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DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT
OR SOCIAL IMPACTDESIGN FOR SOCIA
 PACT DESIGN FORSOCIAL IMPACT DE          HOW-TO GUIDE
ESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN F
OCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL I
                  D E AR CO LLE AG U E S ,


ACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DE
                  As people concerned with the need for signifi cant social change, we
                  believe in the power of design thinking—a human-centered approach to


N FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR
                  problem solving and innovation. We know what it takes to be innovative.
                  We’ve seen the amazing solutions that smart people and savvy methods
                  and tools can yield. As we hear more and more about poverty, climate
                  change, and diminishing resources worldwide, we can’t help but to think


IAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMP
                  about how we can help effect change.

                  How can we harness the passions and talents of designers in our fi rms to


 DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN
                  address some of the world’s largest problems? How can we continue to do
                  what we do best while having a signifi cant positive impact on the world?
                  As Bruce Nussbaum wrote in a Business Week column, “It’s great design



 R SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIA
                  that can solve social as well as economic problems. They (designers) took the
                  methodology of product design and applied it to services. Now they are
                  moving beyond that to systemizing design methodologies for all kinds of
                  arenas, including social problems. What better way to deal with the health


 PACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT D
                  care crisis than to use design?”

                  Designers have always strived to create positive social change and IDEO


IGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR
                  has been no different. Our learning journey has taken us a long way and
                  has brought us in contact with countless inspiring people. We continue
                  to explore new directions and fi nd new ways to apply design thinking.



 CIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IM
                  At IDEO, we’ve built initiatives around both design for social impact and
                  design for environmental impact. And for us, design for social impact also
                  entails creating transformational change in communities. Our focus is on


CT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DES
                  under served and disadvantaged lower income communities worldwide.

                  We are excited about our increasing involvement in this space and look



 FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SO
                  forward to working with all of you as we bring human-centered design
                  to bear on some of the world’s largest problems.




 L IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPA
                  Best regards,




ESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN F
                  Tim Brown
                  CEO, IDEO


 SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL                                                       DESIGN BY: FIDEL CALDERON
CONTENTS



                 What is Design for Social Impact?   7
DESIGN FOR
                 Contributors to this Book           8
SOCIAL IMPAC T

                 DESIGN PRINCIPLES

                 Provide Value                       12
                 Be Focused                          20
                 Set Up for Success                  26
                 5 Design Challenges                 36


                 MODES OF E N GAG E M E NT

                 Summary of Offerings                40
                 Modify the Way You Work             42
                 Educate Others                      64
                 Develop Networks                    78
                 Identify Funding Streams            88
                 Modify Your Structure               100


                 I N S P I R AT I O N

                 Case Studies                        110
                 Stay Informed                       116
INTRODUCTION


                                                  With a new focus area on innovation, The Rockefeller Foundation is
                                                  exploring new avenues for social change. One promising area is design
                                                  and how the design industry can play a larger role in the social sector.
                                                  This How-to Guide and the accompanying Workbook are written for
                                                  design firms that are interested in joining in conversation.

                                                  The Rockefeller Foundation invited IDEO to conduct this exploration
                                                  starting in February 2008. We spent the first two months interviewing
                                                  people involved in social sector work. We had inspiring discussions
                                                  with foundations, social entrepreneurs, NGOs, professors, writers,
                                                  students, designers, and consultants. The conversations examined the
                                                  role design could play in this sector, how design firms might work with
                                                  social sector organizations, and how we could maximize our impact in
                                                  this space. Observations and interviews were conducted in offices, at
                                                  conferences, and on the phone, and brought the team to Bangalore,
                                                  Bombay, New York, Oxford, Palo Alto, Pune, San Francisco, and Seattle.
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
                                                  The consistent message has been YES. Yes, design thinking has a lot
This book is intended for design fi rms of any
                                                  to offer, and many of our potential partners are very excited to see us
size or type. Some of the ideas are larger than
                                                  become more engaged. The challenge is how. How can design firms
any one fi rm would take on alone; others are
                                                  make social impact work a core part of their business? How can we
straightforward enough that any of us can
implement them immediately.                       collaborate with organizations that are highly resource constrained?
                                                  How can we redesign our offerings to become more accessible to
The How-to Guide offers principles of design
                                                  social sector organizations? This initiative is focused on the process
for social impact and a menu of offerings for
types of social impact engagements that           around doing this work, rather than the content of the work itself.
might make sense for your fi rm.

The accompanying workbook consists of a set       We have seen a growing interest on the part of some foundations to
of exercises to complete alone or to prompt
                                                  fund design and innovation projects for themselves or for their grantees.
discussions with your team.
                                                  Our hope is that once we as an industry demonstrate the value of design
When engaging with the workbook, you will         thinking, corporations and social sector organizations will develop an
be prompted to undertake a decision-making
                                                  appetite for funding this work as well.
process that will help you determine what
having social impact can mean for your fi rm.
                                                  Getting involved in social impact work is a journey and we hope that
                                                  this How-to Guide and the accompanying Workbook can speed the
                                                  process along for all of us.




4                                                                                                                            5
                The Rockefeller Foundation                                     Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
WHAT IS DESIGN FOR
                                 SOCIAL IMPACT?




                                 S O C I A L I M P A C T A S A C O N S I D E R AT I O N

                                 Social impact applies to a broad spectrum of contexts. To designers,
                                 it is about the impact of products or services on individuals and groups
                                 of people. We look at the broader impact of all of the design work we
                                 undertake. We think about balancing the needs of the individual with
                                 the needs of the overall community. On every design project, we can
                                 consider the triple bottom line and take into account social, environmental,
                                 and economic impacts.


                                 S O C I A L I M PAC T A S TH E I NTE NTI O N

                                 While it is extremely important to take into consideration the social
                                 impact of all projects, the focus of this How-to Guide is on offering
                                 different modes of engagement to partners and clients to build a
                                 portfolio of projects that creates positive social change in communities.


                                 A S TA R T I N G P O I N T F O R D E S I G N F I R M S

                                 When starting a social impact initiative, it is advisable to declare a
                                 specifi c intention. Design and innovation can play a large role in many
                                 complex problems, including education, distribution, water, energy,
                                 healthcare, and job training. Design fi rms are able to work in a variety
                                 of different contexts—urban, rural, rich, poor, domestic, and international.
                                 Each individual design fi rm must defi ne its own area of focus in order
                                 to develop depth and use resources wisely.

                                 At IDEO, after many internal and external conversations, we have
                                 decided to focus our efforts within social impact on projects with
                                 organizations that create transformational change in under served
                                 and disadvantaged communities. These design projects can be
                                 sponsored by a variety of types of clients in the private, public, and
                                 social sectors. In selecting partners for this work, the focal point is
                                 on the impact that can be created. Likewise, the scope of a project
                                 must be intentionally tailored to achieve the desired impact.




6                                                                                                                             7
    The Rockefeller Foundation                                                       Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
CONTRIBUTORS TO
THIS BOOK
During the course of this exploration, the team met with a number of people
who represent different stakeholder groups on the topic of design for social
impact. These conversations served as the basis for identifying best practices
as well as words of wisdom for new players coming into this arena. We are
grateful to all of them for sharing their wise input.



FUNDERS                                        DESIGN FIRMS
Acumen Fund                                    Celery Design Collaborative
Ashoka                                         Design Continuum
B Corporation                                  Design Directions
Draper Richards Foundation                     Design That Matters
Endeavor                                       Dissigno
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation            Elephant
Good Capital                                   FL!P Design
The Rockefeller Foundation                     frog design
The Skoll Foundation                           Human Factors International
The World Bank                                 IDEO
                                               Idiom Design and Consulting
                                               MetaDesign
IMPLEMENTERS
                                               Smart Design
ARTI
                                               Turner Duckworth
Benetech
                                               ziba
Better World Books
d.light
D-Rev                                          C O N S U LT I N G F I R M S
IDE                                            Boston Consulting Group
Industree                                      Bridgespan
Kickstart                                      Central Offi ce
Medicine Shoppe                                Katzenbach Partners
PATH                                           Monitor Institute
Scojo Foundation                               On-Ramps
Unitus                                         Social Enterprise Group

THINKERS
David Bornstein
David Green
Global Social Business Incubator
Industrial Design Centre IIT
NID Bangalore
Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology
Stanford d.School
Symbiosis Institute of Design




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             The Rockefeller Foundation                                          Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
ESIGN PRINCIPLES D
RINCIPLES DESIGN P
ESIGN PRINCIPLES D
RINCIPLES DESIGN P
ESIGN PRINCIPLES D
RINCIPLES DESIGN P
ESIGN PRINCIPLES D                                                     The design principles on the following pages came from the
P R O V I D E VA L U E         BE FOCUSED        SET UP FOR SUCCESS
                                                                       people interviewed for this project. These are the guiding
Demonstrate the Value          Stay on Target    Train Appropriately   principles for working with social sector clients.
Cause Transformational         Conserve Energy   Optimize for Impact
Change




RINCIPLES DESIGN P
                                                 Know the Players
Mind the Gap
                                                 Demand Skin in
                                                 the Game




10                                                                                                                                  11
               The Rockefeller Foundation                                                Design for Social Impact: A How-to Guide
                                                                                          Design for Social Impact:
PROVIDE
     VALUE
                                      $
     Demonstrate the Value
     Cause Transformational Change
     Mind the Gap




12                                                                                 13
         The Rockefeller Foundation       Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
P R OV I D E VA L U E




                                                DEMONSTRATE
     D E M O N S T R AT E
     T H E VA L U E




                                                THE VALUE
     C A U S E T R A N S F O R M AT I O N A L
     CHANGE



     MIND
     THE GAP
                                                Design thinking can make a big contribution

                                                to the social sector, but most of our potential

                                                clients are unfamiliar with what we as design

                                                thinking can do. When communicating our

                                                offerings, we must demonstrate the value of

                                                our approach. Because resources in this sector

                                                are so limited, we need to justify the impact

                                                of an investment in a design project—is it more

                                                impactful than spending the money in other

                                                ways? As one design firm said, “I felt guilty

                                                charging non-profits for our work; they could

                                                buy goats instead and save lives.”




