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Expectations of
Reciprocity?
An Analysis of Critique in Facebook 

Posts by Student Designers

Colin M. Gray & Craig D. Howard
November 28, 2013
INTRODUCTION
How is informal critique being enacted
outside of the formal pedagogy and how
digital tools can enable this form of critique
Understanding the pedagogy as experienced
and constructed by students
Exploring these questions through a set of
student-created Facebook groups
RELEVANT
LITERATURE
Informal critique 





(Bowring; Conanan & Pinkard; Gray; Xu & Bailey)

Hidden curriculum and critical pedagogy
(Freire; Dutton)

Theories of computer-mediated
communication

(Herring; Walther)
CONTEXT
Student-created set of Facebook groups
Within a Human-Computer Interaction
design Master’s program at a large
Midwestern US university
POSTS

1206

All
Years

1269

Current
Years

2012
Cohort
2013
Cohort
2014
Cohort

475

655

953
COMMENTS

4165

All
Years

3771

Current
Years

2012
Cohort
2013
Cohort
2014
Cohort

966

2501

3870
2012
Cohort

All
Years
Current
Years

2013
Cohort
2014
Cohort

4,558 Status Updates
15,273 Comments
QUESTIONS
1. To which Facebook groups do learners
address their requests for critique?
2. Is there a relationship between the
comments given to peer critiques and to
the comments one’s receives?
INITIAL CODES
•
•
•
•

addressing new technologies explicitly (e.g., motion control)

professional development

relating to projects outside coursework  (e.g., portfolio sites)

idea-related discussions (e.g., what is HCI; role of intuition or
ethics)


• recommending/posting a resource or interaction design
exemplar


• dealing with selecting courses

• relating to other forms of talk that have a critique component

• referencing critique about public events (e.g., HCI Connect)
INITIAL CODES
•
•
•
•

addressing new technologies explicitly (e.g., motion control)

professional development

relating to projects outside coursework  (e.g., portfolio sites)

idea-related discussions (e.g., what is HCI; role of intuition or
ethics)


• recommending/posting a resource or interaction design
exemplar


• dealing with selecting courses

• relating to other forms of talk that have a critique component

• referencing critique about public events (e.g., HCI Connect)
2012
Cohort

All
Years
Current
Years

2013
Cohort
2014
Cohort

“feedback” | “look at” | “portfolio” | “critique”
=
204 Status Updates
INCLUSION CRITERIA
1. Does it directly ask for critique/suggestions/
feedback or help?
2. Does it link to, or reference, a concrete designed
artifact or idea created by the poster?
3. If it references a non-digital critique, does it
include requests for getting together with the
explicit goal of feedback in person, or organizing
such an activity around a distinct artifact or
genre of artifacts (e.g., cover letters)?
# of Critique
Threads

Group Name

Average # of
comments (SD)

Current years

28

7.5357 (5.7909)

All years

26

7.1538 (4.4609)

2012 cohort

8

3.8750 (3.9824)

2013 cohort

3

3.3333 (2.4944)

2014 cohort

9

7.4444 (5.1232)

TOTAL

74

6.8243 (5.1527)
Averaged Discourse
Characteristics

Critique
Threads, 

n=74, (SD)

Entire Corpus,
n=4558, (SD)

Length of status
update in words

50.9324
(37.0122)

31.1404 

(48.0496)

Length of comments
in words

34.7515
(59.4333)

19.3485 

(30.5103)

Number of
interlocutors

3.8649
(2.2799)

2.2251 

(2.7920)

Total number of words
in thread

234.3378
(253.6336)

64.8333 

(165.7053)

Character length 

of words

4.2632
(0.4202)

3.9528 

(1.1682)
36

74 Posts
Requesting
Critique

(158)

383
RECIPROCITY
I could really use some critique on mine, but
rather than just ask for it like a freeloader I'll
make you a deal: If you give a critique of
mine and post your link, I will give you a
critique in return.

