Intermediate-Level Knowledge (24): guideline (2407), principle (1195), Nielsen (635), heuristic (456), norman (341), etc. Tech Basic (179): page (19,952), app (11,329), link (9,258), email (5,603), device (4,857), browser (3,629), etc. Design Basic (24): user (90,938), design (16,373), ux (8,882), experience (7,709), ui (6,301), etc. Interface Elements (146): button (22,630), text (11, 804), form (10,331), list (10,133), icon (9,033), color (7,904), menu (7,514), image (6,399), etc. Interaction patterns (30): interaction (3,919), notification (1,932), confirmation (1,274), update (864), scrolling (771), checkout (730), etc. Commercial (23): price (1354), ad (1259), marketing (905), ecommerce (686), etc. Value (13): law (595), culture (546), gender (345), ip (253), health (144), localization (143), etc. Social (10): developer (2290), stakeholder (627), programmer (432), dev (385), etc. Design Process (21): test (3,647), testing (3257), prototype (1268), workflow (1,044), etc. Design Tool (23): wireframe (3038), mockup (3038), bmml (2092), balsamiq (1998), etc. User Research (27): profile (1,278), persona (1,324), survey (1,118), participant (1,018), interview (500), etc. Accessibility (12) Accessibility (1102), vision(466), blindness (267), wcag (214), disability (123), screenreader (100), etc. Information Architecture (3): Architecture (661), ia (319), sitemap (144) Privacy/ Security (24): password (4312), account (3366), security (1457), validation (1219), registration (898), etc. Usability (6): usability (4,743), readability (602), visibility (322), discoverability (222), legibility (155), learnability (122). User Mental Model (23): feeling (667), perception (591), impression (461), frustration (364), appearance (363), emotion (306), etc. Visualization (3): visualization (477), 3D: 288, 2D: 83 CONCEPTUAL PERCEPTIBLE FEATURES DESIGNER- ORIENTED SPECIFIED KNOWLEDGE BRANCHES BEYONDTHECUBICLE
  22. 22. Theory (14): affordance(845), theory (444), psychology (360), paradigm (304), fidelity (276), terminology (274), etc. Intermediate-Level Knowledge (24): guideline (2407), principle (1195), Nielsen (635), heuristic (456), norman (341), etc. Tech Basic (179): page (19,952), app (11,329), link (9,258), email (5,603), device (4,857), browser (3,629), etc. Design Basic (24): user (90,938), design (16,373), ux (8,882), experience (7,709), ui (6,301), etc. Interface Elements (146): button (22,630), text (11, 804), form (10,331), list (10,133), icon (9,033), color (7,904), menu (7,514), image (6,399), etc. Interaction patterns (30): interaction (3,919), notification (1,932), confirmation (1,274), update (864), scrolling (771), checkout (730), etc. Commercial (23): price (1354), ad (1259), marketing (905), ecommerce (686), etc. Value (13): law (595), culture (546), gender (345), ip (253), health (144), localization (143), etc. Social (10): developer (2290), stakeholder (627), programmer (432), dev (385), etc. Design Process (21): test (3,647), testing (3257), prototype (1268), workflow (1,044), etc. Design Tool (23): wireframe (3038), mockup (3038), bmml (2092), balsamiq (1998), etc. User Research (27): profile (1,278), persona (1,324), survey (1,118), participant (1,018), interview (500), etc. Accessibility (12) Accessibility (1102), vision(466), blindness (267), wcag (214), disability (123), screenreader (100), etc. Information Architecture (3): Architecture (661), ia (319), sitemap (144) Privacy/ Security (24): password (4312), account (3366), security (1457), validation (1219), registration (898), etc. Usability (6): usability (4,743), readability (602), visibility (322), discoverability (222), legibility (155), learnability (122). User Mental Model (23): feeling (667), perception (591), impression (461), frustration (364), appearance (363), emotion (306), etc. Visualization (3): visualization (477), 3D: 288, 2D: 83 CONCEPTUAL PERCEPTIBLE FEATURES DESIGNER- ORIENTED SPECIFIED KNOWLEDGE BRANCHES BEYONDTHECUBICLE