                                                           CONSIDER…

                                                           » Teaching your approach (through workshops)
                                                           » Raising awareness of design through
                                                             educational institutions
                                                           » Collaborating as an industry and referring
                                                             opportunities to each other to raise all boats




14                                                                                                               15
        The Rockefeller Foundation                                      Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
P R OV I D E VA L U E



                                                CAUSE
     D E M O N S T R AT E
     T H E VA L U E


                                                TRANSFORMATIONAL
     C A U S E T R A N S F O R M AT I O N A L


                                                CHANGE
     CHANGE



     MIND
     THE GAP
                                                Design firms must choose project opportunities

                                                based on the potential for real impact. It can be

                                                a challenge to choose between the innovation

                                                needs of a single organization (too limited in

                                                scale?) with projects that are more broadly

                                                targeted at an entire sector (too generic?).

                                                We were warned that “there are two types of

                                                people: those who get stuff done, and those

                                                who talk about it to look good.”




                                                           CONSIDER…

                                                           » Being smart and selective about your partners
                                                           » Identifying design-ready organizations that can
                                                             make use of your contributions
                                                           » Measuring impact without burdening partners
                                                             with the collection of metrics that aren’t core
                                                             to their goals
                                                           » Scoping projects with impact in mind and
                                                             using something like Acumen Fund’s BACO
                                                             (Best Alternative Charitable Option) calculation




16                                                                                                               17
        The Rockefeller Foundation                                      Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
P R OV I D E VA L U E




                                                MIND
     D E M O N S T R AT E
     T H E VA L U E




                                                THE GAP
     C A U S E T R A N S F O R M AT I O N A L
     CHANGE



     MIND
     THE GAP
                                                Great concepts and great vision are not

                                                enough to make an impact. Many start-ups

                                                and NGOs are extremely resource-constrained

                                                and are unable to follow through on overly

                                                conceptual designs. Designers must recognize

                                                the challenges around implementation and

                                                deliver comprehensive prototypes with clear

                                                implementation plans.




                                                           CONSIDER…

                                                           » Providing plans that take into consideration
                                                             the client’s capabilities
                                                           » Being strategic about who to engage with and when
                                                           » Leveraging your network to create
                                                             implementation partnerships




18                                                                                                               19
        The Rockefeller Foundation                                      Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
BE
     FOCUSED
     Stay on Target
     Conserve Energy




20                                                                             21
         The Rockefeller Foundation   Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
BE FOCUSED




STAY ON                                                                      S TAY O N
                                                                             TA R G E T




TARGET                                                                       CONSERVE
                                                                             ENERGY




In our conversations with funders, implementers,

and consultants, one piece of advice was offered

again and again: “be focused.” Every design

firm needs to determine its own particular

focus. Choosing firsthand the intended areas

of impact, the desired types of partners, and

the project offerings will increase the likelihood

that you will work on your dream projects.




CONSIDER…

» Staying true to your core offering
» Communicating your focus clearly
» Declaring a mission and sticking to it




22                                                                                            23
             The Rockefeller Foundation              Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
BE FOCUSED




CONSERVE                                                                   S TAY O N
                                                                           TA R G E T




ENERGY                                                                     CONSERVE
                                                                           ENERGY




The social sector is a huge space with millions

of large and small players. Because business

development (BD) costs can be high in proportion

to the size of projects, design firms must focus

their efforts. Narrowing your scope will allow

you to develop depth in specific areas where

you believe you can create the most impact.

Many firms have multiple interests and have

a hard time limiting their focus. Clarify your

offerings to avoid confusion within your fi rm

and with potential clients.




CONSIDER…

» Maintaining focus for BD efforts and
  employee time
» Saving BD costs by standardizing proposals
  and contracts for small projects




24                                                                                          25
             The Rockefeller Foundation            Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
SET UP
     FOR SUCCESS
     Train Appropriately
     Optimize for Impact
     Know the Players
     Demand Skin in the Game




26                                                                              27
          The Rockefeller Foundation   Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
SET UP FOR SUCCESS




                                     TRAIN
     TRAIN
     A P P R O P R I AT E LY




                                     APPROPRIATELY
     OPTIMIZE
     FO R I M PAC T



     KNOW THE
     P L AY E R S
                                     While a “fresh eyes” perspective is a valuable

                                     way to uncover new insights and ideas, we
     DEMAND SKIN
     IN THE GAME
                                     must not have naïve “bug eyes.” Passion and

                                     enthusiasm are not enough to have impact,

                                     and can result in unintended outcomes. Design

                                     firms should invest in hiring and training staff

                                     to do social impact projects, and should provide

                                     cultural and situational information and briefings

                                     to project teams who are working in unfamiliar

                                     environments.




                                            CONSIDER…

                                            » Providing country and sector briefings to
                                              teams at project onset
                                            » Ensuring at least one team member has
                                              experience in the context of the project
                                            » Being humble and leveraging the experiences
                                              of others within and outside your firm




28                                                                                                 29
        The Rockefeller Foundation                        Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
SET UP FOR SUCCESS




                                     OPTIMIZE
     TRAIN
     A P P R O P R I AT E LY




                                     FOR IMPACT
     OPTIMIZE
     FO R I M PAC T



     KNOW THE
     P L AY E R S
                                     Design firms should think about creative ways

                                     to reduce project costs by being efficient in
     DEMAND SKIN
     IN THE GAME
                                     project activities. Narrowing the scope of the

                                     project can often serve as an effective lever

                                     to increase efficiency. Good communication

                                     is critical, but is not to be confused with impact.

                                     One NGO warned us, “I need a tangible outcome.

                                     Powerpoint does not help me.”




                                            CONSIDER…

                                            » Producing compelling deliverables in a way
                                              that doesn’t add excess time or cost
                                            » Resisting the temptation to up-sell potential
                                              clients on full-scale projects
                                            » Clarifying with your team and the client upfront
                                              about what impact will look like




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        The Rockefeller Foundation                        Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
SET UP FOR SUCCESS




                                     KNOW THE
     TRAIN
     A P P R O P R I AT E LY




                                     PLAYERS
     OPTIMIZE
     FO R I M PAC T



     KNOW THE
     P L AY E R S
                                     Working with social sector clients is different

                                     to begin with, and not all social sector clients
     DEMAND SKIN
     IN THE GAME
                                     are alike, e.g., a social entrepreneur will vary

                                     greatly from an established charity. We must

                                     tailor our way of doing business appropriately.

                                     Third-party payer systems in which foundations

                                     fund projects for their grantees create a host

                                     of new challenges. As we heard from one foun-

                                     dation, “Foundations are brokers or facilitators,

                                     not end clients.” Designers must learn to speak

                                     the language of social sector clients and com-

                                     municate their passion for this work.




                                            CONSIDER…

                                            » Modifying contract templates for
                                              foundations and NGOs
                                            » Building relationships with a network of
                                              experts and other people involved in the
                                              social sector
                                            » Consolidating social impact BD—building
                                              a focused team to work on developing
                                              these projects




32                                                                                                 33
        The Rockefeller Foundation                        Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
SET UP FOR SUCCESS




                                     DEMAND SKIN IN
     TRAIN
     A P P R O P R I AT E LY




                                     THE GAME
     OPTIMIZE
     FO R I M PAC T



     KNOW THE
     P L AY E R S
                                     Pro bono engagements should be an exception

                                     rather than the rule. We do better work when
     DEMAND SKIN
     IN THE GAME
                                     we are paid because we can apply the time and

                                     other resources to do an exceptional job rather

                                     than applying less experienced people in their

                                     spare time. Our clients value the work more

                                     when they pay for it and will dedicate the

                                     necessary resources to make it succeed. As

                                     a management consulting fi rm advised, “Be

                                     explicit about who the client is. Watch for

                                     scope creep from clients who aren’t paying

                                     for services.”




                                            CONSIDER…

                                            » Preparing an agreement letter with non-paying
                                              clients authorizing their commitments of time
                                              and money
                                            » Requiring clients who can’t afford your fees to
                                              commit in other ways (ie. bartering, or putting in
                                              their time)




34                                                                                                 35
        The Rockefeller Foundation                        Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
HOW MIGHT YOU…
     DESIGN
     CHALLENGES                                      … MODIF Y THE WAY
                                                       YOU WORK?

                                                     … EDUCATE
                                                       OTHERS?

                                                     … DEVELOP
                                                       NETWORKS?

                                                     … IDENTIF Y FUNDING
                                                       STREAMS?

                                                     … MODIF Y YOUR
                                                       STRUCTURE?




     The guidance underlying the design principles

     points to the following five challenges.




36                                                                                               37
         The Rockefeller Foundation                     Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
ODES OF ENGAGEMENT                                                                                       M
NGAGEMENT MODES OF                                                                                       E
ODES OF ENGAGEMENT                                                                                       M
NGAGEMENT MODES OF                                                                                       E
ODES OF ENGAGEMENT                                                                                       M
NGAGEMENT MODES OF                                                                                       E
ODES OF ENGAGEMENT                                                                                       M
NGAGEMENT MODES OF                                                                                       E
ODES OF ENGAGEMENT                                                                                       M
                                      The following 28 ideas are different ways a design fi rm
Modify the Way You Work
                                      might engage to have social impact. Many of us have
                                      been doing some assortment of these for years. Other
Educate Others
                                      ideas may currently seem out of reach for many of us.



