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Systemic Design Principles & Methods (Royal College of Art)


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For a guest lecture for Qian Sun and the RCA Service Design program, April 29, 2015, Talk based on the 10 shared design principles for complex social systems, related to the 2014 paper: and

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Systemic Design Principles & Methods (Royal College of Art)

  1. 1. Peter Jones, PhD OCAD University, Toronto Royal College of Art, April 29, 2015 Systemic Design Systems as Theory for Complex Design
  2. 2. Practices Redesign Dialogic Design Publications Papers / Blog Research Healthcare Products Consult Series ScienceDirect Discount code @ DFCFRIENDS Peter Jones, Ph.D Associate Professor, OCADU Strategic Foresight & Innovation Managing partner, Redesign Network
  3. 3. Movements in Design Thinking June 2009 Core Argument – Systems thinking had failed in its aims to transform management. After 30 years, today’s leaders do not show systemic thinking in domains that matter. Promising movement toward “design thinking” should learn from Systems Thinking here. Coda: Dr. Collopy now leads Case Western’s new school of Design & Innovation at Weatherhead Oct 15-17: Flourish & Prosper Global Forum for BAWB
  4. 4. Movements in Systems Thinking? Fall 2009 Core Argument – Systems thinking did not fail, it never had a chance. Could design be better b/c method ? Yes, today’s leaders aren’t systems thinkers Management as practiced is not systemic or design oriented. We are teaching theory they can’t use. Coda: We now teach systemic design & lead student research with social, visual methods
  5. 5. 5 Where do design & systems thinking intersect? Based on R. Horn, 2004, Adapted with permission.
  6. 6. Peter Jones, PhD OCAD University, Toronto Institute for 21st Century Agoras ISSS 2014 July 31, 2014 Systemic Design Principles for Complex Social Systems
  7. 7. 7 Hugh Dubberly & Harold Nelson argue that design processes are embodiments of systems thinking. Banathy (& Gharajedaghi) advocate a designing orientation to social systems as designing.
  8. 8. Some context. • Systems science has preferred theories for system description (explanation), prediction (control), & intervention (change). • Contributions of modern design disciplines - industrial, information, service design – to systems are marginal, so far. • “Design” is problem solving, or a process of system design. • Social systems design as a template for design thinking in complex socially-constructed domains. • Which are (now) everything – social, services, networks.
  9. 9. Ill-defined, evolving, multi-factored situations. At least 10 properties, among them: 1. There is no definite formulation of a wicked problem. 2. Wicked problems have no stopping rules (you don’t know when you’re done). 3. Solutions are not True/False but Good/Bad (value judgments) 4. There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem. 5. Every attempt to solve counts (one shot op) 6. Wicked problems do not have an enumerable set of potential solutions. 7. Every wicked problem is essentially unique. 8. Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another [wicked] problem. (Real) Wicked Problems Rittel and Weber. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155-169.
  10. 10. 15 Global Challenges of the Millennium Project
  11. 11. Hasan Ozbekhan, Toward a General Theory of Planning, 1967
  12. 12. Christakis on Structured Dialogue: “Given the complexity of political, social, economic, & technological issues of the Information age, & the strong linkages among those issues, is it reasonable to expect that the approach for engaging people in dialogue 2500 years ago during the Golden Age of the Athenians would work today?” “We proceed from the belief that problems have "solutions" --although we may not necessarily discover these in the case of every problem we encounter. This peculiarity of our perception causes us to view difficulties as things that are clearly defined & discrete in themselves. It also leads us to believe that to solve a problem it is sufficient to observe & manipulate it in its own terms by applying an external problem-solving technique to it. THE PREDICAMENT OF MANKIND: A Quest for Structured Responses to Growing World-wide Complexities and Uncertainties Hasan Özbekhan
  13. 13. Compatible philosophies, different generations. Generation: First Second Third Fourth Philosophy Rational 1960’s Pragmatic 1970’s Phenomenological 1980’s Generative 2000’s Methods Movement from craft to standardized methods Instrumentality, Methods customized to context Design research and stakeholder methods Design cognition Generative, empathic & transdisciplinary Authors & trends Simon, Fuller Design Science, Planning Rittel, Jones Wicked problems, Evolution Schon, Don Norman User-centered & Participatory Design Reflective action Dubberly, Sanders Generative Design Service Design Systemic design Systems influences Sciences, OR Cybernetics Natural systems System dynamics Systems engineering System dynamics Social systems Soft systems Complexity Socio-ecological Dialogic Participatory
  14. 14. Design thinking deals well with complexity. Design must become more systemic – for complex concerns. Complex domains have > stakeholders Design 1.0 Craft design, Advertising Design 2.0 Industrial, Products, Web Design 3.0 Organizational & institutional Design 4.0 Distributed social systems Mixed stakeholders
