Gardner’s Art Through the Ages,
                           12e
                           Chapter 3
           Pharaohs an...
Ancient Egypt




                2
History
• Egyptian focus not on life, but on the afterlife in
art, architecture, and living.
• Based around the Nile: worl...
Succession of pharaohs divided into dynasties.
  Absolute chronology is debated, ancient kings
  list existed: from gods t...
Egyptian Mythology
• Osiris was murdered by brother Set. Mourned by sisters
Isis and Nephthys, Isis recovered his body, te...
•  Rosetta stone (named after
 city found in by Napoleon in
 1799) weighs 1,500 pounds,
 was a thank-you note from a
 phar...
• Funerary scene.
• Boats symbolize
 journey down river
 of life and death:
 carry tomb cargo
 and mourning
 women (figures...
Palette of King Narmer
• One of the earliest historical works preserved:
victory over lower Egypt: becomes unified.
• Earl...
• Back: Narmer wears
 hedjet of upper
 Egypt.
• Human armed falcon
 on man-headed
 hieroglyph from the
 land of papyrus
 (...
• Red cobra crown of
 lower, going to
 inspect decapitated
 enemies seen from
 above: heads in
 between legs.
• Sandal bea...
Old Kingdom
• Preoccupation in life to ensure safety/happiness in
next.
• Main belief: from birth accompanied by other sel...
Mummification
• Scribe marked spot on the side, another made incision: pelted
and cursed as ran away; not supposed to hurt...
Canopic jars, Egypt


Canopic jars for liver, lungs, stomach and intestines. Sometimes
buried below ground of sarcophagus....
• Mastaba with sloped sides
 over tomb chamber
 connected by a shaft for
 access to Ka.
• Above ground: chapel for
 offeri...
Figure 3.4 IMHOTEP, Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty III, ca. 2630–2611 BCE.
• Fir...
Figure 3-5 Restored plan (top)
and view (bottom) of the
mortuary precinct of Djoser,
Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty III, ca.
2630...
Pyramid burial
• Texts in passageways for priest during burial, insist
destiny to join gods in the sky.
• Only Ka and prie...
Pyramids
• Climax of pyramids in the 4th dynasty.
• Pharaohs thought sons of Re, spirit and power
resided in pyramid which...
The Great Pyramids
• Shape: like sun shining through clouds, pharoah
mounted rays into heaven.
• Took approximately 23 yea...
• 3 pyramids arranged in
configuration of Orion
(identified with Osiris);
Khufu (largest, first),
Khafre (medium, son),
and M...
Figure 3-10 Model of the pyramid complex, Gizeh, Egypt. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Semitic Museum.
1. Py...
• False chamber below,
 one airshaft points to
 polar stars in north,
 another to Orion.
• From Queens’ chamber
 aligns wi...
Figure 3-11 Great Sphinx (with Pyramid of Khafre in the background at left), Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV, ca. 2520–2494 BCE.
...
• Great Sphinx before Khafre’s temple, silent tomb guardian (like later
 Lamassu).
• Lion figure with human head of Khafre,...
• Image of
 deceased as
 home for the
 Ka, stone for
 royals (one of
 7 for Khafre).
• Made of
 diorite (from
 royal quarr...
• Block Statues popular in the
 middle and new kingdoms
 leave no space, unified with
 throne. 
• Lotus and papyrus intertw...
• Canon of proportions
  can be gridded to
  side of stone before
  carving to make
  correct (heel to hair
  18 fists!!). ...
• Unknown identity,
 crossed legs shows scribe.
• Literacy only in priests
 and government officials,
 1-2% of elite litera...
• Ti was a commoner, achieved
 power at court and money to
 build own mastaba.
• Shows hunting birds and hippos,
 foxes fle...
• Same tomb,
 servants with
 sheep and
 cows, water
 below. 
• Degree of
 naturalism
 corresponds
 with strata of
 social ...
The Middle Kingdom
• 2150 the power of the kings had been challenged,
eventually united again under a single king: 11, 12,...
The New Kingdom
• Burial tombs still needed care: some 500 feet into
hillsides, mortuary temples along Nile.
• Innovations...
Queen Hatshepsut
• Hatshepsut stepmother of Thutmose III; after her husband
(and half-brother) Thutmose II died, she came ...
