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Thematic Research in the Frame Creation Process - Leeuwen, Rijken, Bloothoofd, Cobussen, Reurings, Ruts

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ServDes 2016

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Thematic Research in the Frame Creation Process - Leeuwen, Rijken, Bloothoofd, Cobussen, Reurings, Ruts

  1. 1. Thematic Research in the Frame Creation Process Jos van Leeuwen, Dick Rijken, Iefke Bloothoofd,
 Eefje Cobussen, Bram Reurings, Rob Ruts The Hague University of Applied Sciences
 The Hague, The Netherlands
  2. 2. Designers and public managers share the notion that the world is complex. Engage stakeholders early in the process. Explore the problem space, create empathy
 and insights into human experiences. Public governance should be looking for public values - to do so we need to be more reflective, understand the world more qualitatively, exploratorily. Christian Bason in his keynote
  3. 3. Call to Action Ask yourself: how to put it in practice? Christian Bason in his keynote
  4. 4. Wicked Problems without clear boundaries many aspects and dependencies changing over time involving many parties open complex dynamic networked
  5. 5. Reasoning Patterns in Problem Solving
  6. 6. Reasoning Patterns in Problem Solving What How Result Science - logic reasoning + leads to (thing) (working principle) (observed) Based on: Dorst, K (2011) “The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application,” Design Studies 32(6), 521–532. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006
  7. 7. Reasoning Patterns in Problem Solving What How ???+ leads to (thing) (working principle) (observed) Science - deduction Based on: Dorst, K (2011) “The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application,” Design Studies 32(6), 521–532. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006
  8. 8. Reasoning Patterns in Problem Solving What ??? Result+ leads to (thing) (working principle) (observed) Science - induction Based on: Dorst, K (2011) “The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application,” Design Studies 32(6), 521–532. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006
  9. 9. Reasoning Patterns in Problem Solving What How Result Science - logic reasoning + leads to (thing) (working principle) (observed) Based on: Dorst, K (2011) “The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application,” Design Studies 32(6), 521–532. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006
  10. 10. Reasoning Patterns in Problem Solving What How Value Design - productive reasoning + leads to (thing) (working principle) (aspired) Based on: Dorst, K (2011) “The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application,” Design Studies 32(6), 521–532. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006
  11. 11. Reasoning Patterns in Problem Solving ??? How Value+ leads to (thing) (working principle) (aspired) Design - abduction (1) Based on: Dorst, K (2011) “The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application,” Design Studies 32(6), 521–532. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006
  12. 12. Reasoning Patterns in Problem Solving ??? ??? Value+ leads to (thing) (working principle) (aspired) Design - abduction (2) Based on: Dorst, K (2011) “The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application,” Design Studies 32(6), 521–532. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006
  13. 13. Reasoning Patterns in Problem Solving What How Value+ leads to (thing) (working principle) (aspired) Design reasoning (or: design thinking) Based on: Dorst, K (2011) “The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application,” Design Studies 32(6), 521–532. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006
  14. 14. Reasoning Patterns in Problem Solving ??? ??? ???+ leads to (thing) (working principle) (aspired) Design reasoning (or: design thinking) Based on: Dorst, K (2011) “The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application,” Design Studies 32(6), 521–532. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006
  15. 15. Wicked Problems
  16. 16. Thematic Research
  17. 17. Thematic Research • identify themes • investigate themes • find inspiration for new frames individual group individual group immerse in themes discuss themes reflect on themes visualise themes • • • •
  18. 18. Investigate Themes • In situ research
 perspective of stakeholders • Personal experiences
 perspective of the researcher • Science & Philosophy
 facts and meaning • Art & culture
 representation and expression Focus on the
 bigger issues Research them from
 various angles Get to the essence Relate to humanity &
 human experiences Research Perspectives
  19. 19. Accountability in public governance Mariahoeve The Hague Case
  20. 20. Diversity Development Social challenges Integral approach
  21. 21. The integral approach to neighbourhood improvement combines budgets from multiple departments. This makes it more efficient – but also harder to account for. How can we change the way this integral approach is accounted for?
  22. 22. Thematic Research: What is courage really?
  23. 23. Trust plays a central role
  24. 24. Defining Themes • Structure (what is it about?) • Responses (how do people react to it?) • Context (what is going on around it?) • Dynamics (how does it work?)
  25. 25. Moving towards frames
  26. 26. Accountability reframed • First values, then sharing
 Both parties involved in accountability need to first acknowledge and share each other’s values, before goals, approaches, and results can be shared meaningfully. • Professional improvisation
 Professional activities do not need to be routine or fully planned in advance. It is important to recognise the value of improvisation and experimentation, to consider activities as such, and to trust the professional to do it the best possible way.
  27. 27. Accountability reframed • Illustrate vs. participate
 Two ways of sharing results: by communicating step by step how results were obtained; or by inviting participation in the actual process. • Professional friendship
 Nurture informal relationships between professionals, across hierarchies, cultivating trust on higher levels.
  28. 28. Lessons learned • Make a team of stakeholders and design thinkers • Initiate the team - explain the importance of stepping out of the
 problem area • Investigate themes from various perspectives - also use various methods • It’s okay to cherish your own, personal experiences, but don’t let them dominate - always mix with other sources • Alternate research with team dialogues • Take sufficient time for team dialogues - present research outcomes, discuss the meaning of themes and individual interpretations • Never forget: we are looking for inspiration, not the truth! Please read the paper for details… p. 352
  29. 29. Current work • Gaining experiences with teaching the method to students in various programmes • Thematic research checklist - a practical tool for education • How to choose research methods, match them with what we want to learn about a theme?
  30. 30. Thank you. Questions?

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