All Years, status update

22 January, 2013

All Years, status update

20 January, 2013

Happy to receive any feedback you guys
might have; let me know if there's
something of yours I can look at as well!

My portfolio is up, and I am jumping on the
"you critique mine ill crique your's [sic]" boat.

All Years, status update

22 January, 2013
participation
=
coefficient

# comments/thread
# comments posted on other threads
participation
=
coefficient

# comments/thread
# comments posted on other threads

Average	
  Comments/Initiated	
  Critique	
  Thread
participation
=
coefficient

# comments/thread
# comments posted on other threads

Pearson’s r = -.233

Average	
  Comments/Initiated	
  Critique	
  Thread
74 Posts
Requesting
Critique

<10 posts are requests 

for class projects
74 Posts
Requesting
Critique

<10 posts are requests 

for class projects
primarily critique of 

professional development 

materials
INSTIGATION
2014 Cohort, 

11 December 2012

i would love more feedback

All Years,

7 November 2011

I really need some hard critique and bugs
pointed out. Any feedback would be
appreciated.

Can anyone of you please check if you can
access my portfolio URL

2014 Cohort,

6 March 2013

2014 Cohort, 

22 January 2013

I am open to any kind of comments 

or critique.
PHYSICAL LOCATIONS
Anybody around tonight
and available to critique a
cover letter?

2012 Cohort,

1 February 2012

Anybody free to quickly
give feedback on a few
ideas I have for my poster
image? I'm wanting to get
it finished and printed
today...
2012 Cohort, 

23 April 2012
IMPOSITION OF
STRUCTURE
This is still a work in
progress, but I'm ready for
some critiques. Please
say a) something nice, b)
something not nice (but in
a nice way), and c) a
suggestion for
improvement. 1-2-3 go!
All Years,

10 January 2012

the following is a link to
our in-progress [project
name] document. If
anybody would like to
read through it and give
us feedback, that would
be awesome. Even if all
you can do is quickly skim
it and give us one
meaningful response.
2012 Cohort, 

18 February 2011
IMPOSITION OF
STRUCTURE
Finally worked out some bugs on the
portfolio and I would appreciate any
thoughts or critiques on it. If it takes a long
time to load, let me know, I'm considering
backing off on the one page experience if
load time is an issue.

All Years,

10 January 2012
OTHER LOCATIONS
I've posted the questions on a google doc
for you to edit and make changes and
suggestions. I'm getting started next week
but will continue to adjust my approach
throughout the project, so feel free to
contribute anytime. I know everyone is very
busy but any feedback is greatly
appreciated.

2012 Cohort, 

3 June 2011
Balanced	
  Participant

“Expert”	
  Participant

“Freeloader”	
  
	
  	
  Participant

Average	
  Comments/Initiated	
  Critique	
  Thread
FREELOADER
Requested feedback and received 15
responses, but never commented on other
student requests
!

My portfolio is up, and I am jumping on the
"you critique mine ill crique your's [sic]" boat.

All Years, status update

22 January, 2013

!

Unclear whether participation in critique
occurred in other spaces
EXPERT/AUTHORITY
Frequent commented on other student
requests for critique
Low critique on their own work (avg. of 2.5
comments per request)
Disparity could suggest that other students
view this individual as an authority, possibly
making them more difficult to critique
BALANCED
One of relatively few female (n=10) and
international (n=11) students participating in
critique
Started 4 threads (receiving an avg. of 4
comments) and contributed 36 comments
on others’ threads
Most balanced, but appears to be an outlier
CONCLUSIONS
Learners changed modes and discussed differently
when engaged in critical discourse about design
despite the “social” nature of the media
Reciprocity did not appear to play a role in these
critiques
Profiles of different types of participation emerged
from the participation coefficient
Critique happened around professional concerns, not
program concerns
LIMITATIONS
Descriptive, and doesn’t explain why
reciprocity does not occur in the virtual
space
Doesn’t address critique in other physical or
virtual environments
Limited to the socialization and pedagogical
particulars of a specific academic program
FUTURE RESEARCH
Importance of understanding the felt
experience of a design pedagogy
Understanding the hidden curriculum,
including how formal and informal
components impact learning
How are virtual spaces conceived, 

created, and sustained over time?
QUESTIONS?

