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Concept design

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Concept design

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Concept design

  1. 1. CONCEPT DESIGN  What is a design concept?  Clarifying functional requirements  Generating design concepts  Analyzing alternative designs  Developing “product” alternatives  Evaluating product alternatives  Concept Design Review  Information flow & storage  Intellectual property protection
  2. 2. ? INFO FLOW DURING FORMULATION AND CONCEPT DESIGN PHASES FormulationCustomer Needs Customer requirements Importance weights House of Quality Eng. characteristics Eng. Design Spec’s Concept Design “Best” Alternative Concepts
  3. 3. For slowing and stopping a spinning shaft? Alternative Physical principle Abstract Embodiment 1 fluid friction fan blade on shaft 2 magnetic field re-generative brake 3 surface friction disk and caliper brake WHAT IS AN ALTERNATIVE CONCEPT DESIGN? For fastening sheets of paper? Alternative Physical principle Abstract Embodiment 1 spring force paperclip 2 bent clamp staple 3 bendable clamp cotter pin 4 adhesion glue
  4. 4. PHYSICAL PRINCIPLE Def. - the means by which some effect is caused Conservation of energy Archimedes’ principle Ohm’s law Conservation of mass Bernoulli’s law Ampere’s law Conservation of momentum Boyle’s law Coulomb’s laws of electricity Diffusion law Gauss’ law Newton’s laws of motion Doppler effect Hall effect Newton’s law of gravitation Joule-Thompson effect Photoelectric effect Pascal’s principle Photovoltaic effect Coriolis effect Siphon effect Piezoelectric effect Coulomb friction Thermal expansion effect Euler’s buckling law Hooke’s law Newton’s law of viscosity Poisson effect/ratio Newton’s law of cooling Heat conduction Heat convection Heat radiation
  5. 5. (Pahl & Beitz, European community) “WORKING PRINCIPLE” OF A DISC BRAKE Note: no sizes, only vague shape motion (rotation) physical principle (friction force caused by caliper clamping force) material (solid) surface (planar area) working geometry
  6. 6. DESIGN CONCEPT Definition: abstract embodiment of: physical principle, material, and geometry. Surfaces, motion Purposefully vague
  7. 7. INPUTS & OUTPUTS TO DECISION MAKING ? Formulation Customer Needs Customer requirements Importance weights House of Quality Eng. characteristics Eng. Design Spec’s Concept Design Abstract embodiment Physical principles Material Geometry
  8. 8. HOW DO WE PROCEED?  Need lots of feasible design concepts (i.e. alternatives)  Need to select the “best” one or two concepts  Is there a process that we can follow?  Can we use the overall design process to guide us through the concept design phase?
  9. 9. DESIGN PROCESS DURING CONCEPT DESIGN PHASE Generate Alternatives Clarify Functions Analyze Iteration Will not violate laws of nature Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements Likely to satisfy company requirements Archives, People Internet, Creative methods Engineering Design Specification 1st order calculations Proof of concept tests Bench test, Pilot plant Feasible ? Best Concept(s) Pugh’s Method Weighted Rating Method Evaluate Activity Analysis Decomposition Diagrams Function Structures Concept Design yes no
  10. 10. CUSTOMER ACTIVITIES Use set up operate maintain repair Retire take down disassemble recycle dispose
  11. 11. CLARIFYING FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS ACTIVITY ANALYSIS METHOD Use Setup 1. open package 2. examine shaver, cord, travel case, and cleaning brush, 3. read instruction booklet 4. fill out warranty card 5. plug in shaver to charge batteries 6. put shaver, case, cord, brush in bathroom cabinet drawer Daily use 7. remove charged shaver from drawer 8. trim hair 9. shave face or legs 10. remove cutter blade cover 11. brush cutter blade 12. replace cover 13. repeat step 5. 14. store shaver in drawer 15. repeat steps 7-14 until blades need replacing Replace blade 16. remove cutter blade cover 17. install new cutter blade 18. replace cutter cover Daily use 19. repeat steps 7-13 until batteries need replacing Replace batteries 20. install new rechargeable batteries Daily use 21. repeat steps 17.-19. until shave becomes unrepairable Retire Dispose of shaver 22. throw out shaver and auxiliaries
  12. 12. CLARIFYING FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS FUNCTION DECOMPOSITION DIAGRAM METHOD make coffee boil water brew coffee warm coffee pot store water, filter, grounds convert electricity to heat drip water on coffee control electricity conduct electricity Remove? Combine? Reorganize?
