Design Theory - Lecture 03: Design as Learning / Methods & Tools


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Design Theory - Lecture 03: Design as Learning / Methods & Tools

  1. 1. Design Theory Lecture 03: Design as Learning / Methods & Tools Communication & Multimedia Design Bas Leurs ( March, 2014
  2. 2. what we discussed two weeks ago...
  3. 3. Today’s programme Design as learning Methods & Tools
  4. 4. design as learning
  5. 5. Learning is interpreting and understanding reality in a different way. Learning is making sense or abstracting meaning. Learning is the acquisition of knowledge (or skills) through experience, practice or study.
  6. 6. We will discuss three types of learning: • Experiential Learning Cycle (Kolb) • Reflection-in-action / Reflection-on-Action (Schön) • Single-Loop Learning / Double-Loop Learning (Argyris & Schön) and... • Sensemaking (Weick)
  7. 7. Doing Understanding the phenomena, drawing conclusions What does it mean? Doing an intervention What do I feel see, hear, taste, smell etc.? Experiencing a phenomena Thinking Reviewing Feeling Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory Kolb (1984)
  8. 8. For Schön designing is not primarily a form of problem solving, information processing or search, but a ‘reflective dialogue’ between the designer and the materials of the situation he/she is in. Herbert Simon (1995) Donald Schön Reflection-in-action
  9. 9. After the experience a practitioner analyses their reaction to the situation and explores the reasons around, and the consequences of, their actions. Reflection-in-action can be described as to ‘think on their feet’, otherwise known as ‘felt-knowing’. It revolves around the idea that within any given moment, when faced with a professional issue, a practitioner usually connects with their feelings, emotions and prior experiences to attend to the situation directly. Reflection in Action Reflection on Action During the project (while designing) After the project (after designing) Reflection-in-action vs Reflection-on-action
  10. 10. the belief systems and values which the individual or organisation is trying to maintain The moves and plans used by people to keep their governing values within the acceptable range In 'single loop' learning an individual (or organisation) becomes increasingly more knowledgable Single loop learning is useful when you want to make a process more efficient and external elements remain fairly constant and predictable. 'Double loop' learning occurs where there is a paradigm shift in understanding. The people involved start to think on a different level i.e. they start to question the questions that are being asked or the assumptions behind them. This can start to open up new questions for exploration. Argyris & Schön (1974) Single and Double Loop Learning
  11. 11. design is sensemaking
  12. 12. paper over interviews hoe doe je een interview: vragen stellen Do you need to complete the puzzle to know what it is about?
  13. 13. paper over interviews hoe doe je een interview: vragen stellen Bounded rationality See Simon (1991) and Selten (1999) You always design with the knowledge that is available Design projects are always restricted by time. Therefore you will never find all the answers that you need. However you don’t always need to finish the whole jigsaw puzzle to form a mental picture about its theme or final state.
  14. 14. Sensemaking Sensemaking is about people understanding what happens around them (Kolko, 2010) “structuring the unknown” (Waterman, 1987) “attributing meaning to surprises” (Louis, 1980) “Sensemaking is the process of fitting data into a frame, and fitting a frame around the data.” (Sieck et al, 2007) Sensemaking is about attributing meaning to discontinuities or discrepancies in between mental representations and the real world.