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Expectations of Reciprocity? An Analysis of Critique in Facebook Posts by Student Designers

  • 1. Expectations of Reciprocity? An Analysis of Critique in Facebook 
 Posts by Student Designers Colin M. Gray & Craig D. Howard November 28, 2013
  • 2. INTRODUCTION How is informal critique being enacted outside of the formal pedagogy and how digital tools can enable this form of critique Understanding the pedagogy as experienced and constructed by students Exploring these questions through a set of student-created Facebook groups
  • 3. RELEVANT LITERATURE Informal critique 
 (Bowring; Conanan & Pinkard; Gray; Xu & Bailey) Hidden curriculum and critical pedagogy (Freire; Dutton) Theories of computer-mediated communication
 (Herring; Walther)
  • 4. CONTEXT Student-created set of Facebook groups Within a Human-Computer Interaction design Master’s program at a large Midwestern US university
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. QUESTIONS 1. To which Facebook groups do learners address their requests for critique? 2. Is there a relationship between the comments given to peer critiques and to the comments one’s receives?
  • 11. INITIAL CODES • • • • addressing new technologies explicitly (e.g., motion control) professional development relating to projects outside coursework  (e.g., portfolio sites) idea-related discussions (e.g., what is HCI; role of intuition or ethics) • recommending/posting a resource or interaction design exemplar • dealing with selecting courses • relating to other forms of talk that have a critique component • referencing critique about public events (e.g., HCI Connect)
  • 12. INITIAL CODES • • • • addressing new technologies explicitly (e.g., motion control) professional development relating to projects outside coursework  (e.g., portfolio sites) idea-related discussions (e.g., what is HCI; role of intuition or ethics) • recommending/posting a resource or interaction design exemplar • dealing with selecting courses • relating to other forms of talk that have a critique component • referencing critique about public events (e.g., HCI Connect)
  • 13. 2012 Cohort All Years Current Years 2013 Cohort 2014 Cohort “feedback” | “look at” | “portfolio” | “critique” = 204 Status Updates
  • 14. INCLUSION CRITERIA 1. Does it directly ask for critique/suggestions/ feedback or help? 2. Does it link to, or reference, a concrete designed artifact or idea created by the poster? 3. If it references a non-digital critique, does it include requests for getting together with the explicit goal of feedback in person, or organizing such an activity around a distinct artifact or genre of artifacts (e.g., cover letters)?
  • 15. # of Critique Threads Group Name Average # of comments (SD) Current years 28 7.5357 (5.7909) All years 26 7.1538 (4.4609) 2012 cohort 8 3.8750 (3.9824) 2013 cohort 3 3.3333 (2.4944) 2014 cohort 9 7.4444 (5.1232) TOTAL 74 6.8243 (5.1527)
  • 16. Averaged Discourse Characteristics Critique Threads, 
 n=74, (SD) Entire Corpus, n=4558, (SD) Length of status update in words 50.9324 (37.0122) 31.1404 
 (48.0496) Length of comments in words 34.7515 (59.4333) 19.3485 
 (30.5103) Number of interlocutors 3.8649 (2.2799) 2.2251 
 (2.7920) Total number of words in thread 234.3378 (253.6336) 64.8333 
 (165.7053) Character length 
 of words 4.2632 (0.4202) 3.9528 
 (1.1682)
  • 18. RECIPROCITY I could really use some critique on mine, but rather than just ask for it like a freeloader I'll make you a deal: If you give a critique of mine and post your link, I will give you a critique in return. All Years, status update
 22 January, 2013 All Years, status update
 20 January, 2013 Happy to receive any feedback you guys might have; let me know if there's something of yours I can look at as well! My portfolio is up, and I am jumping on the "you critique mine ill crique your's [sic]" boat. All Years, status update
 22 January, 2013
  • 20. participation = coefficient # comments/thread # comments posted on other threads Average  Comments/Initiated  Critique  Thread