  13. 13. SOME FUNCTIONS THAT PRODUCTS/PARTS PERFORM amplify dissipate protect change fasten release channel heat rotate collect hold separate conduct increase store control join supply convert lift support cool lower transform decrease move translate
  14. 14. WHY PREPARE FUNCTION DECOMPOSITION DIAGRAMS?  To breakdown big functions into smaller basic subfunctions to improve our ability to “match” existing concepts to basic functions  Fully understand customer requirements (use & retire)  Disconnect function from form  Identify system boundaries  Increase the potential for new combinations
  15. 15. FUNCTION STRUCTURE DIAGRAMS SHOW ALL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS Function Energy Material Signal Energy Material Signal State 1 State 2
  16. 16. EXAMPLE
  17. 17. EXAMPLE
  18. 18. Generate Alternatives Clarify Functions Analyze Iteration Will not violate laws of nature Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements Likely to satisfy company requirements Archives, People Internet, Creative methods Engineering Design Specification 1st order calculations Proof of concept tests Bench test, Pilot plant Feasible ? Best Concept(s) Pugh’s Method Weighted Rating Method Evaluate Activity Analysis Decomposition Diagrams Function Structures Concept Design yes no HOW DO WE DO GENERATE ALTERNATIVE CONCEPT DESIGNS?
  19. 19. e.g. fasten papers a) flexible clamp, paperclip b) bent clamp, staple c) adhesion, glue (Sub)Functional requirements Concept SF1 {C11, C12} SF2 {C21, C22, C23} GENERATING ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS “match” Generating = finding or creating “matches”
  20. 20. FINDING OR CREATING MATCHES Archives libraries (university, public, corporate) literature (handbooks, monographs, trade mag.s, journals, encyclop.) People coworkers, faculty, vendors, consultants Internet US Patent office, vendors, professional societies, etc Existing products – similar or competitive products dissection, reverse engineering Creative methods Brainstorming Method 635 Synectics (analogies, fantasy, empathy, inversion) Checklists (Osborn: substitute, combine, adapt, magnify, put to other use, eliminate, rearrange, and reverse).
  21. 21. “DEVELOPING” GENERATED CONCEPTS Alternative Concepts 1 2 3 Transmit Chain Belt Gearbox Brake Disc Drum Subfunctions Steer Handlebar Control stick Fly-by- wire E.g. mini bike
  22. 22. MORPHOLOGICAL MATRICES Alternative Concepts 1 2 3 … n SF1 C11 C12 C13 C1n SF2 C21 C22 C23 C2n SF3 C31 C32 C33 C3n … Subfunctions SFm Cm1 Cm2 Cm3 Cmn Alternative Concept design 1 {C11, C22 , C31…Cm2} 2 {C12, C23, C33 …Cm3} Developing combinations of concepts into alternative product concept designs
  23. 23. SYSTEMATIC COMBINATIONS Subfunction Alternative Transmit Brake Steer 1 Chain Disc Handlebar 2 Chain Disc Control stick 3 Chain Disc Fly-by-wire 4 Chain Drum Handlebar 5 Chain Drum Control stick 6 Chain Drum Fly-by-wire 7 Belt Disc Handlebar 8 Belt Disc Control stick 9 Belt Disc Fly-by-wire 10 Belt Drum Handlebar 11 Belt Drum Control stick 12 Belt Drum Fly-by-wire 13 Gearbox Disc Handlebar 14 Gearbox Disc Control stick 15 Gearbox Disc Fly-by-wire 16 Gearbox Drum Handlebar 17 Gearbox Drum Control stick 18 Gearbox Drum Fly-by-wire
  24. 24. Clarify Functions Generate Alternatives Analyze Iteration Will not violate laws of nature Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements Likely to satisfy company requirements Archives, People Internet, Creative methods Engineering Design Specification 1st order calculations Proof of concept tests Bench test, Pilot plant Feasible Best Concept(s) Pugh’s Method Weighted Rating Method Evaluate Activity Analysis Decomposition Diagrams Function Structures Concept Design yes no HOW DO WE DO WE “ANALYZE” CONCEPTS?
  25. 25. ANALYZING = “PREDICTING” AND “SCREENING”) (Roughly) predict / estimate each alternative’s performance  1rst order calcs. (back of the envelope)  Proof of concepts (physical principle “tests”)  Bench top/pilot plant (subassembly/system tests) Next step?
  26. 26. SCREEN ALTERNATIVES FOR FEASIBILITY  likely function (i.e.not violate laws of nature)?  likely satisfy customer requirements?  likely satisfy company requirements?