NGAGEMENT MODES OF                                                                                       E
                                      Use the accompanying workbook to help you navigate
Develop Networks
                                      these offerings and consider which may be the best
                                      ones for your fi rm.
Identify Funding Streams

Modify Your Structure


38                                                                                                  39
         The Rockefeller Foundation                      Design for Social Impact: A How-to Guide
                                                          Design for Social Impact:
M O D E S O F E N GAG E M E NT
The following pages describe each of these offerings in detail. Each
offering is placed in relation to the others to compare the relative
investment size, benefi t to the fi rm, and potential for social impact.
These assessments are meant to be generic and will likely need to
be adjusted in one dimension or more to fi t the context of your fi rm.




                                                                                       BENEFIT TO THE FIRM
M O D I F Y T H E W AY Y O U W O R K            E D U C AT E O T H E R S

                                        44                                 66
1    Concept incubation                         1   d.school .in/.za
                                        46                                 68
2    Design + implementation                    2   Empathy fi eld trips
                                        48                                 70
3 Business as usual                             3 Design certifi cation
                                        50                                 72
4 Scale to fit                                   4 Intern hosting
                                        52                                 74
5 Process guide                                 5 Publishing
                                        54                                 76
6 Sabbatical                                    6 Process workshop
                                        56
7    Catalogue of design
     challenges
                                        58
8 Project scoping                                                                                                S O C I A L I M PAC T
                                        60
9 Design review
                                        62
10 Concept brainstorm


DEVELOPING NET WORKS                            IDENTIFY FUNDING STREAMS

                                        80
1    Industry Pact                              1   Design industry fund   90
                                        82
2    Local partners                             2 Fundraising              92
                                        84
3 Design competitions                           3 Cross-Subsidies          94
                                        86      4 3 rd party sponsorship
4 Contribute to existing                                                   96                                     INVESTMENT SIZE
  networks
                                                5 Project fi nancing        98

                                                                                1: S O C I A L I M PAC T
                                                                                Social impact relates to the capacity of this type of work to create
M O D I F Y YO U R S T R U C T U R E                                            positive social change on communities and individuals.
                                       102
1    .org                                                                       2: BENEFIT TO THE FIRM
                                                                                Benefi t to the fi rm includes tangible benefits such as profi t as well as
                                       104
2    .in/.za
                                                                                intangible benefits such as reputation, morale, and building expertise.
                                       106
3 Center of excellence
                                                                                3: INVESTMENT SIZE
                                                                                Investment size is related to how much the fi rm will have to commit to
                                                                                in relation to how much return they will see. Investment includes time
                                                                                and money commitments and represents how much the design fi rm has
                                                                                to put in to make it work.


40                                                                                                                                                         41
                   The Rockefeller Foundation                                                                     Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
ODIFY
                                                                                                                                              DESIGN +
                                                                                                                                        I M P L E M E N TAT I O N




                                                                                                                      BUSINESS
                                                                                                                      AS USUAL




HE WAY
                                                                                   DESIGN
                                                                                   REVIEW




                                      BENEFIT TO THE FIRM
                                                                                               S A B B AT I C A L

                                                            PROJECT
                                                            SCOPING


                                                                                                                    SCALE
                                                                                                                    TO FIT




OU WORK
                                                                  CONCEPT
                                                                 BR AINSTORM


                                                                                                 PROCESS
                                                                                                  GUIDE
                                                                                                                                CONCEPT
                                                                                                                             I N C U B AT I O N




                                                             C ATA L O G U E O F
                                                              CHALLENGES




M O D I F Y T H E WAY Y O U W O R K                                                         S O C I A L I M PAC T

Concept Incubation
Design + Implementation
Business as Usual
Scale to Fit
Process Guide
Sabbatical
Catalogue of Challenges
Project Scoping
Design Review
                                                                                            INVESTMENT SIZE
PROJECTS       E D U C AT I O N     NET WORKS      FUNDING        O R G A N I Z AT I O N




     CONCEPT
     INCUBATION
     Identify the challenges at hand, brainstorm and

     prototype solutions, then start to build a business

     model or the appropriate partnership to do so.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» Strong partnership in                    » Build expertise before diving in              » Very satisfying for the team          » High risk
  target geography
                                           » Spend time identifying needs                  » Great opportunity for impact          » Have to fund it or find funding
» Deep understanding of                      before deciding on a concept
                                                                                           » Don’t have to wait for the            » Longer-term commitment
  issues and region
                                           » Focus on high growth                            dream client
» Enough expertise to choose                 opportunities
  the right opportunities




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                     BENEFIT
Do you have the expertise to build businesses?                                             Design that Matters
Do you have the patience to work on such an                                                Dissigno
extended time scale?
                                                                                           d.School - Design for Extreme Affordability
                                                                                           PATH
                                                                                                                                                                 I M PAC T




44                                                                                                                                                                           45
             The Rockefeller Foundation                                                                                     Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
PROJECTS       E D U C AT I O N     NET WORKS      FUNDING       O R G A N I Z AT I O N




     DESIGN +
     IMPLEMENTATION
     Carry on beyond design to ensure the

     concepts move forward. Create an

     ecosystem to ensure implementation.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» Willing and capable clients              » Partner with manufacturers, supply           » Higher level of engagement              » Very expensive projects
                                             chains, distributors, etc. who want            improves likelihood of success
» Strong implementation partners                                                                                                    » Difficult to manage partners:
                                             to have impact
                                                                                          » More satisfying for all participants      it’s demanding
» Designers who will work on
                                           » Partner with VCs to fund work                  to go to market
  the project for a long time                                                                                                       » Very time consuming
                                           » Partner with management                      » Bridge implementation gap
                                                                                                                                    » Hard to staff part time for
                                             consulting or marketing firms
                                                                                                                                      a long time
                                             to get the products or services
                                             to market




QUESTIONS                                                                                 WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                      BENEFIT
Do you have the expertise to mind the gap between design                                  Benetech
and implementation and support it through to fruition?
                                                                                          IDEO
Do you have the network to support implementation?


                                                                                                                                                                  I M PAC T




46                                                                                                                                                                            47
             The Rockefeller Foundation                                                                                      Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
PROJECTS        E D U C AT I O N    NET WORKS        FUNDING       O R G A N I Z AT I O N




     BUSINESS
     AS USUAL
     Carry out full scale, “normal”

     project work at full fees.




WHEN THIS WORKS                             TIPS

» Access to third-party funding             » If working with multiple parties              » Easy to implement                    » Third-party payer system
  from foundations, the government,           (e.g. funding foundation and                                                           can get messy
                                                                                            » Easy to get internal buy-in
  or Multinational Corporations               social enterprise) clarify who
                                                                                                                                   » Less accessible to many social
  (MNCs)                                      ‘the client’ is                               » Profitable
                                                                                                                                     sector organizations
» Credibility with foundations              » Make sure all parties have an                 » Increases the perceived
                                                                                                                                   » Very few organizations can
                                              investment in the project.                      value of the work
» Existing corporate clients                                                                                                         pay full design fees
                                              Whether it’s time or money
  with desire to move into                                                                  » Doesn’t place atypical
                                                                                                                                   » Potential perception of
  emerging markets                                                                            constraints on a team
                                                                                                                                     overcharging clients with
                                                                                                                                     limited resources




QUESTIONS                                                                                   WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                     BENEFIT
Are you willing to limit yourself to only                                                   Design Continuum
full-scale engagements?
                                                                                            frog design
Do you have clients who can pay your standard
                                                                                            Mile7
rates for social impact work?

                                                                                                                                                                 I M PAC T




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     SCALE TO FIT

     Optimize. Narrow the scope of the project and/or

     the process to provide a lower-cost offering.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» Enough experience is available           » Identify areas for cost reduction             » More affordable and accessible          » May have to make trade-offs/
  to be effi cient                            (project coordinator, travel,                                                             sacrifice quality
                                                                                           » Increases the pool of
                                             deliverables)
» Having something to cut that                                                               potential clients                       » Potentially reduces impact
  reduces project cost (fl exible           » Consider a smaller team size
                                                                                           » Quickly imparts experience with         » Not as profitable
  margin or modular approach)
                                           » Consider focusing efforts to apply              a variety of clients
» Client has capacity for follow-            one specifi c capability to a project,
  through and implementation                 such as communication design or
                                             mechanical engineering




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                       BENEFIT
What can you cut and still deliver value?                                                  Design Continuum
Are you willing to change your process                                                     IDEO
for social impact projects?
                                                                                           MetaDesign


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     PROCESS GUIDE

     Guide the client to do the work. Serve as a mentor

     and direct the process while the client carries out

     the design activities.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» The process is defi ned and               » Aggregate clients along themes               » Leverages small efforts           » Non-Governmental Organizations
  can be taught, abstracted,                 (drinking water, energy) and run               for a larger impact                 (NGOs) tend not to have resources
  and modularized                            simultaneous projects                                                              (no time, no money, no capacity) to
                                                                                          » More affordable and
                                                                                                                                follow through
» Clients who are able to carry            » Choose clients who are capable                 accessible offering
  out the work                               of carrying out the work                                                         » Complicates resources and staffing
                                                                                          » Allows firm to work with
                                                                                                                                for the design firm
» Designers who enjoy teaching             » Consider staged client work                    more clients
  and mentoring                              sessions over time                                                               » Designers can’t ensure the quality
                                                                                                                                of the work




QUESTIONS                                                                                 WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                BENEFIT
Is your project resourcing process fl exible to commit                                     IDEO
to ongoing, low involvement efforts?
                                                                                          Social Enterprise Group
Do you believe clients can do the project
                                                                                          Taproot Foundation
with minimal guidance?

