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C O L I N M . G R A Y
I O WA S TA T E U N I V E R S I T Y
S T R U G G L E O V E R R E P R E S E N TAT I O N
C R I T I C A L P E D A G O G Y
I N D E S I G N E D U C A T I O N
I N T H E S T U D I O
I N T R O D U C T I O N
• Studio pedagogy is built on the apprenticeship or atelier model of
education (Cuff, 1991)
• Elements of the studio pedagogy are being incorporated into
disciplines without an established history as a design discipline 

(Brandt et al., 2011; Fallman, 2003; Winograd, 1990)
• It is vital to understand the patterns of hegemony built into the
pedagogy (Anthony, 1991; Blythman, Orr, & Blair, 2007) before it becomes
institutionalized and unquestioned, as in most art and design
disciplines (Gray, 2014; Shaffer, 2003)
C R I T I C A L P E D A G O G Y
• Broadly applied within educational research, focusing on issues of
institutionalized (and social) oppression (e.g., Darder, Baltodano,
& Torres, 2003; Freire, 1970; Giroux, 2011)
• Freire’s (1970) description of traditional education as operating on
the “banking” model, calling for a shift to “problem-posing” which
affirms all individuals in the process of becoming
• Accounts for power relations and norms communicated through the
hidden curriculum (Freire, 1970)
C R I T I C A L [ D E S I G N ] P E D A G O G Y ?
• The studio model extends back into 18th century Europe (Cuff,
1991), and significant evidence of patriarchy and institutionalized
oppression has been documented in this model of education (e.g.,
Anthony, 1991; Koch, 2002; Willenbrock, 1991)
• Common themes include socialization into design (Webster, 2008),
harshness of critique (Anthony, 1991; Webster, 2006), and the
often oppressive hidden curriculum of the studio (Dutton, 1991)
Critical framings of pedagogy have been rare in art 

and design education, & have not been documented 

in emergent design disciplines
C L A S S R O O M S T U D I O
V YA S & N I J H O LT, 2 0 1 2 , P. 1 7 6
“Studio surfaces are not just the carriers of
information but importantly they are sites of
methodic design practices, i.e. they indicate, to an
extent, how design is being carried out.”
R E P R E S E N TAT I O N
OF IDENTITY OF PROCESS
R E P R E S E N TAT I O N
OF IDENTITY OF PROCESS
How am I able to
represent my
design work in a
public way
How am I able to
perform my
identity as a 

proto-professional
T W O D I S C O U R S E S O F D E S I G N
A C A S E
D ATA S O U R C E S
PRIMARY
• Participant Observation
• Photos, Audio, Video
• Critical Interview
SECONDARY
• Artifact Analysis
P R O T O -
P R O F E S S I O N A L
D I S C O U R S E
• Transience of physical
design processes
P R O T O -
P R O F E S S I O N A L
D I S C O U R S E
• Transience of physical
design processes
• Tensions over marking the
space v. “showing off”
P R O T O -
P R O F E S S I O N A L
D I S C O U R S E
• Transience of physical
design processes
• Tensions over marking the
space v. “showing off”
• Rhythms of representation
that paralleled class
projects
• Prioritization of completed
artifacts over process
• Reification of capstone
poster as the students’
“best work”
FA C U LT Y /
A C A D E M I C
D I S C O U R S E
FA C U LT Y /
A C A D E M I C
D I S C O U R S E
• Prioritization of completed
artifacts over process
• Reification of capstone
poster as the students’
“best work”
• Tension between physical
prototyping and keeping a
“clean” space
L E G I T I M AT I N G A R E P R E S E N TAT I O N
S T U D I O T R A N S F O R M A T I O N
M A R G I N A L I Z I N G A R E P R E S E N TAT I O N
S T U D I O T R A N S F O R M A T I O N
P R O C E S S V. F I N A L P R O D U C T
W H AT D O E S T H I S C A S E
T E L L U S A B O U T T H E 

S T R U G G L E F O R
R E P R E S E N TAT I O N ?
D I S C U S S I O N
S T U D E N T S T R I E D T O L E AV E T H E I R M A R K , E V E N 

W H E N T H E O D D S W E R E N O T I N T H E I R FAV O R
S T U D E N T S O R I E N T E D T O WA R D S P R A C T I C E , W H I L E
A C A D E M I A T E N D E D T O G H E T T O I Z E T H E I R W O R K
Hegemony of media and format quite clearly
communicates to students what a faculty 

member or program at large values 

(e.g., Dineen & Collins, 2005)

The value of specific forms of 

representation were not shared, but 

rather a point of contention
C O L I N G R AY. M E
T H A N K Y O U

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Struggle Over Representation in the Studio: Critical Pedagogy in Design Education