• Not intended as
 mortuary temple,
 wanted burial in
 Valley of the
 Kings. 
• Began in 7th
 year, took 15
 years. 
• Par...
• Most of her sculptures destroyed,
 here with offering jars pieced
 back together after having been
 smashed and thrown i...
• Ramses II last great warrior king,
 19th dynasty. After death of father
 threw aside brother and became
 king. 
• Known ...
Ramses II
• Found burial in 1995 near KV5 with remains of many
sons. Largest tomb ever found. Only partially excavated,
(m...
*Figure 3-23 Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1290–1224 BCE. Sandstone, colossi approx. 65’ high.
...
Figure 3-23 Alternate View
view of rock-cut façade fr SE (moved to higher ground in 1960s)
                               ...
• Hypostyle hall eight 33 foot tall
    statues of Osiris with face of
    Ramses. Pillars not load
   -bearing. 
   • Atl...
• Nobleman scribe and
 counter of grain. 
• In text: “enjoying
 recreation in his eternal
 afterlife”
• Hunting with wife ...
*Figure 3-31 Musicians and dancers, detail of a fresco from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1400–
1...
• Women in tomb art
 often as
 possessions. 
• Many models from
 tombs survive: not
 wanted by robbers.
• Show common
 eve...
New Kingdom: Amarna Period
• Amenhotep IV introduces monotheism, changes his name to
Akhenaton (reviled god Amen, sacred t...
• Amarna period: elongated head
 and neck, intimate poses,
 naturalistic, relaxed, androgynous
 males. 
• Curving contours...
• Profile relief carving of
 exaggerated features. 
Figure 3-32 Detail
head and upper torso from front center



          ...
• Model of Nefertiti, wife of
  Akhenaton to be used when
  making her royal portraits.
  Unfinished (left eye), found in
 ...
• Sunken relief of royal
 family. King and Queen
 seated: Queen on throne
 with plants of unified
 Egypt. 
• Children in un...
• Tiye mother of Akhenaton,
 commoner by birth,
 married for love. 
• Older with lines and
 furrows, carved wood,
 ebony e...
New Kingdom: Tutankhamen
• Akhenaton’s son by minor wife, ruled 9 years and
died at 18.
• Persuaded by priests to restore ...
Tutankhamen tomb Discovery
• Howard Carter made the discovery, had been
digging for 6 years and was twice within 2 yards o...
Tutankhamen tomb Discovery continued…
• Lord Canarvon (paid for expedition) came for tomb
opening. Went to Aswan and was b...
• Chair back from
 Tut’s tomb: he and
 wife enthroned
 with sign of Aten,
 not as formal. 
• Remnants of his
 father’s rei...
Tutankhamen’s Sarcophagus
• Royal mummy inside 3 coffins shaped as Osiris.
Outermost 2 in wood with gilded gold, inside so...
• Both innermost and
 middle with beaten
 gold, lapis lazuli,
 turquoise, etc. 
• Rigid pose, closed
 spaces, holding
 cro...
• Death mask with relaxed
    face, confident in afterlife. 
   • Unusually full lips and thin
    nose hints at Amarna sty...
• Lid shows Tut as
 great hunter: side
 great warrior (too
 young to fight but
 must be shown as
 conqueror).
• Tut larger,...
Book of the Dead
• Book of the Dead to help survive tests: placed among
 mummy. Illustrated on papyrus scrolls, some 70 fe...
• Led into
 hall by
 Anubis
 (jackal
 head, god
 of

embalming)
 adjusts
 scales.
       *Figure 3-39 Last judgment of Hu-...
Opening of the Mouth, from the Last Judgement of Hu-Nefer

• Restored the mummies ability to breath, feel, hear, and speak...
• Late Period: Egypt lost commanding
 role, empire dwindled, land invaded and
 ruled by foreign powers. 
• Mentemhet is la...