  • 21. participation = coefficient # comments/thread # comments posted on other threads Pearson’s r = -.233 Average  Comments/Initiated  Critique  Thread
  • 22. 74 Posts Requesting Critique <10 posts are requests 
 for class projects
  • 23. 74 Posts Requesting Critique <10 posts are requests 
 for class projects primarily critique of 
 professional development 
 materials
  • 24. INSTIGATION 2014 Cohort, 
 11 December 2012 i would love more feedback All Years,
 7 November 2011 I really need some hard critique and bugs pointed out. Any feedback would be appreciated. Can anyone of you please check if you can access my portfolio URL 2014 Cohort,
 6 March 2013 2014 Cohort, 
 22 January 2013 I am open to any kind of comments 
 or critique.
  • 25. PHYSICAL LOCATIONS Anybody around tonight and available to critique a cover letter? 2012 Cohort,
 1 February 2012 Anybody free to quickly give feedback on a few ideas I have for my poster image? I'm wanting to get it finished and printed today... 2012 Cohort, 
 23 April 2012
  • 26. IMPOSITION OF STRUCTURE This is still a work in progress, but I'm ready for some critiques. Please say a) something nice, b) something not nice (but in a nice way), and c) a suggestion for improvement. 1-2-3 go! All Years,
 10 January 2012 the following is a link to our in-progress [project name] document. If anybody would like to read through it and give us feedback, that would be awesome. Even if all you can do is quickly skim it and give us one meaningful response. 2012 Cohort, 
 18 February 2011
  • 27. IMPOSITION OF STRUCTURE Finally worked out some bugs on the portfolio and I would appreciate any thoughts or critiques on it. If it takes a long time to load, let me know, I'm considering backing off on the one page experience if load time is an issue. All Years,
 10 January 2012
  • 28. OTHER LOCATIONS I've posted the questions on a google doc for you to edit and make changes and suggestions. I'm getting started next week but will continue to adjust my approach throughout the project, so feel free to contribute anytime. I know everyone is very busy but any feedback is greatly appreciated. 2012 Cohort, 
 3 June 2011
  • 29. Balanced  Participant “Expert”  Participant “Freeloader”      Participant Average  Comments/Initiated  Critique  Thread
  • 30. FREELOADER Requested feedback and received 15 responses, but never commented on other student requests ! My portfolio is up, and I am jumping on the "you critique mine ill crique your's [sic]" boat. All Years, status update
 22 January, 2013 ! Unclear whether participation in critique occurred in other spaces
  • 31. EXPERT/AUTHORITY Frequent commented on other student requests for critique Low critique on their own work (avg. of 2.5 comments per request) Disparity could suggest that other students view this individual as an authority, possibly making them more difficult to critique
  • 32. BALANCED One of relatively few female (n=10) and international (n=11) students participating in critique Started 4 threads (receiving an avg. of 4 comments) and contributed 36 comments on others’ threads Most balanced, but appears to be an outlier
  • 33. CONCLUSIONS Learners changed modes and discussed differently when engaged in critical discourse about design despite the “social” nature of the media Reciprocity did not appear to play a role in these critiques Profiles of different types of participation emerged from the participation coefficient Critique happened around professional concerns, not program concerns
  • 34. LIMITATIONS Descriptive, and doesn’t explain why reciprocity does not occur in the virtual space Doesn’t address critique in other physical or virtual environments Limited to the socialization and pedagogical particulars of a specific academic program
  • 35. FUTURE RESEARCH Importance of understanding the felt experience of a design pedagogy Understanding the hidden curriculum, including how formal and informal components impact learning How are virtual spaces conceived, 
 created, and sustained over time?