  • 1. C O L I N M . G R A Y I O WA S TA T E U N I V E R S I T Y S T R U G G L E O V E R R E P R E S E N TAT I O N C R I T I C A L P E D A G O G Y I N D E S I G N E D U C A T I O N I N T H E S T U D I O
  • 2. I N T R O D U C T I O N • Studio pedagogy is built on the apprenticeship or atelier model of education (Cuff, 1991) • Elements of the studio pedagogy are being incorporated into disciplines without an established history as a design discipline 
 (Brandt et al., 2011; Fallman, 2003; Winograd, 1990) • It is vital to understand the patterns of hegemony built into the pedagogy (Anthony, 1991; Blythman, Orr, & Blair, 2007) before it becomes institutionalized and unquestioned, as in most art and design disciplines (Gray, 2014; Shaffer, 2003)
  • 3. C R I T I C A L P E D A G O G Y • Broadly applied within educational research, focusing on issues of institutionalized (and social) oppression (e.g., Darder, Baltodano, & Torres, 2003; Freire, 1970; Giroux, 2011) • Freire’s (1970) description of traditional education as operating on the “banking” model, calling for a shift to “problem-posing” which affirms all individuals in the process of becoming • Accounts for power relations and norms communicated through the hidden curriculum (Freire, 1970)
  • 4. C R I T I C A L [ D E S I G N ] P E D A G O G Y ? • The studio model extends back into 18th century Europe (Cuff, 1991), and significant evidence of patriarchy and institutionalized oppression has been documented in this model of education (e.g., Anthony, 1991; Koch, 2002; Willenbrock, 1991) • Common themes include socialization into design (Webster, 2008), harshness of critique (Anthony, 1991; Webster, 2006), and the often oppressive hidden curriculum of the studio (Dutton, 1991) Critical framings of pedagogy have been rare in art 
 and design education, & have not been documented 
 in emergent design disciplines
  • 5. C L A S S R O O M S T U D I O
  • 6.
  • 7. V YA S & N I J H O LT, 2 0 1 2 , P. 1 7 6 “Studio surfaces are not just the carriers of information but importantly they are sites of methodic design practices, i.e. they indicate, to an extent, how design is being carried out.”
  • 8. R E P R E S E N TAT I O N OF IDENTITY OF PROCESS
  • 9. R E P R E S E N TAT I O N OF IDENTITY OF PROCESS How am I able to represent my design work in a public way How am I able to perform my identity as a 
 proto-professional
  • 10. T W O D I S C O U R S E S O F D E S I G N A C A S E
  • 11. D ATA S O U R C E S PRIMARY • Participant Observation • Photos, Audio, Video • Critical Interview SECONDARY • Artifact Analysis
  • 12. P R O T O - P R O F E S S I O N A L D I S C O U R S E • Transience of physical design processes
  • 13. P R O T O - P R O F E S S I O N A L D I S C O U R S E • Transience of physical design processes • Tensions over marking the space v. “showing off”
  • 14. P R O T O - P R O F E S S I O N A L D I S C O U R S E • Transience of physical design processes • Tensions over marking the space v. “showing off” • Rhythms of representation that paralleled class projects
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. • Prioritization of completed artifacts over process • Reification of capstone poster as the students’ “best work” FA C U LT Y / A C A D E M I C D I S C O U R S E
  • 18. FA C U LT Y / A C A D E M I C D I S C O U R S E • Prioritization of completed artifacts over process • Reification of capstone poster as the students’ “best work” • Tension between physical prototyping and keeping a “clean” space
  • 19. L E G I T I M AT I N G A R E P R E S E N TAT I O N S T U D I O T R A N S F O R M A T I O N
  • 20. M A R G I N A L I Z I N G A R E P R E S E N TAT I O N S T U D I O T R A N S F O R M A T I O N
  • 21. P R O C E S S V. F I N A L P R O D U C T
  • 22.
  • 23. W H AT D O E S T H I S C A S E T E L L U S A B O U T T H E 
 S T R U G G L E F O R R E P R E S E N TAT I O N ?
  • 24. D I S C U S S I O N S T U D E N T S T R I E D T O L E AV E T H E I R M A R K , E V E N 
 W H E N T H E O D D S W E R E N O T I N T H E I R FAV O R S T U D E N T S O R I E N T E D T O WA R D S P R A C T I C E , W H I L E A C A D E M I A T E N D E D T O G H E T T O I Z E T H E I R W O R K
  • 25. Hegemony of media and format quite clearly communicates to students what a faculty 
 member or program at large values 
 (e.g., Dineen & Collins, 2005)
 The value of specific forms of 
 representation were not shared, but 
 rather a point of contention
  • 26. C O L I N G R AY. M E T H A N K Y O U