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Week 3 egyptian

  1. 1. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e Chapter 3 Pharaohs and the Afterlife: The Art of Ancient Egypt 1
  2. 2. Ancient Egypt 2
  3. 3. History • Egyptian focus not on life, but on the afterlife in art, architecture, and living. • Based around the Nile: world’s longest river, 1-12 miles wide all along. Floods yearly (theme of continual rebirth) brings fertilizing silt into areas that would otherwise get no moisture. • The flooding of the Nile is the most important factor of prosperity of Ancient Egypt. Drought shows gods displeasure, river is physical and symbolic meeting of heaven and earth. • Nile carried agricultural products and goods, also during floods floated huge blocks of stone to building sites. 3
  4. 4. Succession of pharaohs divided into dynasties. Absolute chronology is debated, ancient kings list existed: from gods to kings in 31 dynasties. Mesopotamian gods were mediators, pharaoh’s WERE gods. Rulers sons of Ra (sky god). Divided geographically and politically into Upper (southern upstream) and Lower (northern downstream) Egypt. 4
  5. 5. Egyptian Mythology • Osiris was murdered by brother Set. Mourned by sisters Isis and Nephthys, Isis recovered his body, temporarily restored his life and conceived a child: Horus. • When Horus became a man, battled and defeated Set. Horus depicted as a hawk or falcon. • Osiris is the god of the Nile: symbolically dies and is reborn each year. • Netherworld where dead wait to join sun god nightly, getting to the Field of Rushes with abundant grain. Field surrounded by water, cross in ferryboat manned by “Face- behind”. Only those with just and honorable lives succeeded. 5
  6. 6. •  Rosetta stone (named after city found in by Napoleon in 1799) weighs 1,500 pounds, was a thank-you note from a pharoah to priests written in 3 texts. • Written in Greek, demotic, and formal hieroglyphic which led to the deciphering of hieroglyphics. Rosetta Stone 6
  7. 7. • Funerary scene. • Boats symbolize journey down river of life and death: carry tomb cargo and mourning women (figures above top boat show grief by outstretched hands). • When nobleman died women put mud in hair and Figure 3.1 People, boats, and animals, watercolor copy of a wall painting from tomb 100 at walked around Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Predynastic, ca. 3500–3200 BCE. Paint on plaster, approx. 16’ 3” long. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. town beating breasts. 7
  8. 8. Palette of King Narmer • One of the earliest historical works preserved: victory over lower Egypt: becomes unified. • Early blueprint of figure formula to last 3,000 years. Profile head, legs and arms, front view of eye and torso, inside of feet (both left), kneecaps stylized, wears bull tail at back. • Also contains hieroglyphics of Narmer’s name on the back top center panel, making it the earliest labeled work of art. 8
  9. 9. • Back: Narmer wears hedjet of upper Egypt. • Human armed falcon on man-headed hieroglyph from the land of papyrus (lower) held by Horus (god of upper). • 2 heads of Hathor (cow with woman’s face) • Threatening enemy with mace, holds by *Figure 3-2 Palette of King Narmer (back), from Hierakonpolis, Egypt, hair (symbol of Predynastic, ca. 3000–2920 BCE. Slate, approx. 2’ 1” high. Egyptian Museum, domination) 2 more Cairo. enemies on bottom, • Servant standing behind with sandals: event rectangle shape taking place on holy ground. 9 fortified town.
  10. 10. • Red cobra crown of lower, going to inspect decapitated enemies seen from above: heads in between legs. • Sandal bearer behind. • Standard bearers before (may be representatives of different regions) • Two roped cats in center: unification? Held make-up in center: used in ritual *Figure 3-2 ca. 3000–2920 BCE. Slate,(front), from Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Cairo. Predynastic, Palette of King Narmer approx. 2’ 1” high. Egyptian Museum, /protect from sun/fight eye infection? • Bull knocking down city: nude man inferior. 10
  11. 11. Old Kingdom • Preoccupation in life to ensure safety/happiness in next. • Main belief: from birth accompanied by other self ka and that after death of body, Ka could inhabit corpse or statue of person and live on: body must remain in tact (statue with name and titles, often later people would replace names and use themselves). • Back of tomb with false door with eye of Horus for Ka to pass through: tombs full of food and objects that would be necessary for survival. 11
  12. 12. Mummification • Scribe marked spot on the side, another made incision: pelted and cursed as ran away; not supposed to hurt a member of community. • Body soaked in brine for a month, hung out to dry. • Embalming took 70 days: removed all organs except heart (thought necessary for life), organs placed in canopic jars. • Brain thought useless and discarded. • Body packed in natron (baking soda and salt mix, turned skin black), later skin painted red for men, yellow for women. • Within wrappings had charms, Book of the Dead between the legs. • Incision closed: eye of Horus amulet placed to ward off evil. • Treated with oils and wrapped up to 20 times in linen, onions under eyelids, nested in coffins and stone sarcophagus. • In middle ages, Europeans pulverized mummy remains and ingested!! Thought great medicinal value. Also found 12 mummies of hundreds of thousands of cats!!