  15. 15. forming predictions assumptions and anticipations experiencing a discrepancy between predictions and actual experience a need to explain the discrepancy Consciously or Unconsciously attributing meaning to the surprise revising assumptions Based on Louis (1980) “Sensemaking is attributing meaning to surprise” SURPRISE Discontinuity in activity
  16. 16. how to become an avalanche expert (the quickest way)
  17. 17. Expert stories 18 minutes 90% chance of survival 35 minutes 30% chance of survival, death is due to suffocation 90 minutes 20% chance of survival, people die because of hypothermia 130 minutes 3% chance of survival 25 minutes Prins Friso
  18. 18. Expert stories Basic backcountry safety gear Avalanche transceiver (Beeper) Probe Shovel Airbag
  19. 19. Get as much ‘real life’ experience as possible!!! Using products Interviewing people Watching product demos Observing product use
  20. 20. Expert stories geholpen!worden.!De!meeste!van!de zijn.! ! Professionele$hulp$komt$voor$de$meeste$lawineslachtoffers$te$laat.$Foto$Menno$Boermans,$Gasenried$$ Listening to stories Interviewing experts Observing the audience
  21. 21. Our moment of surprise: Snow in an avalanche may contain rocks and ice. You’re exhausted after two minutes of intense shoveling
  22. 22. Model of what ‘is’ What ‘is’ Model of what ‘could be’ What ‘could be’
  23. 23. Design is making sense out of nonsense
  24. 24. learning – and thus designing – is questioning
  25. 25. How many designers does it take to change a lightbulb? Warren Berger (2009)
  26. 26. Why does it have to be a lightbulb? Warren Berger (2009)
  27. 27. It takes one designer to change the lightbulb ... and a second designer to tell the other how to do it better. Charlie Mulholland another feasible answer...
  28. 28. why?
  29. 29. why,why,why...
  30. 30. Check out his Ted Talk... it’s anexcellent summary of his Simon Sinek (2011) the golden circle
  31. 31. Why do designers ask so often... “Why?” Because the why question reveals the structure of a system, it helps designers to identify cause and effect relations. “Question asking is a fundamental cognitive mechanism in design thinking” (Eris, 2003)
  32. 32. design methods & tools
  33. 33. Can you put the word ‘design thinker’ on LinkedIn profile if you’re not able to make a drawing?
  34. 34. design thinking is not enough, you also need to do design acting... make things (sketches, prototypes) See Jon Kolko on:
  35. 35. Methodology  The system of methods followed in a particular discipline.  Method A procedure or routine for accomplishing something Technique A way of carrying out a particular task. Tools An instrument used in the performance of an operation French cuisine A recipe Chopping Knife Participatory design Context mapping Generative techniques Video camera
  36. 36. Discover Research Specify Inspire Ideate Define Direction Concept Embodiment Create Design Envision Develop Deliver Prototype Articulate research methods context mapping ideation technique brainstorming visualisation technique sketches prototyping tools arduino evaluation methods usability testing
  37. 37. What is the role of methods in design? To relieve a designer from time-consuming and difficult tasks with a systematic and structured approach. This is especially the case when the purpose is straightforward production of already designed functions or systems. Design work is always carried out in a social context. The method can serve as a common ground for more successful communication between the stakeholders in a design process. Lonas Löwgren & Erik Stolterman (1999) Canale (2007) “Methods as learning tools”
  38. 38. prototyping
  39. 39. We define a prototype as any representation of a design idea — regardless of medium Houde & Hill (1997) Cognitive Prototype
  40. 40. Yet, we know that failure is often a powerful way to learn. Within our work culture at IDEO we have found that prototypes help to create a “safe space” for failure and therefore free people up to make discoveries and to learn more quickly. Coughlan, Suri, Canales (2007) “Prototypes are learning tools”
  41. 41. knowing through making Maarit Mäkelä (2007)
  42. 42. High Fidelity Low Fidelity Crude sketches Few visual details, mimicked behaviour Working Beta version Very detailed visuals. Fully functional product. Wireframes, paperprototyping, Wizard of Oz 1 hour to a few days a few seconds to 10 minutes a few days to a few weeks (or even months) Not many skills required (sketching) Good skills of programming required
  43. 43. High Fidelity Low Fidelity Crude sketches Few visual details, mimicked behaviour Working Beta version Very detailed visuals. Fully functional product. 1 hour to a few days a few seconds to 10 minutes a few days to a few weeks (or even months) Not many skills required (sketching) Good skills of programming required Flash Catalyst Sketches Flash Arduino Max / MSP Role playing Enactment Dreamweaver Powerpoint Wireframes Wizard of Oz Stop motion Axure Java C# VVVV
  44. 44. Our moment of surprise: Snow in an avalanche may contain rocks and ice. You’re exhausted after two minutes of intense shoveling
  45. 45. Making prototypes (visualize the future) Discussing Using prototypes Critiquing
  46. 46. knowing through making Some rough clay model sketches.
