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COLIN M. GRAY

SAI SHRUTHI CHIVUKULA
PURDUE UNIVERSITY
Ethical Mediation
in UX Practice
"turn to practice" + 

ethics of HCI & UX
Contributions
We document cases that describe ethical
decision making in UX practice, detailing 

the interactions and positionality of the
designer within each case
We describe ethical decision-making through
the lens of mediation, identifying how
organizational, personal, and ethical
frameworks impact design practices
1
2
We document cases that describe ethical
decision making in UX practice, detailing
the interactions and positionality of the
designer within each case
We describe ethical decision-making through
the lens of mediation, identifying how
organizational, personal, and ethical
frameworks impact design practices
1
2
Contributions
Case Study Approach
Documenting UX practice
STUDY DESIGN
03 CASE STUDY ANALYSIS
Bottom-up coding of field-notes and
interview transcripts
01
OBSERVATIONS
Each participant was observed in
their natural setting at their work
spaces by two researchers.
02
FOLLOW-UP INTERVIEWS
To clarify researcher notes from the
observations and broadly document
the perceptions of the participants.
DATA ANALYSIS
Case Study Approach
+ Thematic Analysis
Transcripts
(from interviews)
Digital Narratives
(from fieldnotes)
1) individual
practices

2) organizational
practices

3) specific
examples
PARTICIPANTS
John (6 years exp.) James (11 years exp.) Martha (9 years exp.)
Business Strategist & ID
Agency & Consultancy
(B2C)
Design Lead/Manager
Agency & Consultancy
(B2C)
User Experience Designer
Network Enterprise
(B2B)
PARTICIPANTS
observation sessions2-3
mins of follow-up interview60-90
hours of observation7-10
THEMES/ CASES
John (6 years exp.)
Designing Within
“Numbers”
James (11 years exp.)
Being Constantly “Aware”
of Things Out There
Martha (9 years exp.)
Sticking to the 

"Grids"
DATA COLLECTION
John (6 years exp.)
James (11 years exp.)
Martha (9 years exp.)
hours of observation10
sessions of observation3
minutes of interview90
Being Constantly "Aware" of
Things Out There
James's Case
JAMES' CASE
01Regularly refreshing knowledge to
inform practice.
BELIEVES IN
02Building others’ ethical character.
TAKES RESPONSIBILITY IN
03Knowing the limits of taking
advantage through your designs.
STRIKES A BALANCE BY
JAMES' CASE
01Regularly refreshing knowledge to
inform practice.
BELIEVES IN
James updates his store of knowledge outside of his
design practice to strengthen and help him better
evaluate his ethical behavior.
This regular refreshing of knowledge gives him
contextual information about the application of
values from other contexts and products.
This helps him to engage in self-reflection when
involved in client projects/ discussions, helping him to
form and articulate ethical judgments for critique
or further develop design concepts.
02Building others’ ethical character.
TAKES RESPONSIBILITY IN
JAMES' CASE
James corrects and critiques the design thinking of his
team of “young designers” to help them to evaluate
their own judgments.
He values the development of an ethical perspective
that is personal in character, yet in resonance with
the agency’s goals.
He expresses his responsibility to develop practices at
an organizational level to improve the applied ethics
performed on his project teams.
03Knowing the limits of taking
advantage through your designs.
STRIKES A BALANCE BY
JAMES' CASE
We want to push people to specific actions—
we know they will like and want to use while they
are in the demo—and then after they are familiar
with and excited about the potential of the
functionality, we introduce that the functionality
is a premium."
"
“We can do better” without “taking something
away from somebody” “
Value without “cost[ing] an arm and a leg to
somebody.”
"
Influence of situational factors
Different roles taken on by the designer
Designer at the center of
ETHICAL MEDIATION
ACROSS ALL THREE CASES,
CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS
Ethical Mediators Individual
Practices
Organizational
Practices
Applied
Ethics
CB
A
Constrain
Extend
Inscribe
Strengthen
Shape
Represent
DESIGNER
Ethical Mediators Individual
Practices
Organizational
Practices
Applied
Ethics
CB
A
Constrain
Extend
Inscribe
Strengthen
Shape
Represent
DESIGNER
Ethical Mediators Individual
Practices
Organizational
Practices
Applied
Ethics
CB
A
Constrain
Extend
Inscribe
Strengthen
Shape
Represent
DESIGNER
Future Work
John (6 years exp.)
Designing Within
“Numbers”
James (11 years exp.)
Being Constantly “Aware”
of Things Out There
Martha (9 years exp.)
Sticking to the 