  13. 13. Canopic jars, Egypt Canopic jars for liver, lungs, stomach and intestines. Sometimes buried below ground of sarcophagus. 13
  14. 14. • Mastaba with sloped sides over tomb chamber connected by a shaft for access to Ka. • Above ground: chapel for offerings to Ka and secret cubicle for statue. • Originally single burials, later multiple family. • Interior walls with colored relief carvings and paintings from daily life for food/entertainment to Ka. Figure 3-3 Section (left), plan (center), and restored view (right) of typical Egyptian mastaba tombs. 14
  15. 15. Figure 3.4 IMHOTEP, Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty III, ca. 2630–2611 BCE. • First artist known of recorded history: Imhotep; was a priest, scribe, physician: later thought of as a god. • First to use cut-stone masonry. • Used during pharoah’s life and after his death. • Pyramids most popular during the Old Kingdom. • From 3rd dynasty, inside ancient necropolis. First monumental royal tomb. 15
  16. 16. Figure 3-5 Restored plan (top) and view (bottom) of the mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty III, ca. 2630–2611 BCE. • Stepped pyramid: faces toward cardinal directions, combination of mastabas and later true pyramids; Resembles ziggurats but as tomb, not temple platform. • Stairs to sun god Ra: originally limestone veneer. • Outer perimeter with 35 foot high wall to keep people away from burials. Rooms outside pyramid to perform rites after death. 16
  17. 17. Pyramid burial • Texts in passageways for priest during burial, insist destiny to join gods in the sky. • Only Ka and priest could enter sanctuary. • Priest would wash and clothe the gods statue every day, twice giving meals (Ka derived nourishment from the spirit of the food) which priests then removed and ate. • Buried on the west side of the Nile (where sun sets). 17
  18. 18. Pyramids • Climax of pyramids in the 4th dynasty. • Pharaohs thought sons of Re, spirit and power resided in pyramid which would be preserved in tomb. • Building: June-October: land flooded, population idle, stone floated in. Housing for 4,000 workers found near pyramid of Khafre, some records show paid: temples built to honor their gods. Tombs and bodies found miles away: all with back stress. • Stone cut into cliff faces, deep into flawless stone, used stone or copper chisels, wooden mallets and wedges; rollers and sledges to move once out. 18
  19. 19. The Great Pyramids • Shape: like sun shining through clouds, pharoah mounted rays into heaven. • Took approximately 23 years to build (lifespan 35). 2.3 million blocks, each about 2.5 tons. • Dirt ramp built up as made, when completed took away dirt and carved glyphs on the way down. Perfectly aligned with the cardinal directions, using very basic tools. • When died, carried across Nile to temple: even found 143 foot long boat outside complex to ride in. 19
  20. 20. • 3 pyramids arranged in configuration of Orion (identified with Osiris); Khufu (largest, first), Khafre (medium, son), and Menkaure (smallest, grandson) over 75 years. Originally covered in dressed limestone: so precisely matched, can barely fit credit card between slabs, most removed and used in Islamic architecture. *Figure 3-8 Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV. From left: Pyramids Had gilded capstone at of Menkaure, ca. 2490–2472 BCE; Khafre, ca. 2520–2494 BCE; and Khufu, ca. the peak to reflect the 2551–2528 BCE. sun and for the pharahs’ divine solar identification. 20
  21. 21. Figure 3-10 Model of the pyramid complex, Gizeh, Egypt. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Semitic Museum. 1. Pyramid of Menkaure, 2. Pyramid of Khafre, 3. Mortuary temple of Khafre, 4. Causeway, 5. Great Sphinx 6. Valley temple of Khafre, 7. Pyramid of Khufu, 8. Pyramids of the royal family and mastabas of nobles 21
  22. 22. • False chamber below, one airshaft points to polar stars in north, another to Orion. • From Queens’ chamber aligns with star of Isis. • Passage to kings chamber with corbelled ceiling: slabs of 400 ton granite over to release weight and allow opening. • Sarcophagus also made of granite: had to be placed and built *Figure 3-9 Section of the Pyramid of Khufu, Gizeh, Egypt. around. 22
  23. 23. Figure 3-11 Great Sphinx (with Pyramid of Khafre in the background at left), Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV, ca. 2520–2494 BCE. Sandstone, approx. 65’ high, 240’ long. • Many tombs plundered as funeral ended, afterward started making smaller and inconspicuous. Khufu’s with many dead ends: still plundered. 23