  47. 47. #CADModel Apart from the functional prototype of the Orto- vox Lynx, we decided to make a digital 3D-model to be able to quickly simulate and visualize the decisions we make. Also for measurements the 3D- models can be very useful (Figure A). The handle and the lower grip-rings have some more organic shapes (Figure B), which are dif- accuracy by milling foam. The milling was done by computer fully based on the CAD-model (see Figure C). This way we could test whether the CAD-model was accurate. For example we tested the handle on its ergo- nomics and aesthetics (Figure D). This way some adjustments were made in the CAD-model. In the are milled the same way, but out of PVC see #Low- ergripFinishing and #HandleFinishing. With the CAD-model renders could be made, with approximations of the colours and materials (see Figure E). As close as the CAD-model is to functional level. The technical drawings were also made based on the CAD-model. C Figure A Figure B Figure C Figure D 47,12 13,12° 6 5 4 172,33 24,71 212,60 1 3 2 792,74 229,96 278,70 104,71143,08 179,55 1 Handle subassembly 2 3 Locking mechanism 4 Blade 5 Ring 6 Lower Shaft Upper Shaft 1 1 1 2 1 1 Rubber - Lexan Al 6061 T6 Lexan Al 6061 T6 Stainless Steel Al 6061 T6 Some renderings of the final product, foam models and technical drawings. Drawings Prototypes
  48. 48. Final prototype Prototypes
  49. 49. * Beast Saw is missing in this overview
  50. 50. sketching (drawing)
  51. 51. their form and function, their dimensions and appearance, were determined by technologists-craftsmen, designers, in- ventors, and engineers-using non- scientific modes of thought. Carving knives, comfortable chairs, lighting fix- tures, and motorcycles are as they are because over the years their designers and makers have established shape, style, and texture. Many features and qualities of the ob- jects that a technologist thinks about cannot be reduced to unambiguous ver- bal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process. His mind's eye is a well-developed organ that not only reviews the contents of his visual memory but also forms such new or modified images as his thoughts re- quire. As he thinks about a machine, rea- soning his way through successive steps in a dynamic process, he can turn it over in his mind. The designer and the in- material surroundings for, in their innu- merable choices and decisions, tech- nologists have determined the kind of world we live in, in a physical sense. Pyramids, cathedrals, and rockets exist not because ofgeometry, theory of struc- tures, or thermodynamics, but because they were first a picture-literally a vi- sion-in the minds of those who built them (1). This article attempts to clarify the na- ture and significance of nonverbal thought. It traces the development of nonverbal thought as practiced by tech- nologists since the Renaissance, points to the many drawings and pictures that have both recorded and stimulated tech- nological developments, and reviews the graphic inventions, such as pictorial per- spective, that have lent system and clari- ty to nonverbal thinking. A concluding section considers changing attitudes to- ward the nonverbal component of tech- nology as they have been reflected in en- gineering curricula and suggests some ef- fects of such changes upon the nature of our technology. sweep of a suspension brid ample, is much more than an geometry. The distinctive three great suspension brid York-the Brooklyn, Georg ton, and Verazzano Narro more strongly the conceptua their designers and the tim construction than they do t requirements of their respe Different builders of large po use many common elemen designs, but certain charact internal "style" distinguish of one maker from those of a opportunities for a designer his particular way of nonverb upon a machine or a structur ly innumerable. This open- cess can be seen in the desig iar, compact machine such as gine. The designer of a diesel technologist who must cont his intuitive sense of rightn ness. What will be the shape bustion chamber? Can I use The author is professor of history at the Uni- versity ofDelaware and curtor oftechnology ofthe Hagley Museum, Greenville, Delaware 19807. 