                                                                                                                                                            I M PAC T




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     SABBATICAL

     Embed staff in a social sector organization for several

     months as a learning opportunity for the individual

     and as a way to contribute to analogous experience

     that organization.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» Employees are passionate                 » Be selective about which                      » Builds capacity of people within      » Added resourcing hassles
                                             employees you offer this benefit to             the firm to do social impact work
» There is excess capacity -                                                                                                       » Opportunity cost—staff aren’t
  unstaffed designers                      » Consider paying full or half salary           » Develops relationships with NGOs        working on other projects
                                             and/or offering health insurance
                                                                                           » Compelling benefit to employees       » Salary or other costs incurred
                                             or travel expenses
                                                                                                                                     to the firm
                                                                                           » During periods of over-capacity,
                                           » Set clear expectations with the
                                                                                             it’s a way to get people off the
                                             employee prior to the sabbatical
                                                                                             payroll temporarily




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                     BENEFIT
Do you have people who want to take a sabbatical?                                          Design Continuum
Can you afford to lose designers for a few months?                                         IDEO
                                                                                           Katzenbach Partners


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     CATALOGUE OF
     CHALLENGES
     Keep a database of design challenges to be accessed

     when time allows (via workshops or mini projects

     during unbillable time). The projects should require

     various degrees of complexity, time, and skills.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» Lots of contacts with organizations      » Use time between projects                    » Minimal project cost                 » Oversight & set-up of mini-projects
  who can’t pay for projects                                                                                                       is time consuming
                                           » Junior designers could do projects           » Flexible timing to fit into
» Passionate designers with                  on their own                                   existing schedules                   » Some BD costs to fill the pipeline
  down time                                                                                                                        with projects
                                           » Run all workshops with real cases            » Good value for clients
                                             instead of hypothetical ones
                                           » Ask clients to define their design
                                             challenge and keep them on hand
                                           » Consider aggregating projects
                                             along themes to build depth in
                                             certain content areas




QUESTIONS                                                                                 WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                   BENEFIT
Do you have passionate people with time to spare?                                         Architecture for Humanity
Do you have the bandwidth and experience to scope                                         Engineers without Borders
a catalogue’s worth of challenges?
                                                                                          Kluster
Do you have connections with entrepreneurs and
organizations who have design challenges?
                                                                                                                                                               I M PAC T




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PROJECTS       E D U C AT I O N     NET WORKS       FUNDING        O R G A N I Z AT I O N




     PROJECT
     SCOPING
     Spend a few hours with a client to help them scope

     a design project. The activities can then be carried

     out by the client or with another design firm.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» Clear process to share                   » Could be a workshop or                         » A small effort can have          » Requires client to take the
                                             phone call                                       big impact                         next (big) step
» Enough experience to
  give guidance                            » Offer a process workshop                       » Demonstrates the value           » Clients want the answers,
                                             first and then follow it with a                  of design thinking                 not the questions
                                             project-scoping workshop
                                                                                            » Could lead to paid work          » Likely to be pro bono




QUESTIONS                                                                                   WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                 BENEFIT
Do you have expertise?                                                                      MetaDesign
Do you have a process?                                                                      NFFCP + Scojo




                                                                                                                                                             I M PAC T




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  DESIGN
  REVIEW
  Offer a 1-2 hour review to give feedback and

  guidance on an existing design.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» There is experience and                  » Select clients that have design               » A small effort can have a              » Likely to be pro bono
  credibility on hand                        skills and can implement the                    big impact
                                                                                                                                    » Relies on clients to
                                             recommendations
» There is passion for the project                                                         » Empowers client to move                  follow through
                                           » Be clear about the scope of the                 forward with added confidence
                                             engagement and what they’ll get                 and credibility
                                           » Consider inviting multiple social
                                             entrepreneurs to review each
                                             other’s work




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                      BENEFIT
Do you have the expertise?                                                                 Global Social Venture Competition
Do you have designers who know how                                                         Turner Duckworth
to and want to coach?
                                                                                           World Bank Development Marketplace


                                                                                                                                                                  I M PAC T




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     CONCEPT
     BRAINSTORM
     Conduct a 1-2 hour session to provide

     clients with ideas and inspiration.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» Desire to build a social impact          » Set aside time for briefing (before)          » Fun for designers          » Low impact
  community and expertise                    and filtering (after)
                                                                                           » Quick                      » Half-baked ideas can seem
» People with a lot                        » Set client expectations in advance                                           naïve to clients
                                                                                           » Low risk
  of passion




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                          BENEFIT
Do you have a team of passionate people?                                                   IDEO
Do you have enough expertise to make this
impactful for the client?


                                                                                                                                                      I M PAC T




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             The Rockefeller Foundation                                                                          Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
DUCATE                                                            PUBLISHING

                                                   PROCESS
                                                  WORKSHOP




THERS

                           BENEFIT TO THE FIRM
                                                                 INTERN
                                                                HOSTING




                                                  E M PAT H Y
                                                                                            D.SCHOOL
                                                 FIELD TRIPS
                                                                                             . I N /. Z A




                                                                      DESIGN
                                                                C E R T I F I C AT I O N




E D U C AT E O T H E R S                                            S O C I A L I M PAC T

d.school .in/.za
Empathy Field Trips
Design Certifi cation
Intern Hosting
Publishing
Process Workshop




                                                                     INVESTMENT SIZE
PROJECTS       E D U C AT I O N     NET WORKS      FUNDING       O R G A N I Z AT I O N




     D.SCHOOL .IN/. ZA

     Support or build capacity of a design program

     in Africa and India by developing curriculum or

     providing professors.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» Funding is available from                » Partner with established                     » Potentially largest impact because      » No financial return
  university, government,                    design schools                                 it develops local capacity
                                                                                                                                    » Requires lots of resources
  foundation, or private donors
                                           » Use practitioners                            » Creates a network of designers
                                                                                                                                    » Must wait a long time to see impact
» There exists a desire to teach             as professors                                  around the world
                                                                                                                                      which you don’t see directly
                                                                                          » Creates a pool of
                                                                                            qualified designers




QUESTIONS                                                                                 WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                      BENEFIT
Do you have interest in teaching your process?                                            Cisco
Can you identify funding to support a program?                                            Microsoft
                                                                                          Stanford d.School


                                                                                                                                                                  I M PAC T




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     EMPATHY
     FIELD TRIPS
     Executives or other interested parties pay to

     participate in cultural observations to gain fi rst

     hand experience in the developing world.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» With a strong network in place           » Target decision makers who are                » Potentially transformational          » No direct impact
                                             interested but not committed to                 experience for participants
» Opportunity to extend the brand of                                                                                               » Low return on investment
                                             social impact work
  the design fi rm in new directories                                                       » Strengthens personal
                                                                                                                                   » High start-up costs
                                           » Hire a team to handle the logistics             commitments to social
                                                                                             impact work
                                           » Partner with local NGOs
                                                                                           » Fun
                                           » Don’t mix empathy field trips with
                                             project research                              » Creates a network between
                                                                                             participants




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                     BENEFIT
Do you want to diversify in new services?                                                  Alumni association trips
Does this detract from your core business?                                                 Cultural tourism
                                                                                           Journeys for Change & UnLtd


                                                                                                                                                                 I M PAC T




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     DESIGN
     CERTIFICATION
     Designate individuals to be official “social impact

     designers.” Certified designers can be hired by

     participating companies.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» Known demand for designers to            » Ask designers to pay for                      » Creates a network of designers          » Minimal revenue for design firm
  be hired by corporate clients              certification
                                                                                           » Lends credibility to design             » A lot of effort to train and
» Credibility with clients who would       » Ask clients to pay to recruit                   firm’s process                            evaluate designers
  want to hire certifi ed designers           designers
                                                                                           » Builds capacity to farm out work
» Willingness to teach designers           » Could be run by a neutral                       that the fi rm can not or does not
                                             3 rd party                                      want to do




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                       BENEFIT
Do you have an interest in teaching your process?                                          Au pair agency
Is there a benefit to your fi rm for building a network                                      Cisco
of certifi ed designers?
                                                                                           Core 77
                                                                                           Microsoft
                                                                                                                                                                   I M PAC T




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PROJECTS       E D U C AT I O N     NET WORKS      FUNDING        O R G A N I Z AT I O N




     INTERN
     HOSTING
     Host fellows or interns from emerging markets

     and train them in your design process.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» There exists a relationship              » Interns must work on projects and             » Brings cultural diversity to             » Time consuming
  with a university to                       be mentored                                     design firms
                                                                                                                                      » Interns need intense training
  recommend students
                                           » Encourage interns to return to so             » Creates opportunities for the              and coaching
» There is capacity to train                 that their home country receives                interns and builds their credibility
  and mentor student interns                 the benefits of their learnings
                                                                                           » Creates a network of designers
                                           » Create a cohort by bringing in at               once they return home
                                             least two interns at a time




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                        BENEFIT
Do you have the capacity to bring on                                                       Design Continuum
interns and train them?
                                                                                           IDEO
Could interns contribute to your work?


                                                                                                                                                                    I M PAC T




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     PUBLISHING

     Publish books, articles, blogs and/or tools on design

     for social impact. Publications serve as guides for

     novices to recreate the design process independently.