  24. 24. • Great Sphinx before Khafre’s temple, silent tomb guardian (like later Lamassu). • Lion figure with human head of Khafre, nemi scarf and folds only kings allowed to wear. Carved from natural outcrop of stone: some layers softer and have eroded. Head height of 6 story building, 13 feet wide. 24
  25. 25. • Image of deceased as home for the Ka, stone for royals (one of 7 for Khafre). • Made of diorite (from royal quarry 700 miles away) • In sunlight deep blue: color of Horus for the sky. Figure 3-12 Khafre, from Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV, ca. 2520–2494 BCE. Diorite, approx. 5’ 6” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. 25
  26. 26. • Block Statues popular in the middle and new kingdoms leave no space, unified with throne. • Lotus and papyrus intertwined (unified), wings of Horus shelter head, short pleated kilt, linen headdress with cobra symbol, false beard, still canon of proportions. 26
  27. 27. • Canon of proportions can be gridded to side of stone before carving to make correct (heel to hair 18 fists!!). • Pharoah: arms down, hands in fists (bumps could be cloth, or scroll of papyrus. • Left leg forward (no hip shift), taller, idealized body, repetition of rectangles makes ceremonial. • Queen: lower rank; foot less forward, more naturalistic, arm bent, in embrace, smaller. Gesture of marital status. • Both originally painted, never completed. Figure 3-13 Menkaure and Khamerernebty (?), from Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV, ca. 2490–2472 BCE. Graywacke, approx. 4’ 6 1/2” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 27
  28. 28. • Unknown identity, crossed legs shows scribe. • Literacy only in priests and government officials, 1-2% of elite literate. • Right hand posed to write with pen (lost), intelligent and alert. • On ground, carves openings, sagging chest and belly, relaxed and more realistic (would be disrespectful and inappropriate for a god -king). • This scribe important *Figure 3-14 Seated scribe (Kay?), from his mastaba at Saqqara, Egypt, enough, had own tomb Dynasty V, ca. 2450–2350 BCE. Painted limestone, approx. 1’ 9” high. Louvre, Paris. 28
  29. 29. • Ti was a commoner, achieved power at court and money to build own mastaba. • Shows hunting birds and hippos, foxes fleeing in profile: provisions for Ka. • Killing of hippos official duty of court members: would damage crops, also companions of Seth (god of darkness shows triumph over evil) • Water: wavy lines at the bottom. • Ti much bigger in typical representation, servants more natural. Left leg forward shows man, body dead but spirit alive. Figure 3-16 Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, relief in the mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty V, ca. 2450– 2350 BCE. Painted limestone, hunting scene approx. 4’ high. 29
  30. 30. • Same tomb, servants with sheep and cows, water below. • Degree of naturalism corresponds with strata of social order: calf on youths’ back looking back at mother for reassurance. Figure 3-17: Goats treading seed and cattle fording a canal, mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt • Tomb paintings in fresco secco. 30
  31. 31. The Middle Kingdom • 2150 the power of the kings had been challenged, eventually united again under a single king: 11, 12, and 13th dynasties to revive. Unified 2000 years, little art remains (stolen for later) • Literature of time makes reference to violence, hunger and misery. One man who argued with soul to abandon life and commit suicide but spirit replies it would forever part. • Pyramids on smaller scale to thwart thieves. • Increased size of sarcophagus (literally flesh-eaters) for remains. 31
  32. 32. The New Kingdom • Burial tombs still needed care: some 500 feet into hillsides, mortuary temples along Nile. • Innovations of weaponry (bow and arrow) and war (horse-drawn chariot). • Ahmose I made luxurious new capital at Thebes. • Thutmose III (died in 51st year of reign) possibly greatest pharoah of Egyptian history, conquered Syria and Mesopotamia, brought glassmaking. 32
  33. 33. Queen Hatshepsut • Hatshepsut stepmother of Thutmose III; after her husband (and half-brother) Thutmose II died, she came to rule as regent for 12 year old boy (whose mother was a minor wife). He took over in his late 20’s. Unknown how Hatshepsut died: naturally or violently, many portraits destroyed after death by son who had his ascension slowed by her. • Called self “his majesty” declared self king in 2nd year of reign. First female monarch of recorded history. • Dressed as male pharoah: headdress and kilt, sometimes beard, some sculptures more delicate with breasts. • Ruled for 21 years, known for peaceful rule of most powerful and prosperous empire in the world. 33