  23. 23. Theory (14): affordance(845), theory (444), psychology (360), paradigm (304), fidelity (276), terminology (274), etc. Intermediate-Level Knowledge (24): guideline (2407), principle (1195), Nielsen (635), heuristic (456), norman (341), etc. Tech Basic (179): page (19,952), app (11,329), link (9,258), email (5,603), device (4,857), browser (3,629), etc. Design Basic (24): user (90,938), design (16,373), ux (8,882), experience (7,709), ui (6,301), etc. Interface Elements (146): button (22,630), text (11, 804), form (10,331), list (10,133), icon (9,033), color (7,904), menu (7,514), image (6,399), etc. Interaction patterns (30): interaction (3,919), notification (1,932), confirmation (1,274), update (864), scrolling (771), checkout (730), etc. Commercial (23): price (1354), ad (1259), marketing (905), ecommerce (686), etc. Value (13): law (595), culture (546), gender (345), ip (253), health (144), localization (143), etc. Social (10): developer (2290), stakeholder (627), programmer (432), dev (385), etc. Design Process (21): test (3,647), testing (3257), prototype (1268), workflow (1,044), etc. Design Tool (23): wireframe (3038), mockup (3038), bmml (2092), balsamiq (1998), etc. User Research (27): profile (1,278), persona (1,324), survey (1,118), participant (1,018), interview (500), etc. Accessibility (12) Accessibility (1102), vision(466), blindness (267), wcag (214), disability (123), screenreader (100), etc. Information Architecture (3): Architecture (661), ia (319), sitemap (144) Privacy/ Security (24): password (4312), account (3366), security (1457), validation (1219), registration (898), etc. Usability (6): usability (4,743), readability (602), visibility (322), discoverability (222), legibility (155), learnability (122). User Mental Model (23): feeling (667), perception (591), impression (461), frustration (364), appearance (363), emotion (306), etc. Visualization (3): visualization (477), 3D: 288, 2D: 83 CONCEPTUAL PERCEPTIBLE FEATURES DESIGNER- ORIENTED SPECIFIED KNOWLEDGE BRANCHES BEYONDTHECUBICLE
  24. 24. Theory (14): affordance(845), theory (444), psychology (360), paradigm (304), fidelity (276), terminology (274), etc. Intermediate-Level Knowledge (24): guideline (2407), principle (1195), Nielsen (635), heuristic (456), norman (341), etc. Tech Basic (179): page (19,952), app (11,329), link (9,258), email (5,603), device (4,857), browser (3,629), etc. Design Basic (24): user (90,938), design (16,373), ux (8,882), experience (7,709), ui (6,301), etc. Interface Elements (146): button (22,630), text (11, 804), form (10,331), list (10,133), icon (9,033), color (7,904), menu (7,514), image (6,399), etc. Interaction patterns (30): interaction (3,919), notification (1,932), confirmation (1,274), update (864), scrolling (771), checkout (730), etc. Commercial (23): price (1354), ad (1259), marketing (905), ecommerce (686), etc. Value (13): law (595), culture (546), gender (345), ip (253), health (144), localization (143), etc. Social (10): developer (2290), stakeholder (627), programmer (432), dev (385), etc. Design Process (21): test (3,647), testing (3257), prototype (1268), workflow (1,044), etc. Design Tool (23): wireframe (3038), mockup (3038), bmml (2092), balsamiq (1998), etc. User Research (27): profile (1,278), persona (1,324), survey (1,118), participant (1,018), interview (500), etc. Accessibility (12) Accessibility (1102), vision(466), blindness (267), wcag (214), disability (123), screenreader (100), etc. Information Architecture (3): Architecture (661), ia (319), sitemap (144) Privacy/ Security (24): password (4312), account (3366), security (1457), validation (1219), registration (898), etc. Usability (6): usability (4,743), readability (602), visibility (322), discoverability (222), legibility (155), learnability (122). User Mental Model (23): feeling (667), perception (591), impression (461), frustration (364), appearance (363), emotion (306), etc. Visualization (3): visualization (477), 3D: 288, 2D: 83 CONCEPTUAL PERCEPTIBLE FEATURES DESIGNER- ORIENTED SPECIFIED KNOWLEDGE BRANCHES BEYONDTHECUBICLE
  25. 25. A B D E C User Mental Model Usability Accessiblity Privacy/Security Info. Architecture Visualization
  26. 26. A B C P I V
  27. 27. B D E
  28. 28. D
  29. 29. We have used social media data and data analytics to define and demarcate UX knowledge
  30. 30. We have used social media data and data analytics to define and demarcate UX knowledge however…
  31. 31. Limitations and Future Work Leveraging social media data and computational techniques to extract evolving knowledge for emerging occupations such as UX design and data science Inform educational practices in emerging, interdisciplinary disciplines
  32. 32. YUBO KOU yubokou.info 
 ykou@fsu.edu COLIN M. GRAY colingray.me | uxp2.com 
 gray42@purdue.edu THANK YOU

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