26 AUGUST 1977 The Nature of Design he Mind's Eye: Nonverbal -Thought in Technology h pictures" is an essential strand in the history oftechnological development. Eugene S. Ferguson e too readily assumes ledge may be incor- ifacts of technology rom science. This as- modem folklore that nscientific decisions, all, made by tech- sign the world we in- ts of daily use have nced by science, but ion, their dimensions were determined by tsmen, designers, in- gineers-using non- of thought. Carving ventor, who bring elements together in new combinations, are each able to as- semble and manipulate in their minds de- vices that as yet do not exist. If we are to understand the devel- opment of Western technology, we must appreciate this important, if unnoticed, mode of thought. It has been nonverbal thinking, by and large, that has fixed the outlines and filled in the details of our material surroundings for, in their innu- merable choices and decisions, tech- nologists have determined the kind of world we live in, in a physical sense. Pyramids, cathedrals, and rockets exist There may well be only one acceptable arrangement or configuration of a com- plex technological device, such as a mo- torcycle, but that arrangement is neither self-evident nor scientifically predict- able. The early designers of motorcycles could not ask science to tell them where to put engine, battery, fuel tank, and spark coil; they had to make their choices on other grounds (see cover). In time, wrong choices would be revealed, but not by scientific analysis. Making wrong choices is the same kind of game as making right choices; there is often no a priori reason to do one thing rather than another, particularly if neither had been done before. No bell rings when the optimum design comes to mind. Nor has the plight of designers changed funda- mentally in the 20th century. They must still weigh the imponderable and sound the unfathomable. All of our technology has a significant intellectual component that is both nonscientific and nonliterary. The creative shaping process ofa tech- nologist's mind can be seen in nearly every man-made object that exists. The sweep of a suspension bridge, for ex- ample, is much more than an exercise in geometry. The distinctive features of three great suspension bridges in New York-the Brooklyn, George Washing- Ferguson (1977) The mind’s eye
  52. 52. Zafer Bilda, John S. Gero and Terry Purcell (2006) Sketching is a dialogue Sketching helps for ‘seeing it (the design) as parts and seeing it as a whole’ Sketching captures the moment and stores it Sketching is for externalizing a mental image Sketching is like a language, learn to use it Purpose of Sketching
  53. 53. Designing without drawings Ferguson (1992) Idea Thing by craftsman Idea ThingDrawing by engineer / designer by worker Also referred to as ‘indirect design’ (Doblin, 1987/2002) Designing with drawings F.C.A. UX Designer “Coder”
  54. 54. The prescriptive/storing sketch Refers to the designers communicating design decisions to persons that are outside of the design process Eugene Ferguson (1992) Three kinds of sketches The thinking sketch Thinking sketches refer to the designers making use of the drawing surface in support of their individual thinking processes. It is to focus and to guide nonverbal thinking. The talking sketch Refers to designers making use of the (shared) drawing surface in support of the group discussion Thinking Talking Storing Manufacturer / Programmer Designer Design team Rough / Crude Refined / Detailed
  55. 55. storytelling
  56. 56. Stories are vehicles of experiences and values.
  57. 57. Scenario
  58. 58. Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer, Stella Boess anf Christelle Harkema (2011)
  59. 59. the studio environment as a tool...
  60. 60. Who likes to work in this studio?
  61. 61. UNITiD
  62. 62. what do you usually do with your research data?
  63. 63. Computers and servers are excellent devices to store knowledge on. However, retreiving the knowledge might take some (or too much) effort. For example... in order to share your insights with your teammates during a meeting you have to switch on your computer, open the document or a webbrowser, navigate to the specific page. The problem with storing knowledge on a computer
  64. 64. Capture Cards Parts of this image are intentionally blurred or obscured “War room style” (See Kolko 2010)
  65. 65. Designers surround themselves with inspiration. Walls are used to store idea’s, sketches, inspiration etc and are used during brainstorming or discussions.
  66. 66. The situation
  67. 67. "We have become the owners of this space, it feels it is ours, this is where I feel comfortable."
  68. 68. "It was nice to have your own place, that is always the same. You would find your stuff in the same position as you left it the day before."; “You stay immersed in the project”
  69. 69. "It helps us to look back to all the ideas we came up with. Some of these ideas turned out to be more valuable than expected." “You can see the whole process”
  70. 70. Make space Facilitating students with space, supplies, tools Facilities Make place Fostering a sense of belonging and ownership Ownership Make sense Overseeing the whole process, identifying patterns, forge connections Shared understanding
  71. 71. Salut! Please return the cards! Next lecture: Design Expertise Design Thinking