  34. 34. • Not intended as mortuary temple, wanted burial in Valley of the Kings. • Began in 7th year, took 15 years. • Partially destroyed by earthquake and Thutmose III. • Built by Senmut: advisor,*Figure 3-21 Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut (with the Middle Kingdom mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II at left), Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1473–1458 BCE. daughters • 3 terraces connected by ramps, had sphinxes, pools, plants, guardian, statues. lover(?). • Relief showing her coronation and decorations usually for pharoahs. 34
  35. 35. • Most of her sculptures destroyed, here with offering jars pieced back together after having been smashed and thrown into dump. • Ritual honor of the sun god. • Royal male headdress and pharaoh beard, had hacked off cobra from front. Figure 3-22 Hatshepsut with offering jars, from the upper court of her mortuary temple, Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, ca. 1473–1458 BCE. Red granite, approx. 8’ 6” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 35
  36. 36. • Ramses II last great warrior king, 19th dynasty. After death of father threw aside brother and became king. • Known for battle against the Hittites to regain empire in Asia, his victory shown on walls of his temple. Cemented ties to the Hittites by marrying their princesses. • Had 200 wives and concubines, sired 96 sons and 60 daughters during 67 year reign. Outlived 13 heirs, died at 90. • Found in 1881; skin, hair, and teeth still in tact. 5’8”, curved spine of age. Had dyed hair red, peppercorns in nose to keep hook. Mummified head of Ramses II 36
  37. 37. Ramses II • Found burial in 1995 near KV5 with remains of many sons. Largest tomb ever found. Only partially excavated, (major floods every 50 years) could have lower level, robbed within 500 years of construction. • Normally tombs with 5 rooms: here over 150. Many images of Ramses greeting sons into next world. • Temple of Ramses II had inscriptions that he used prisoners of war as laborers, located in Nubia to proclaim identification with Ra and show Egyptian domination. Also had temple for Queen and chief wife Nefertari. 37
  38. 38. *Figure 3-23 Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1290–1224 BCE. Sandstone, colossi approx. 65’ high. • In 1968 tunneled 180 feet into cliff to move 600 feet higher for the flooding of the new Aswan dam (no more yearly floods) • 4 colossal statues of self at front with typical headdress, each 65 feet tall seated. Figures of family between legs. • Statues toppled by Christians: was pharaoh at time Moses left Egypt. 38
  39. 39. Figure 3-23 Alternate View view of rock-cut façade fr SE (moved to higher ground in 1960s) 39
  40. 40. • Hypostyle hall eight 33 foot tall statues of Osiris with face of Ramses. Pillars not load -bearing. • Atlantids Figure 3-24 Interior of the temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel (now relocated), Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1290–1224 BCE. Sandstone, pillar statues approx. 32’ high. 40
  41. 41. • Nobleman scribe and counter of grain. • In text: “enjoying recreation in his eternal afterlife” • Hunting with wife and daughter (more naturalistic, he is typical) • Men’s skin often darker (time outside), noble women lighter, expected to stay out of sun. • Not static pose: swinging throwing stick. *Figure 3-30 Fowling scene, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, Water in usual way, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1400–1350 BCE. Fresco on dry plaster, approx. 2’ 8” high. some shading on the British Museum, London. fish!! • Abundance in afterlife. 41
  42. 42. *Figure 3-31 Musicians and dancers, detail of a fresco from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1400– 1350 BCE. Fragment approx. 1’ x 2’ 3”. British Museum, London. • From same tomb. At burial family would have meal at tomb, and every year after. • Noble guests in formal rows, servants and entertainers more realistic: profile shows lesser importance, two musicians facing forward: very rarely attempted. • Shows soles of feet, shaded, movements of strands of hair, pleated robes. 42
  43. 43. • Women in tomb art often as possessions. • Many models from tombs survive: not wanted by robbers. • Show common everyday events continued into afterlife. • Top: women grinding grain, butchering. Bottom: rowers, person of importance under Models placed in tombs canopy. 43