  15. 15. 10 Shared Design Principles Design Principle Design Methodologies 1. Idealization Iteration 2. Appreciating Complexity Sensemaking 3. Purpose finding Saliency - Meaning-making 4. Boundary framing Provocation and strange-making 5. Requisite variety Multiple perspectives 6. Feedback coordination Modeling 7. System ordering Structuring 8. Generative emergence Future projection 9. Continuous adaptation Multiple reasoning modes 10. Self-organizing Co-creation Guidance for complex systems design from systems, cybernetic & complexity principles. Foundation for practitioners to enhance engagement and evolve better practices. Elicited from systems theories, but not new. Lead to net new frameworks for design in: Patient-centred healthcare systems Sustainable business models Organizational governance “The primary aim the two systems of thought share today is enabling organized high- leverage action in increasingly complex and systemic problems as design situations.”
  16. 16. Design methods associated with principles Principle Design Methods 1. Idealization Framing, Iteration, Backcasting 2. Appreciating Complexity Sensemaking, System sketching 3. Purpose finding Inquiry (5 Whys), Prototyping 4. Boundary framing Critical probes, Strange-making 5. Requisite variety Co-creation, Function analysis 6. Feedback coordination Modeling, Interactive Testing 7. System ordering Structuring, Pattern making 8. Generative emergence Future creation, 9. Continuous adaptation Multiple reasoning modes 10. Self-organizing Co-creation, Facilitated design modes We might also observe design of: Time (4), Space (3), Information (3)
  17. 17. Mapping Systems Principles to Design Models • Discovery and orientation • Definition and concept formation • Optimization and planning • Evaluation and measurement Model drawn in part from Evenson and Dubberly, 2010 Four universal patterns across 50 innovation processes van Patter and Pastor (2013)
  18. 18. Mapping Systems Principles to Design
  19. 19. 10 Shared Design Principles Principle Design Methodologies 1. Idealization (time) Framing, Iteration
  20. 20. Design Principle Design Methodologies 2. Appreciating Complexity Sensemaking
  21. 21. 3. Purpose finding Saliency - Meaning-making
  22. 22. 4. Boundary framing Provocation and strange-making All people are health-seekers A health-seeking journey occurs over a lifetime, a continuity that proceeds through youth, adulthood, & older age.
  23. 23. Design Principle Design Methodologies 5. Requisite variety Multiple perspectives
  24. 24. Design Principle Design Methodologies 6. Feedback coordination Modeling
  25. 25. 7. System ordering Structuring
  26. 26. 8. Generative emergence Future projection
  27. 27. Design Principle Design Methodologies 9. Continuous adaptation Multiple reasoning modes
  28. 28. Design Principle Design Methodologies 10. Self-organizing Co-creation
  29. 29. Rheinfrank, J. and Evenson, S. From Winograd, Terry. 1996. Bringing design to software. New York: Addison-Wesley. Design Languages for Systems Methods Rheinfrank, J. and Evenson, S. From Winograd, Terry. 1996. Bringing design to software.
  30. 30. “Though a handful design thinkers have made some substantial contributions to systems thinking in general, hardly anybody has developed a systems practice from within design, specially informed by design thinking and design practice. This is remarkable when we compare us with other fields where proprietary adaptations of systems perspectives are normal.” Birger Sevaldson, Oslo School Of Architecture & Design Giga-Mapping: Visualisation For Complexity & Systems Thinking In Design Nordic Design Research Conference 2011 why has Systems Thinking ignored Design? Questions & Discussion
  31. 31. Emerging Educational Movements • OCAD University, Toronto Master of Design in Strategic Foresight & Innovation Understanding Systems & Systemic Design • Oslo School of Architecture & Design MDes & PhD, Systems-Oriented Design • Curriculum & faculty workshop exchanges • Cooperative research (e.g. Design Literacy) • Core methods training: GIGAmapping, Dialogic Design
  32. 32. Strategic Innovation Lab
  33. 33. Systemic Design Course • Systems theory & methods to design systemic interventions, process & services for social and business innovation. • Understanding natural, sociotechnical & human systems for system change, long-range innovation, and foresight. • Two sections: 1) Understanding system thinking concepts & tools for expressing models & mapping 2) Social systems methods for socially-responsive design & innovations expressed as service or social systems • Seminar format with lecture, dialogue, simulations, visual modeling, team projects, case study & studio work.
  34. 34. GIGAMap + System Mapping
  35. 35. GIGAMap = System mapping + Innovation Research
  36. 36. Exemplary GIGAMaps
  37. 37. Structured Dialogic Design SM • Two week workshop as participants in SDD Triggering Question framed for strategic foresight: What are the most critical continuous challenges facing humanity over the next 20 years? • Formulating & analyzing the global problematique. Employ Ozbekhan’s 49 CCPs from the Predicament • Reflective approach to method education: Students reflect & evaluate during points in process • Structuring of influence map to produce a new view of the problematique.
  38. 38. SDD as experienced by participants Expresses the 5 Churchman inquiring systems Shared inquiry with disciplined democratic process
  39. 39. Influence map – Problematique of 49 CCPs Generated by Cogniscope II & redrawn
  40. 40. Relating Systems Thinking to Design 4