  27. 27. EVALUATING Generate Alternatives Analyze Iteration Will not violate laws of nature Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements Likely to satisfy company requirements Archives, People Internet, Creative methods Engineering Design Specification 1st order calculations Proof of concept tests Bench test, Pilot plant Feasible Best Concept(s) Pugh’s Method Weighted Rating Method Evaluate Activity Analysis Decomposition Diagrams Function Structures Concept Design yes no Clarify Functions
  28. 28. WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO “EVALUATE” FEASIBLE CONCEPT DESIGNS? best alternative concept design feasible concept designs 9 7 9 10 However: e-“valu”-ate = values? whose? “evaluate”
  29. 29. PUGH’S EVALUATION METHOD Concept Alternatives Criteria Gears V-belts Chain high efficiency + D + high reliability + A + low maintenance + T S low cost - U - light weight - M -  + 3 NA 2  - 2 NA 2  S 0 NA 1 1. Select criteria, 2. Establish datum column, 3. Rate alternatives (+, -, S) against datum 4. Select best, or better alternatives group discussion and decision
  30. 30. MODIFIED PUGH’S METHOD Concept Alternatives Criteria Importance Wt. (%) Gears V- belts Chain high efficiency 30 + D + high reliability 25 + A + low maintenance 20 + T S low cost 15 - U - light weight 10 - M - 100 + 75 NA 55  - 25 NA 25  S 0 NA 20 Add new column
  31. 31. WEIGHTED RATING EVALUATION METHOD Concept Alternatives gears v-belts chain Criteria Importance Weight (%) Rating Weighted Rating Rating Weighted Rating Rating Weighted Rating high efficiency 30 4 1.20 2 0.60 3 0.90 high reliability 25 4 1.00 3 0.75 3 0.75 low maintenance 20 4 0.80 3 0.60 2 0.40 low cost 15 2 0.30 4 0.60 3 0.45 light weight 10 2 0.20 4 0.40 3 0.30 100 NA 3.50 NA 2.95 NA 2.80 Rating Value Unsatisfactory 0 Just tolerable e 1 Adequate 2 Good 3 Very Good 4 best method
  32. 32. Generate Alternatives Clarify Functions Analyze Iteration Will not violate laws of nature Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements Likely to satisfy company requirements Archives, People Internet, Creative methods Engineering Design Specification 1st order calculations Proof of concept tests Bench test, Pilot plant Feasible Best Concept(s) Pugh’s Method Weighted Rating Method Evaluate Activity Analysis Decomposition Diagrams Function Structures yes no CONCEPT DESIGN
  33. 33. INFORMATION FLOW & STORAGE · photocopies of archival matter, · printouts from the Internet, · vendor catalogs and data sheets, · preliminary test results, · first-order calculations, · patent abstracts, · minutes of meetings, · concept sketches, · concept screening sheets · concept evaluation matrices · expert interview notes what? where ? who? when? why? Record? Manage? Protect?
  34. 34. DESIGN INFORMATION PROTECTION? Is design “information” property? Whose property is it? Can it be protected?
  35. 35. TYPES OF PROPERTY Real property – land, buildings Personal property Tangible – trucks, machines, office equip. Intangible - contracts copyrights trademarks patents trade secrets
  36. 36. CONTRACTS Def.: Written/oral agreement between two parties. Examples: Non-disclosure, confidentiality agreements
  37. 37. Def.: Exclusive right to the publication, production, or sale of the rights to a literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work. Examples: book, sheet music, software, dramas, sermons COPYRIGHTS
  38. 38. Def.: A symbol, design, word, or letter used by a manufacturer or dealer to distinguish his products from those of his competitors. Examples: IBM, GE, XEROX, COKE, Pentium TRADEMARKS
  39. 39. TRADE DRESS  Trade Dress is a distinctive, nonfunctional feature, which distinguishes a merchant's or manufacturer's goods or services from those of another. (appearance)  The trade dress of a product involves the "total image" and can include the color of the packaging, the configuration of goods, etc... Even the theme of a restaurant may be considered trade dress.  Examples include the packaging for Wonder Bread, the tray configuration for Healthy Choice frozen dinners, and the color scheme of Subway sub shops. (http://www.amerilawyer.com/trademark/tm_tradedress.htm)
  40. 40. TRADE DRESS EXAMPLES  Mc Donald’s happy meal- printed box  International House of Pancakes – blue roof  Seven-eleven – red/green store sign
  41. 41. Def.: A document granting monopoly rights to produce, use, sell or get profit from an invention, process, plant(biological) or design. Examples: Utility patent - Xerox copying, Canon Laser engine, household appliances, light bulbs, cameras. Process patent - polymers such as Lexan, Rayon, Delrin Design patent - ornamental aspects of a product such as shape, configuration, and/or any surface decoration. PATENTS
  42. 42. Def.: A method used to make a product, that is kept secret by the company manufacturing the product. Examples: Coca-Cola, Coors beer, other food recipes TRADE SECRET
  43. 43. PROTECTION SUMMARY Protects Length Application Required Registration Available Costs Trade Secret formulas, recipes, processes indefinite no no some Contract items specified length of contract no no $500> Trademark graphical symbol or word 20 yrs renewable no yes $>350 Copyright literary, musical or artistic works author’s life+70 yrs no yes $>30 Utility Patent function, process 20 yrs yes yes $>1,100 Design Patent appearance 14 yrs yes yes $500>
  44. 44. HOW WILL YOU PROTECT YOUR COMPANY’S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY?  Contract  Copyright tract  Trademark  Patent
  45. 45. SUMMARY  Clarify functional requirements Activity analysis method Function decomposition diagram method Function/structure diagram method  Generate alternatives (by finding/creating) Finding Archives, People, Internet, Existing Products Creating Brainstorming, Method 635, Synectics, Checklists  Analyzing alternative designs  Evaluate – Pugh’s, weighted rating methods  Information flow & storage  Intellectual property protection

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