  44. 44. New Kingdom: Amarna Period • Amenhotep IV introduces monotheism, changes his name to Akhenaton (reviled god Amen, sacred to Thebes and temples). Proclaims religion of Aton: enlarged powers of old sun god to god of all men and moves capital to Akhetaten. • New and universal god, prophet of Aton: 17 year reign. • Tried to annihilate memory of former gods; priests resented diminuition of gods they had served. • Devoted completely to religious reform: Hittites began taking back territory. Letters from his father asking why he has neglected land. • Temporary relaxation of focus on death: literature with poetry, celebrates physical beauty and sensual pleasures. 44
  45. 45. • Amarna period: elongated head and neck, intimate poses, naturalistic, relaxed, androgynous males. • Curving contours, full-lipped, heavy lidded eyes. • Was physically a weak man: narrow chest, weak arms, pot belly, feminine hips. So realistic: diagnosis of glandular disorder Marfans syndrome. Another symptom causes you to be cold (explains sun god?) • Holds crook and flail (for Osiris and Egyptian royalty). Combined hedjet and deshnet crowns. *Figure 3-32 Akhenaton, from the temple of Aton, Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Sandstone, approx. 13’ high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. 45
  46. 46. • Profile relief carving of exaggerated features. Figure 3-32 Detail head and upper torso from front center © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd. 46
  47. 47. • Model of Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaton to be used when making her royal portraits. Unfinished (left eye), found in artists studio with clay and casts from life. •  Exaggerated weight of crown (hair pulled up inside as well) and length of neck, giving her flower -like shape. • Attempt at realism unknown, creases at corners of mouth show age. Figure 3-33 THUTMOSE, Nefertiti, from Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Painted limestone, approx. 1’ 8” high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin. 47
  48. 48. • Sunken relief of royal family. King and Queen seated: Queen on throne with plants of unified Egypt. • Children in unnatural proportions of miniature adults, behavior of children. • King kisses and pats daughters, other stroking mothers cheek, all 3 nude, younger shaved as custom: older with patch Figure 3-35 Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters, from Tell el-Amarna, of hair in braid. Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Limestone, approx. 12 1/4” high. •  Center: sun reaches Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin. down, rays end in hands • Akhenaton also made open-air altars for sun and ankhs (breath of life). god worship. 48
  49. 49. • Tiye mother of Akhenaton, commoner by birth, married for love. • Older with lines and furrows, carved wood, ebony eyes with glass, earrings of gold and lapis lazuli. • Covering original silver foil headdress with cobras and jewelry. Headcloth of plaster and linen, small blue beads added when son in power for solar references. Figure 3-34 Tiye, from Gurob, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Wood, with gold, silver, alabaster, and lapis lazuli, approx. 3 3/4” high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin. 49
  50. 50. New Kingdom: Tutankhamen • Akhenaton’s son by minor wife, ruled 9 years and died at 18. • Persuaded by priests to restore polytheism and move capital back to Thebes. Also changed name from Tutankhaten. • Best know for tomb discovery in tact in 1922. 5,000 works of art including mummy. Toured in 1970, greatest number of visitors recorded for any single tour of works. • Shows what wealth others must have had!! Also could be more wealthy due to restoring polytheism.50
  51. 51. Tutankhamen tomb Discovery • Howard Carter made the discovery, had been digging for 6 years and was twice within 2 yards of the tombs entrance. When he found, lit a match into the dark and saw “everywhere the glint of gold.” •  Fruit, flowers, camp bed, toy box, 4 chariots covered in gold, golden couches, walls, solid gold death mask. • Outside: “death shall come on swift wings to him who disturbs the peace of the king”. More than 20 people connected to unsealing died under mysterious circumstances… 51