"Grids"
Methods to support ethical
awareness and action
Methods to support ethical
awareness and action
Means of strengthening 

designers’ roles within
organizations
THANK YOU
COLIN M. GRAY
colingray.me | uxp2.com 

gray42@purdue.edu
This research was funded in part by National
Science Foundation Grant No. #1657310

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Ethical Mediation in UX Practice

  • 1. COLIN M. GRAY
 SAI SHRUTHI CHIVUKULA PURDUE UNIVERSITY Ethical Mediation in UX Practice
  • 2. "turn to practice" + 
 ethics of HCI & UX
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. Contributions We document cases that describe ethical decision making in UX practice, detailing 
 the interactions and positionality of the designer within each case We describe ethical decision-making through the lens of mediation, identifying how organizational, personal, and ethical frameworks impact design practices 1 2
  • 7. We document cases that describe ethical decision making in UX practice, detailing the interactions and positionality of the designer within each case We describe ethical decision-making through the lens of mediation, identifying how organizational, personal, and ethical frameworks impact design practices 1 2 Contributions
  • 9. STUDY DESIGN 03 CASE STUDY ANALYSIS Bottom-up coding of field-notes and interview transcripts 01 OBSERVATIONS Each participant was observed in their natural setting at their work spaces by two researchers. 02 FOLLOW-UP INTERVIEWS To clarify researcher notes from the observations and broadly document the perceptions of the participants.
  • 10. DATA ANALYSIS Case Study Approach + Thematic Analysis Transcripts (from interviews) Digital Narratives (from fieldnotes) 1) individual practices
 2) organizational practices
 3) specific examples
  • 11. PARTICIPANTS John (6 years exp.) James (11 years exp.) Martha (9 years exp.) Business Strategist & ID Agency & Consultancy (B2C) Design Lead/Manager Agency & Consultancy (B2C) User Experience Designer Network Enterprise (B2B)
  • 12. PARTICIPANTS observation sessions2-3 mins of follow-up interview60-90 hours of observation7-10
  • 13. THEMES/ CASES John (6 years exp.) Designing Within “Numbers” James (11 years exp.) Being Constantly “Aware” of Things Out There Martha (9 years exp.) Sticking to the 
 "Grids"
  • 14. DATA COLLECTION John (6 years exp.) James (11 years exp.) Martha (9 years exp.) hours of observation10 sessions of observation3 minutes of interview90
  • 15. Being Constantly "Aware" of Things Out There James's Case
  • 16. JAMES' CASE 01Regularly refreshing knowledge to inform practice. BELIEVES IN 02Building others’ ethical character. TAKES RESPONSIBILITY IN 03Knowing the limits of taking advantage through your designs. STRIKES A BALANCE BY
  • 17. JAMES' CASE 01Regularly refreshing knowledge to inform practice. BELIEVES IN James updates his store of knowledge outside of his design practice to strengthen and help him better evaluate his ethical behavior. This regular refreshing of knowledge gives him contextual information about the application of values from other contexts and products. This helps him to engage in self-reflection when involved in client projects/ discussions, helping him to form and articulate ethical judgments for critique or further develop design concepts.
  • 18. 02Building others’ ethical character. TAKES RESPONSIBILITY IN JAMES' CASE James corrects and critiques the design thinking of his team of “young designers” to help them to evaluate their own judgments. He values the development of an ethical perspective that is personal in character, yet in resonance with the agency’s goals. He expresses his responsibility to develop practices at an organizational level to improve the applied ethics performed on his project teams.
  • 19. 03Knowing the limits of taking advantage through your designs. STRIKES A BALANCE BY JAMES' CASE We want to push people to specific actions— we know they will like and want to use while they are in the demo—and then after they are familiar with and excited about the potential of the functionality, we introduce that the functionality is a premium." " “We can do better” without “taking something away from somebody” “ Value without “cost[ing] an arm and a leg to somebody.” "
  • 20. Influence of situational factors Different roles taken on by the designer Designer at the center of ETHICAL MEDIATION ACROSS ALL THREE CASES, CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS
  • 24.
  • 26. John (6 years exp.) Designing Within “Numbers” James (11 years exp.) Being Constantly “Aware” of Things Out There Martha (9 years exp.) Sticking to the 
 "Grids"
  • 27. Methods to support ethical awareness and action
  • 28. Methods to support ethical awareness and action Means of strengthening 
 designers’ roles within organizations
  • 29. THANK YOU COLIN M. GRAY colingray.me | uxp2.com 
 gray42@purdue.edu This research was funded in part by National Science Foundation Grant No. #1657310