                                           » Start small (articles)
WHEN THIS WORKS

» Connections the right publisher          » Build credibility before publishing               » Flexible time commitment                » Books take a long time to write
  (to reach the right audience)              tool kits
                                                                                               » Adds credibility                        » Requires good writers
» When the author has credibility          » Best accompanied by a workshop
                                                                                               » Spreads your ideas across time          » Indirect (possibly shallow) impact
                                             or other support
                                                                                                 and distance
                                                                                                                                         » Little or no financial return on
                                           » Do this for PR, not money
                                                                                               » Can potentially lead to paid              time investment
                                                                                                 engagements
                                                                                               » Can potentially be sold


TIPS




QUESTIONS                                                                                      WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                           BENEFIT
Do you have something to say?                                                                  Architects for Humanity
Do you have people who can write?                                                              Business Review
                                                                                               Harvard
                                                                                               IDEO
                                                                                                                                                                       I M PAC T




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     PROCESS
     WORKSHOP
     Conduct a two-hour to one-day session teaching the

     process of design for social impact at conferences,

     NGOs, think tanks, etc.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» There are people in your fi rm            » Use workshops to build capacity               » Minimal effort and cost                 » Potentially minimal impact
  with a passion to teach                    for social impact work within
                                                                                           » Can potentially lead to larger          » Mostly pro-bono
                                             your organization
» There is an established process                                                            (paid) engagements
                                           » Tailor workshops to social
» There exist relationships                                                                » Builds your network
                                             impact issues
  with interested attendees
  and organizations                        » If labor can’t be covered,
                                             ask for paid expenses
                                           » Consider open enrollment
                                             workshops




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                       BENEFIT
Do you have a process to teach?                                                            Celery Design
Do you want to teach?                                                                      d.School
Is there an interested audience?                                                           Design Continuum
                                                                                           IDEO
                                                                                                                                                                   I M PAC T




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EVELOP                                                                                               LOCAL
                                                                                                   PA R T N E R S




ETWORKS

                                  BENEFIT TO THE FIRM
                                                                       INDUSTRY
                                                                         PAC T




                                                           DESIGN
                                                        COMPETITIONS
                                                                                 CONTRIBUTE TO
                                                                               EXISTING NETWORKS




DE VE LOP NET WORKS                                                        S O C I A L I M PAC T

Industry Pact
Local Partners
Design Competitions
Contribute to Existing Networks




                                                                            INVESTMENT SIZE
PROJECTS       E D U C AT I O N     NET WORKS       FUNDING       O R G A N I Z AT I O N




     INDUSTRY
     PACT
     Inspire firms across the design industry to value

     and participate in social impact work.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» The industry is collaborative            » Convene multiple firms to                     » Raises social impact awareness          » Requires a lot of effort to initiate
                                             develop the pact                                among designers                           and maintain
» Leaders are passionate
                                           » Involve employees at all levels               » Raises awareness about design           » Doesn’t directly increase number
» Someone is willing to
                                                                                             in the social sector                      of engagements or impact in
  take initiative                          » Ensure that firms are doing the
                                                                                                                                       the world
                                             social impact work they’ve
                                             publicly agreed to do                                                                   » Ultimate impact may be minimal




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                       BENEFIT
Can your fi rm collaborate with other design fi rms?                                         Bluetooth Consortium
Would signing onto a pact strengthen your commitment                                       Designers Accord
to social impact work?


                                                                                                                                                                   I M PAC T




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     LOCAL
     PARTNERS
     Staff projects with local talent or designers

     (e.g. Indian design firm or Indian design school).




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» There is a network of partners           » Maintain a relationship with                  » Lower cost                            » Challenging to collaborate
  around the world                           a professor of design or
                                                                                           » Increased contextual knowledge        » Takes effort to maintain network
                                             design firm
» There is willingness to work with                                                                                                  of partners
                                                                                           » Built-in hosts/guides
  outside designers                        » Consider entering a new country
                                                                                                                                   » Diffculty to control the quality
                                             with partnerships and later open
                                                                                                                                     of design work
                                             an office




QUESTIONS                                                                                  WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                     BENEFIT
What type of partnerships do you value?                                                    Institute of Design in Chicago
When do partnerships work for your fi rm?                                                   Media Lab Asia
                                                                                           Parsons New School for Design


                                                                                                                                                                 I M PAC T




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PROJECTS       E D U C AT I O N     NET WORKS      FUNDING       O R G A N I Z AT I O N




     DESIGN
     COMPETITIONS
     Sponsor web-based competitions for designers

     to support organizations in need of assistance.

     Host or participate in open source challenges.




WHEN THIS WORKS                            TIPS

» There is excitement about design         » Partner with an NGO or foundation            » Provides exposure and publicity          » Time consuming
  challenges but no bandwidth to             (like Ashoka or Rockefeller) to                for design firm
                                                                                                                                     » No revenue
  solve the problems                         gain credibility
                                                                                          » Connects firm with new partners
                                                                                                                                     » No one owns the follow through
» There exists desire to outsource         » Tap into an existing design
                                                                                          » Provides opportunities to do
  design work by posting challenges          challenges (like InnoCentive
                                                                                            smaller side projects
  for others                                 or X-Prize)
                                           » Post design challenges that are
                                             discrete pieces of work and
                                             can be effectively handed over




QUESTIONS                                                                                 WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                       BENEFIT
Do you want this work to be outside your fi rm?                                            Ashoka                    InnoCentive
Do you have the resources to dedicate to starting                                         Architecture              Kluster
and running this?                                                                         for Humanity
                                                                                                                    X Prize
                                                                                          Design 21
                                                                                                                                                                   I M PAC T




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     CONTRIBUTE TO
     EXISTING NETWORKS
     Encourage designers to volunteer their efforts

     to larger causes or existing networks.




WHEN THIS WORKS                              TIPS

» Small design fi rms that want to            » Focus on competitions or networks            » Both sides get something            » Generally smaller efforts
  get involved but don’t have the              that will give exposure
                                                                                            » Helps designers develop as          » Difficult to do in addition
  resources to identify projects
                                             » Incentivize designers to contribute            entrepreneurial thinkers              to project work
» It’s a first entry into social               to these efforts
                                                                                            » Gives designers experience          » Pro bono—no financial benefits
  impact work
                                                                                              on social impact projects
» Passionate designers are involved




QUESTIONS                                                                                   WHO IS DOING THIS




                                                                                                                                                    BENEFIT
Do your designers have passion and time to take this on?                                    IDEO
Are you ready to make this work a core offering?                                            MetaDesign




                                                                                                                                                                I M PAC T




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Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide
Ideo Rf Guide