  52. 52. Tutankhamen tomb Discovery continued… • Lord Canarvon (paid for expedition) came for tomb opening. Went to Aswan and was bitten on cheek by mosquito: shaved and opened wound, became infected. No antibiotics: died at 57. • At exact moment of death, all electricity went out in Cairo. • Cobra snake got into Carter’s house and ate his pet canary. • Vultures (signs of lower Egypt) circled tomb all day. • 1972 artifacts at British museum, weeks before foreman of museum dropped dead: crews sworn to secrecy not to mention curse. 52
  53. 53. • Chair back from Tut’s tomb: he and wife enthroned with sign of Aten, not as formal. • Remnants of his father’s reign Back of chair in tomb of Tutankhamen, Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1323 BCE. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. 53
  54. 54. Tutankhamen’s Sarcophagus • Royal mummy inside 3 coffins shaped as Osiris. Outermost 2 in wood with gilded gold, inside solid gold weighing 250 pounds. • Tut found in original state: dried flowers and beads on chest, linen around head. End of mummy ritual poured gallons of oil into coffin: made face affix to mask and body stick to coffin: had to cut into parts to remove. • In linen found over 100 pieces of jewelry. • Tut had spine disease: found 130 walking sticks. 54
  55. 55. • Both innermost and middle with beaten gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise, etc. • Rigid pose, closed spaces, holding crook and flail (used to thresh grain, associated with Osiris). • Two goddesses protecting head, *Figure 3-36 Innermost and middle coffin of Tutankhamen, from his wings around upper tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty body of Horus. XVIII, ca. 1323 BCE. Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones, approx. 6’ 1” long. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. 55
  56. 56. • Death mask with relaxed face, confident in afterlife. • Unusually full lips and thin nose hints at Amarna style. • Mask to prove person belonged with kings, inscription from the Book of the Dead on the back. *Figure 3-37 Death mask of Tutankhamen, from the innermost coffin in his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1323 BCE. Gold with inlay of semiprecious stones, 1’ 9 1/4” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. 56
  57. 57. • Lid shows Tut as great hunter: side great warrior (too young to fight but must be shown as conqueror). • Tut larger, drawing bow against Asian enemies who fall in confusion into desert surface with dots. Slays in great numbers. • Vulture goddess shelters with wings. Figure 3-38 Painted chest, from the Tomb of Tutankhamen, Thebes, Egypt, ca. 1333– 1323 BCE. Wood, approx. 1’ 8” long. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. 3 sets of chariots behind: increases army. 57
  58. 58. Book of the Dead • Book of the Dead to help survive tests: placed among mummy. Illustrated on papyrus scrolls, some 70 feet long. • Some sold with owners name inscribed in blank space, costing a middle class person 6 months salary: worth the price; importance of afterlife. • Last judgement: if worthy of eternal life. Weighs heart (seat of soul) against feather (of goddess Maat: protector of truth and right). 58
  59. 59. • Led into hall by Anubis (jackal head, god of embalming) adjusts scales. *Figure 3-39 Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1290–1280 BCE. Painted papyrus scroll, approx. 1’ 6” high. British Museum, London. • Ammit (half hippo/lion) waits to devour sinful. • Above witnesses. Ibis headed god Thoth stenographer, (invented hieroglyphics). • After justified, brought to Horus (falcon head) to green faced Osiris (shown mummified in white shroud, floating on natron) • Four sons of Horus entrusted with organ on lotus blossom out of lake. • Goddess Isis and Nephys to receive eternal life. 59
  60. 60. Opening of the Mouth, from the Last Judgement of Hu-Nefer • Restored the mummies ability to breath, feel, hear, and speak. Most important: can say prayers to get into the next world. • Priest with leopard skin, altar, two priests in white robes with ritual objects. • Two mourning women, mummy, and Anubis. Stele tomb behind with pyramid. 60
  61. 61. • Late Period: Egypt lost commanding role, empire dwindled, land invaded and ruled by foreign powers. • Mentemhet is last mentioned reign, 25th dynasty in 7th century b.c.e. • Rigid, frontal, arms at side, left leg advanced, only realism in head and double-wig differs from Old Kingdom. Figure 3-40 Mentuemhet, from Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XXVI, ca. 650 BCE. Granite, approx. 4’ 5” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. 61

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