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Ideo Rf Guide

  • 1. DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT OR SOCIAL IMPACTDESIGN FOR SOCIA PACT DESIGN FORSOCIAL IMPACT DE HOW-TO GUIDE
  • 2. ESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN F OCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL I D E AR CO LLE AG U E S , ACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DE As people concerned with the need for signifi cant social change, we believe in the power of design thinking—a human-centered approach to N FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR problem solving and innovation. We know what it takes to be innovative. We’ve seen the amazing solutions that smart people and savvy methods and tools can yield. As we hear more and more about poverty, climate change, and diminishing resources worldwide, we can’t help but to think IAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMP about how we can help effect change. How can we harness the passions and talents of designers in our fi rms to DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN address some of the world’s largest problems? How can we continue to do what we do best while having a signifi cant positive impact on the world? As Bruce Nussbaum wrote in a Business Week column, “It’s great design R SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIA that can solve social as well as economic problems. They (designers) took the methodology of product design and applied it to services. Now they are moving beyond that to systemizing design methodologies for all kinds of arenas, including social problems. What better way to deal with the health PACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT D care crisis than to use design?” Designers have always strived to create positive social change and IDEO IGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR has been no different. Our learning journey has taken us a long way and has brought us in contact with countless inspiring people. We continue to explore new directions and fi nd new ways to apply design thinking. CIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IM At IDEO, we’ve built initiatives around both design for social impact and design for environmental impact. And for us, design for social impact also entails creating transformational change in communities. Our focus is on CT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DES under served and disadvantaged lower income communities worldwide. We are excited about our increasing involvement in this space and look FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SO forward to working with all of you as we bring human-centered design to bear on some of the world’s largest problems. L IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPA Best regards, ESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN F Tim Brown CEO, IDEO SOCIAL IMPACT DESIGN FOR SOCIAL DESIGN BY: FIDEL CALDERON
  • 3. CONTENTS What is Design for Social Impact? 7 DESIGN FOR Contributors to this Book 8 SOCIAL IMPAC T DESIGN PRINCIPLES Provide Value 12 Be Focused 20 Set Up for Success 26 5 Design Challenges 36 MODES OF E N GAG E M E NT Summary of Offerings 40 Modify the Way You Work 42 Educate Others 64 Develop Networks 78 Identify Funding Streams 88 Modify Your Structure 100 I N S P I R AT I O N Case Studies 110 Stay Informed 116
  • 4. INTRODUCTION With a new focus area on innovation, The Rockefeller Foundation is exploring new avenues for social change. One promising area is design and how the design industry can play a larger role in the social sector. This How-to Guide and the accompanying Workbook are written for design firms that are interested in joining in conversation. The Rockefeller Foundation invited IDEO to conduct this exploration starting in February 2008. We spent the first two months interviewing people involved in social sector work. We had inspiring discussions with foundations, social entrepreneurs, NGOs, professors, writers, students, designers, and consultants. The conversations examined the role design could play in this sector, how design firms might work with social sector organizations, and how we could maximize our impact in this space. Observations and interviews were conducted in offices, at conferences, and on the phone, and brought the team to Bangalore, Bombay, New York, Oxford, Palo Alto, Pune, San Francisco, and Seattle. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK The consistent message has been YES. Yes, design thinking has a lot This book is intended for design fi rms of any to offer, and many of our potential partners are very excited to see us size or type. Some of the ideas are larger than become more engaged. The challenge is how. How can design firms any one fi rm would take on alone; others are make social impact work a core part of their business? How can we straightforward enough that any of us can implement them immediately. collaborate with organizations that are highly resource constrained? How can we redesign our offerings to become more accessible to The How-to Guide offers principles of design social sector organizations? This initiative is focused on the process for social impact and a menu of offerings for types of social impact engagements that around doing this work, rather than the content of the work itself. might make sense for your fi rm. The accompanying workbook consists of a set We have seen a growing interest on the part of some foundations to of exercises to complete alone or to prompt fund design and innovation projects for themselves or for their grantees. discussions with your team. Our hope is that once we as an industry demonstrate the value of design When engaging with the workbook, you will thinking, corporations and social sector organizations will develop an be prompted to undertake a decision-making appetite for funding this work as well. process that will help you determine what having social impact can mean for your fi rm. Getting involved in social impact work is a journey and we hope that this How-to Guide and the accompanying Workbook can speed the process along for all of us. 4 5 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 5. WHAT IS DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT? S O C I A L I M P A C T A S A C O N S I D E R AT I O N Social impact applies to a broad spectrum of contexts. To designers, it is about the impact of products or services on individuals and groups of people. We look at the broader impact of all of the design work we undertake. We think about balancing the needs of the individual with the needs of the overall community. On every design project, we can consider the triple bottom line and take into account social, environmental, and economic impacts. S O C I A L I M PAC T A S TH E I NTE NTI O N While it is extremely important to take into consideration the social impact of all projects, the focus of this How-to Guide is on offering different modes of engagement to partners and clients to build a portfolio of projects that creates positive social change in communities. A S TA R T I N G P O I N T F O R D E S I G N F I R M S When starting a social impact initiative, it is advisable to declare a specifi c intention. Design and innovation can play a large role in many complex problems, including education, distribution, water, energy, healthcare, and job training. Design fi rms are able to work in a variety of different contexts—urban, rural, rich, poor, domestic, and international. Each individual design fi rm must defi ne its own area of focus in order to develop depth and use resources wisely. At IDEO, after many internal and external conversations, we have decided to focus our efforts within social impact on projects with organizations that create transformational change in under served and disadvantaged communities. These design projects can be sponsored by a variety of types of clients in the private, public, and social sectors. In selecting partners for this work, the focal point is on the impact that can be created. Likewise, the scope of a project must be intentionally tailored to achieve the desired impact. 6 7 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 6. CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS BOOK During the course of this exploration, the team met with a number of people who represent different stakeholder groups on the topic of design for social impact. These conversations served as the basis for identifying best practices as well as words of wisdom for new players coming into this arena. We are grateful to all of them for sharing their wise input. FUNDERS DESIGN FIRMS Acumen Fund Celery Design Collaborative Ashoka Design Continuum B Corporation Design Directions Draper Richards Foundation Design That Matters Endeavor Dissigno The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Elephant Good Capital FL!P Design The Rockefeller Foundation frog design The Skoll Foundation Human Factors International The World Bank IDEO Idiom Design and Consulting MetaDesign IMPLEMENTERS Smart Design ARTI Turner Duckworth Benetech ziba Better World Books d.light D-Rev C O N S U LT I N G F I R M S IDE Boston Consulting Group Industree Bridgespan Kickstart Central Offi ce Medicine Shoppe Katzenbach Partners PATH Monitor Institute Scojo Foundation On-Ramps Unitus Social Enterprise Group THINKERS David Bornstein David Green Global Social Business Incubator Industrial Design Centre IIT NID Bangalore Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology Stanford d.School Symbiosis Institute of Design 8 9 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 7. ESIGN PRINCIPLES D RINCIPLES DESIGN P ESIGN PRINCIPLES D RINCIPLES DESIGN P ESIGN PRINCIPLES D RINCIPLES DESIGN P ESIGN PRINCIPLES D The design principles on the following pages came from the P R O V I D E VA L U E BE FOCUSED SET UP FOR SUCCESS people interviewed for this project. These are the guiding Demonstrate the Value Stay on Target Train Appropriately principles for working with social sector clients. Cause Transformational Conserve Energy Optimize for Impact Change RINCIPLES DESIGN P Know the Players Mind the Gap Demand Skin in the Game 10 11 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: A How-to Guide Design for Social Impact:
  • 8. PROVIDE VALUE $ Demonstrate the Value Cause Transformational Change Mind the Gap 12 13 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 9. P R OV I D E VA L U E DEMONSTRATE D E M O N S T R AT E T H E VA L U E THE VALUE C A U S E T R A N S F O R M AT I O N A L CHANGE MIND THE GAP Design thinking can make a big contribution to the social sector, but most of our potential clients are unfamiliar with what we as design thinking can do. When communicating our offerings, we must demonstrate the value of our approach. Because resources in this sector are so limited, we need to justify the impact of an investment in a design project—is it more impactful than spending the money in other ways? As one design firm said, “I felt guilty charging non-profits for our work; they could buy goats instead and save lives.” CONSIDER… » Teaching your approach (through workshops) » Raising awareness of design through educational institutions » Collaborating as an industry and referring opportunities to each other to raise all boats 14 15 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 10. P R OV I D E VA L U E CAUSE D E M O N S T R AT E T H E VA L U E TRANSFORMATIONAL C A U S E T R A N S F O R M AT I O N A L CHANGE CHANGE MIND THE GAP Design firms must choose project opportunities based on the potential for real impact. It can be a challenge to choose between the innovation needs of a single organization (too limited in scale?) with projects that are more broadly targeted at an entire sector (too generic?). We were warned that “there are two types of people: those who get stuff done, and those who talk about it to look good.” CONSIDER… » Being smart and selective about your partners » Identifying design-ready organizations that can make use of your contributions » Measuring impact without burdening partners with the collection of metrics that aren’t core to their goals » Scoping projects with impact in mind and using something like Acumen Fund’s BACO (Best Alternative Charitable Option) calculation 16 17 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 11. P R OV I D E VA L U E MIND D E M O N S T R AT E T H E VA L U E THE GAP C A U S E T R A N S F O R M AT I O N A L CHANGE MIND THE GAP Great concepts and great vision are not enough to make an impact. Many start-ups and NGOs are extremely resource-constrained and are unable to follow through on overly conceptual designs. Designers must recognize the challenges around implementation and deliver comprehensive prototypes with clear implementation plans. CONSIDER… » Providing plans that take into consideration the client’s capabilities » Being strategic about who to engage with and when » Leveraging your network to create implementation partnerships 18 19 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 12. BE FOCUSED Stay on Target Conserve Energy 20 21 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 13. BE FOCUSED STAY ON S TAY O N TA R G E T TARGET CONSERVE ENERGY In our conversations with funders, implementers, and consultants, one piece of advice was offered again and again: “be focused.” Every design firm needs to determine its own particular focus. Choosing firsthand the intended areas of impact, the desired types of partners, and the project offerings will increase the likelihood that you will work on your dream projects. CONSIDER… » Staying true to your core offering » Communicating your focus clearly » Declaring a mission and sticking to it 22 23 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 14. BE FOCUSED CONSERVE S TAY O N TA R G E T ENERGY CONSERVE ENERGY The social sector is a huge space with millions of large and small players. Because business development (BD) costs can be high in proportion to the size of projects, design firms must focus their efforts. Narrowing your scope will allow you to develop depth in specific areas where you believe you can create the most impact. Many firms have multiple interests and have a hard time limiting their focus. Clarify your offerings to avoid confusion within your fi rm and with potential clients. CONSIDER… » Maintaining focus for BD efforts and employee time » Saving BD costs by standardizing proposals and contracts for small projects 24 25 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 15. SET UP FOR SUCCESS Train Appropriately Optimize for Impact Know the Players Demand Skin in the Game 26 27 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 16. SET UP FOR SUCCESS TRAIN TRAIN A P P R O P R I AT E LY APPROPRIATELY OPTIMIZE FO R I M PAC T KNOW THE P L AY E R S While a “fresh eyes” perspective is a valuable way to uncover new insights and ideas, we DEMAND SKIN IN THE GAME must not have naïve “bug eyes.” Passion and enthusiasm are not enough to have impact, and can result in unintended outcomes. Design firms should invest in hiring and training staff to do social impact projects, and should provide cultural and situational information and briefings to project teams who are working in unfamiliar environments. CONSIDER… » Providing country and sector briefings to teams at project onset » Ensuring at least one team member has experience in the context of the project » Being humble and leveraging the experiences of others within and outside your firm 28 29 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 17. SET UP FOR SUCCESS OPTIMIZE TRAIN A P P R O P R I AT E LY FOR IMPACT OPTIMIZE FO R I M PAC T KNOW THE P L AY E R S Design firms should think about creative ways to reduce project costs by being efficient in DEMAND SKIN IN THE GAME project activities. Narrowing the scope of the project can often serve as an effective lever to increase efficiency. Good communication is critical, but is not to be confused with impact. One NGO warned us, “I need a tangible outcome. Powerpoint does not help me.” CONSIDER… » Producing compelling deliverables in a way that doesn’t add excess time or cost » Resisting the temptation to up-sell potential clients on full-scale projects » Clarifying with your team and the client upfront about what impact will look like 30 31 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 18. SET UP FOR SUCCESS KNOW THE TRAIN A P P R O P R I AT E LY PLAYERS OPTIMIZE FO R I M PAC T KNOW THE P L AY E R S Working with social sector clients is different to begin with, and not all social sector clients DEMAND SKIN IN THE GAME are alike, e.g., a social entrepreneur will vary greatly from an established charity. We must tailor our way of doing business appropriately. Third-party payer systems in which foundations fund projects for their grantees create a host of new challenges. As we heard from one foun- dation, “Foundations are brokers or facilitators, not end clients.” Designers must learn to speak the language of social sector clients and com- municate their passion for this work. CONSIDER… » Modifying contract templates for foundations and NGOs » Building relationships with a network of experts and other people involved in the social sector » Consolidating social impact BD—building a focused team to work on developing these projects 32 33 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 19. SET UP FOR SUCCESS DEMAND SKIN IN TRAIN A P P R O P R I AT E LY THE GAME OPTIMIZE FO R I M PAC T KNOW THE P L AY E R S Pro bono engagements should be an exception rather than the rule. We do better work when DEMAND SKIN IN THE GAME we are paid because we can apply the time and other resources to do an exceptional job rather than applying less experienced people in their spare time. Our clients value the work more when they pay for it and will dedicate the necessary resources to make it succeed. As a management consulting fi rm advised, “Be explicit about who the client is. Watch for scope creep from clients who aren’t paying for services.” CONSIDER… » Preparing an agreement letter with non-paying clients authorizing their commitments of time and money » Requiring clients who can’t afford your fees to commit in other ways (ie. bartering, or putting in their time) 34 35 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 20. HOW MIGHT YOU… DESIGN CHALLENGES … MODIF Y THE WAY YOU WORK? … EDUCATE OTHERS? … DEVELOP NETWORKS? … IDENTIF Y FUNDING STREAMS? … MODIF Y YOUR STRUCTURE? The guidance underlying the design principles points to the following five challenges. 36 37 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 21. ODES OF ENGAGEMENT M NGAGEMENT MODES OF E ODES OF ENGAGEMENT M NGAGEMENT MODES OF E ODES OF ENGAGEMENT M NGAGEMENT MODES OF E ODES OF ENGAGEMENT M NGAGEMENT MODES OF E ODES OF ENGAGEMENT M The following 28 ideas are different ways a design fi rm Modify the Way You Work might engage to have social impact. Many of us have been doing some assortment of these for years. Other Educate Others ideas may currently seem out of reach for many of us. NGAGEMENT MODES OF E Use the accompanying workbook to help you navigate Develop Networks these offerings and consider which may be the best ones for your fi rm. Identify Funding Streams Modify Your Structure 38 39 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: A How-to Guide Design for Social Impact:
  • 22. M O D E S O F E N GAG E M E NT The following pages describe each of these offerings in detail. Each offering is placed in relation to the others to compare the relative investment size, benefi t to the fi rm, and potential for social impact. These assessments are meant to be generic and will likely need to be adjusted in one dimension or more to fi t the context of your fi rm. BENEFIT TO THE FIRM M O D I F Y T H E W AY Y O U W O R K E D U C AT E O T H E R S 44 66 1 Concept incubation 1 d.school .in/.za 46 68 2 Design + implementation 2 Empathy fi eld trips 48 70 3 Business as usual 3 Design certifi cation 50 72 4 Scale to fit 4 Intern hosting 52 74 5 Process guide 5 Publishing 54 76 6 Sabbatical 6 Process workshop 56 7 Catalogue of design challenges 58 8 Project scoping S O C I A L I M PAC T 60 9 Design review 62 10 Concept brainstorm DEVELOPING NET WORKS IDENTIFY FUNDING STREAMS 80 1 Industry Pact 1 Design industry fund 90 82 2 Local partners 2 Fundraising 92 84 3 Design competitions 3 Cross-Subsidies 94 86 4 3 rd party sponsorship 4 Contribute to existing 96 INVESTMENT SIZE networks 5 Project fi nancing 98 1: S O C I A L I M PAC T Social impact relates to the capacity of this type of work to create M O D I F Y YO U R S T R U C T U R E positive social change on communities and individuals. 102 1 .org 2: BENEFIT TO THE FIRM Benefi t to the fi rm includes tangible benefits such as profi t as well as 104 2 .in/.za intangible benefits such as reputation, morale, and building expertise. 106 3 Center of excellence 3: INVESTMENT SIZE Investment size is related to how much the fi rm will have to commit to in relation to how much return they will see. Investment includes time and money commitments and represents how much the design fi rm has to put in to make it work. 40 41 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 23. ODIFY DESIGN + I M P L E M E N TAT I O N BUSINESS AS USUAL HE WAY DESIGN REVIEW BENEFIT TO THE FIRM S A B B AT I C A L PROJECT SCOPING SCALE TO FIT OU WORK CONCEPT BR AINSTORM PROCESS GUIDE CONCEPT I N C U B AT I O N C ATA L O G U E O F CHALLENGES M O D I F Y T H E WAY Y O U W O R K S O C I A L I M PAC T Concept Incubation Design + Implementation Business as Usual Scale to Fit Process Guide Sabbatical Catalogue of Challenges Project Scoping Design Review INVESTMENT SIZE
  • 24. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N CONCEPT INCUBATION Identify the challenges at hand, brainstorm and prototype solutions, then start to build a business model or the appropriate partnership to do so. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Strong partnership in » Build expertise before diving in » Very satisfying for the team » High risk target geography » Spend time identifying needs » Great opportunity for impact » Have to fund it or find funding » Deep understanding of before deciding on a concept » Don’t have to wait for the » Longer-term commitment issues and region » Focus on high growth dream client » Enough expertise to choose opportunities the right opportunities QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have the expertise to build businesses? Design that Matters Do you have the patience to work on such an Dissigno extended time scale? d.School - Design for Extreme Affordability PATH I M PAC T 44 45 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 25. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N DESIGN + IMPLEMENTATION Carry on beyond design to ensure the concepts move forward. Create an ecosystem to ensure implementation. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Willing and capable clients » Partner with manufacturers, supply » Higher level of engagement » Very expensive projects chains, distributors, etc. who want improves likelihood of success » Strong implementation partners » Difficult to manage partners: to have impact » More satisfying for all participants it’s demanding » Designers who will work on » Partner with VCs to fund work to go to market the project for a long time » Very time consuming » Partner with management » Bridge implementation gap » Hard to staff part time for consulting or marketing firms a long time to get the products or services to market QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have the expertise to mind the gap between design Benetech and implementation and support it through to fruition? IDEO Do you have the network to support implementation? I M PAC T 46 47 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 26. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N BUSINESS AS USUAL Carry out full scale, “normal” project work at full fees. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Access to third-party funding » If working with multiple parties » Easy to implement » Third-party payer system from foundations, the government, (e.g. funding foundation and can get messy » Easy to get internal buy-in or Multinational Corporations social enterprise) clarify who » Less accessible to many social (MNCs) ‘the client’ is » Profitable sector organizations » Credibility with foundations » Make sure all parties have an » Increases the perceived » Very few organizations can investment in the project. value of the work » Existing corporate clients pay full design fees Whether it’s time or money with desire to move into » Doesn’t place atypical » Potential perception of emerging markets constraints on a team overcharging clients with limited resources QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Are you willing to limit yourself to only Design Continuum full-scale engagements? frog design Do you have clients who can pay your standard Mile7 rates for social impact work? I M PAC T 48 49 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 27. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N SCALE TO FIT Optimize. Narrow the scope of the project and/or the process to provide a lower-cost offering. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Enough experience is available » Identify areas for cost reduction » More affordable and accessible » May have to make trade-offs/ to be effi cient (project coordinator, travel, sacrifice quality » Increases the pool of deliverables) » Having something to cut that potential clients » Potentially reduces impact reduces project cost (fl exible » Consider a smaller team size » Quickly imparts experience with » Not as profitable margin or modular approach) » Consider focusing efforts to apply a variety of clients » Client has capacity for follow- one specifi c capability to a project, through and implementation such as communication design or mechanical engineering QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT What can you cut and still deliver value? Design Continuum Are you willing to change your process IDEO for social impact projects? MetaDesign I M PAC T 50 51 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 28. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N PROCESS GUIDE Guide the client to do the work. Serve as a mentor and direct the process while the client carries out the design activities. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » The process is defi ned and » Aggregate clients along themes » Leverages small efforts » Non-Governmental Organizations can be taught, abstracted, (drinking water, energy) and run for a larger impact (NGOs) tend not to have resources and modularized simultaneous projects (no time, no money, no capacity) to » More affordable and follow through » Clients who are able to carry » Choose clients who are capable accessible offering out the work of carrying out the work » Complicates resources and staffing » Allows firm to work with for the design firm » Designers who enjoy teaching » Consider staged client work more clients and mentoring sessions over time » Designers can’t ensure the quality of the work QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Is your project resourcing process fl exible to commit IDEO to ongoing, low involvement efforts? Social Enterprise Group Do you believe clients can do the project Taproot Foundation with minimal guidance? I M PAC T 52 53 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 29. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N SABBATICAL Embed staff in a social sector organization for several months as a learning opportunity for the individual and as a way to contribute to analogous experience that organization. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Employees are passionate » Be selective about which » Builds capacity of people within » Added resourcing hassles employees you offer this benefit to the firm to do social impact work » There is excess capacity - » Opportunity cost—staff aren’t unstaffed designers » Consider paying full or half salary » Develops relationships with NGOs working on other projects and/or offering health insurance » Compelling benefit to employees » Salary or other costs incurred or travel expenses to the firm » During periods of over-capacity, » Set clear expectations with the it’s a way to get people off the employee prior to the sabbatical payroll temporarily QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have people who want to take a sabbatical? Design Continuum Can you afford to lose designers for a few months? IDEO Katzenbach Partners I M PAC T 54 55 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 30. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N CATALOGUE OF CHALLENGES Keep a database of design challenges to be accessed when time allows (via workshops or mini projects during unbillable time). The projects should require various degrees of complexity, time, and skills. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Lots of contacts with organizations » Use time between projects » Minimal project cost » Oversight & set-up of mini-projects who can’t pay for projects is time consuming » Junior designers could do projects » Flexible timing to fit into » Passionate designers with on their own existing schedules » Some BD costs to fill the pipeline down time with projects » Run all workshops with real cases » Good value for clients instead of hypothetical ones » Ask clients to define their design challenge and keep them on hand » Consider aggregating projects along themes to build depth in certain content areas QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have passionate people with time to spare? Architecture for Humanity Do you have the bandwidth and experience to scope Engineers without Borders a catalogue’s worth of challenges? Kluster Do you have connections with entrepreneurs and organizations who have design challenges? I M PAC T 56 57 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 31. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N PROJECT SCOPING Spend a few hours with a client to help them scope a design project. The activities can then be carried out by the client or with another design firm. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Clear process to share » Could be a workshop or » A small effort can have » Requires client to take the phone call big impact next (big) step » Enough experience to give guidance » Offer a process workshop » Demonstrates the value » Clients want the answers, first and then follow it with a of design thinking not the questions project-scoping workshop » Could lead to paid work » Likely to be pro bono QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have expertise? MetaDesign Do you have a process? NFFCP + Scojo I M PAC T 58 59 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 32. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N DESIGN REVIEW Offer a 1-2 hour review to give feedback and guidance on an existing design. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » There is experience and » Select clients that have design » A small effort can have a » Likely to be pro bono credibility on hand skills and can implement the big impact » Relies on clients to recommendations » There is passion for the project » Empowers client to move follow through » Be clear about the scope of the forward with added confidence engagement and what they’ll get and credibility » Consider inviting multiple social entrepreneurs to review each other’s work QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have the expertise? Global Social Venture Competition Do you have designers who know how Turner Duckworth to and want to coach? World Bank Development Marketplace I M PAC T 60 61 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 33. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N CONCEPT BRAINSTORM Conduct a 1-2 hour session to provide clients with ideas and inspiration. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Desire to build a social impact » Set aside time for briefing (before) » Fun for designers » Low impact community and expertise and filtering (after) » Quick » Half-baked ideas can seem » People with a lot » Set client expectations in advance naïve to clients » Low risk of passion QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have a team of passionate people? IDEO Do you have enough expertise to make this impactful for the client? I M PAC T 62 63 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 34. DUCATE PUBLISHING PROCESS WORKSHOP THERS BENEFIT TO THE FIRM INTERN HOSTING E M PAT H Y D.SCHOOL FIELD TRIPS . I N /. Z A DESIGN C E R T I F I C AT I O N E D U C AT E O T H E R S S O C I A L I M PAC T d.school .in/.za Empathy Field Trips Design Certifi cation Intern Hosting Publishing Process Workshop INVESTMENT SIZE
  • 35. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N D.SCHOOL .IN/. ZA Support or build capacity of a design program in Africa and India by developing curriculum or providing professors. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Funding is available from » Partner with established » Potentially largest impact because » No financial return university, government, design schools it develops local capacity » Requires lots of resources foundation, or private donors » Use practitioners » Creates a network of designers » Must wait a long time to see impact » There exists a desire to teach as professors around the world which you don’t see directly » Creates a pool of qualified designers QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have interest in teaching your process? Cisco Can you identify funding to support a program? Microsoft Stanford d.School I M PAC T 66 67 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 36. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N EMPATHY FIELD TRIPS Executives or other interested parties pay to participate in cultural observations to gain fi rst hand experience in the developing world. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » With a strong network in place » Target decision makers who are » Potentially transformational » No direct impact interested but not committed to experience for participants » Opportunity to extend the brand of » Low return on investment social impact work the design fi rm in new directories » Strengthens personal » High start-up costs » Hire a team to handle the logistics commitments to social impact work » Partner with local NGOs » Fun » Don’t mix empathy field trips with project research » Creates a network between participants QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you want to diversify in new services? Alumni association trips Does this detract from your core business? Cultural tourism Journeys for Change & UnLtd I M PAC T 68 69 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 37. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N DESIGN CERTIFICATION Designate individuals to be official “social impact designers.” Certified designers can be hired by participating companies. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Known demand for designers to » Ask designers to pay for » Creates a network of designers » Minimal revenue for design firm be hired by corporate clients certification » Lends credibility to design » A lot of effort to train and » Credibility with clients who would » Ask clients to pay to recruit firm’s process evaluate designers want to hire certifi ed designers designers » Builds capacity to farm out work » Willingness to teach designers » Could be run by a neutral that the fi rm can not or does not 3 rd party want to do QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have an interest in teaching your process? Au pair agency Is there a benefit to your fi rm for building a network Cisco of certifi ed designers? Core 77 Microsoft I M PAC T 70 71 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 38. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N INTERN HOSTING Host fellows or interns from emerging markets and train them in your design process. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » There exists a relationship » Interns must work on projects and » Brings cultural diversity to » Time consuming with a university to be mentored design firms » Interns need intense training recommend students » Encourage interns to return to so » Creates opportunities for the and coaching » There is capacity to train that their home country receives interns and builds their credibility and mentor student interns the benefits of their learnings » Creates a network of designers » Create a cohort by bringing in at once they return home least two interns at a time QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have the capacity to bring on Design Continuum interns and train them? IDEO Could interns contribute to your work? I M PAC T 72 73 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 39. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N PUBLISHING Publish books, articles, blogs and/or tools on design for social impact. Publications serve as guides for novices to recreate the design process independently. » Start small (articles) WHEN THIS WORKS » Connections the right publisher » Build credibility before publishing » Flexible time commitment » Books take a long time to write (to reach the right audience) tool kits » Adds credibility » Requires good writers » When the author has credibility » Best accompanied by a workshop » Spreads your ideas across time » Indirect (possibly shallow) impact or other support and distance » Little or no financial return on » Do this for PR, not money » Can potentially lead to paid time investment engagements » Can potentially be sold TIPS QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have something to say? Architects for Humanity Do you have people who can write? Business Review Harvard IDEO I M PAC T 74 75 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 40. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N PROCESS WORKSHOP Conduct a two-hour to one-day session teaching the process of design for social impact at conferences, NGOs, think tanks, etc. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » There are people in your fi rm » Use workshops to build capacity » Minimal effort and cost » Potentially minimal impact with a passion to teach for social impact work within » Can potentially lead to larger » Mostly pro-bono your organization » There is an established process (paid) engagements » Tailor workshops to social » There exist relationships » Builds your network impact issues with interested attendees and organizations » If labor can’t be covered, ask for paid expenses » Consider open enrollment workshops QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you have a process to teach? Celery Design Do you want to teach? d.School Is there an interested audience? Design Continuum IDEO I M PAC T 76 77 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 41. EVELOP LOCAL PA R T N E R S ETWORKS BENEFIT TO THE FIRM INDUSTRY PAC T DESIGN COMPETITIONS CONTRIBUTE TO EXISTING NETWORKS DE VE LOP NET WORKS S O C I A L I M PAC T Industry Pact Local Partners Design Competitions Contribute to Existing Networks INVESTMENT SIZE
  • 42. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N INDUSTRY PACT Inspire firms across the design industry to value and participate in social impact work. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » The industry is collaborative » Convene multiple firms to » Raises social impact awareness » Requires a lot of effort to initiate develop the pact among designers and maintain » Leaders are passionate » Involve employees at all levels » Raises awareness about design » Doesn’t directly increase number » Someone is willing to in the social sector of engagements or impact in take initiative » Ensure that firms are doing the the world social impact work they’ve publicly agreed to do » Ultimate impact may be minimal QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Can your fi rm collaborate with other design fi rms? Bluetooth Consortium Would signing onto a pact strengthen your commitment Designers Accord to social impact work? I M PAC T 80 81 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 43. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N LOCAL PARTNERS Staff projects with local talent or designers (e.g. Indian design firm or Indian design school). WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » There is a network of partners » Maintain a relationship with » Lower cost » Challenging to collaborate around the world a professor of design or » Increased contextual knowledge » Takes effort to maintain network design firm » There is willingness to work with of partners » Built-in hosts/guides outside designers » Consider entering a new country » Diffculty to control the quality with partnerships and later open of design work an office QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT What type of partnerships do you value? Institute of Design in Chicago When do partnerships work for your fi rm? Media Lab Asia Parsons New School for Design I M PAC T 82 83 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 44. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N DESIGN COMPETITIONS Sponsor web-based competitions for designers to support organizations in need of assistance. Host or participate in open source challenges. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » There is excitement about design » Partner with an NGO or foundation » Provides exposure and publicity » Time consuming challenges but no bandwidth to (like Ashoka or Rockefeller) to for design firm » No revenue solve the problems gain credibility » Connects firm with new partners » No one owns the follow through » There exists desire to outsource » Tap into an existing design » Provides opportunities to do design work by posting challenges challenges (like InnoCentive smaller side projects for others or X-Prize) » Post design challenges that are discrete pieces of work and can be effectively handed over QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do you want this work to be outside your fi rm? Ashoka InnoCentive Do you have the resources to dedicate to starting Architecture Kluster and running this? for Humanity X Prize Design 21 I M PAC T 84 85 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide
  • 45. PROJECTS E D U C AT I O N NET WORKS FUNDING O R G A N I Z AT I O N CONTRIBUTE TO EXISTING NETWORKS Encourage designers to volunteer their efforts to larger causes or existing networks. WHEN THIS WORKS TIPS » Small design fi rms that want to » Focus on competitions or networks » Both sides get something » Generally smaller efforts get involved but don’t have the that will give exposure » Helps designers develop as » Difficult to do in addition resources to identify projects » Incentivize designers to contribute entrepreneurial thinkers to project work » It’s a first entry into social to these efforts » Gives designers experience » Pro bono—no financial benefits impact work on social impact projects » Passionate designers are involved QUESTIONS WHO IS DOING THIS BENEFIT Do your designers have passion and time to take this on? IDEO Are you ready to make this work a core offering? MetaDesign I M PAC T 86 87 The Rockefeller Foundation Design for Social Impact: How-to Guide