• Egyptian focus not on life, but on the afterlife in
art, architecture, and living.
• Based around the Nile: world’s longest river, 1-12
miles wide all along. Floods yearly (theme of
continual rebirth) brings fertilizing silt into areas that
would otherwise get no moisture.
• The flooding of the Nile is the most important
factor of prosperity of Ancient Egypt. Drought
shows gods displeasure, river is physical and symbolic
meeting of heaven and earth.
• Nile carried agricultural products and goods, also
during floods floated huge blocks of stone to building
Succession of pharaohs divided into dynasties.
Absolute chronology is debated, ancient kings
list existed: from gods to kings in 31 dynasties.
Mesopotamian gods were mediators, pharaoh’s
WERE gods. Rulers sons of Ra (sky god).
Divided geographically and politically into Upper
(southern upstream) and Lower (northern
• Osiris was murdered by brother Set. Mourned by sisters
Isis and Nephthys, Isis recovered his body, temporarily
restored his life and conceived a child: Horus.
• When Horus became a man, battled and defeated Set.
Horus depicted as a hawk or falcon.
• Osiris is the god of the Nile: symbolically dies and is
reborn each year.
• Netherworld where dead wait to join sun god nightly,
getting to the Field of Rushes with abundant grain. Field
surrounded by water, cross in ferryboat manned by “Face-
behind”. Only those with just and honorable lives
• Rosetta stone (named after
city found in by Napoleon in
1799) weighs 1,500 pounds,
was a thank-you note from a
pharoah to priests written in
• Written in Greek, demotic,
and formal hieroglyphic
which led to the
Rosetta Stone 6
• Funerary scene.
• Boats symbolize
journey down river
of life and death:
carry tomb cargo
above top boat
show grief by
• When nobleman
died women put
mud in hair and
Figure 3.1 People, boats, and animals, watercolor copy of a wall painting from tomb 100 at
walked around Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Predynastic, ca. 3500–3200 BCE. Paint on plaster, approx. 16’ 3” long.
Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
Palette of King Narmer
• One of the earliest historical works preserved:
victory over lower Egypt: becomes unified.
• Early blueprint of figure formula to last 3,000
years. Profile head, legs and arms, front view of eye
and torso, inside of feet (both left), kneecaps
stylized, wears bull tail at back.
• Also contains hieroglyphics of Narmer’s name on
the back top center panel, making it the earliest
labeled work of art.
• Back: Narmer wears
hedjet of upper
• Human armed falcon
hieroglyph from the
land of papyrus
(lower) held by Horus
(god of upper).
• 2 heads of Hathor
(cow with woman’s
• Threatening enemy
with mace, holds by
*Figure 3-2 Palette of King Narmer (back), from Hierakonpolis, Egypt,
hair (symbol of Predynastic, ca. 3000–2920 BCE. Slate, approx. 2’ 1” high. Egyptian Museum,
domination) 2 more Cairo.
enemies on bottom, • Servant standing behind with sandals: event
rectangle shape taking place on holy ground.
• Red cobra crown of
lower, going to
enemies seen from
above: heads in
• Sandal bearer behind.
• Standard bearers
before (may be
• Two roped cats in
Held make-up in
center: used in ritual *Figure 3-2 ca. 3000–2920 BCE. Slate,(front), from Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Cairo.
Palette of King Narmer
approx. 2’ 1” high. Egyptian Museum,
/protect from sun/ﬁght
• Bull knocking down city: nude man inferior.
• Preoccupation in life to ensure safety/happiness in
• Main belief: from birth accompanied by other self
ka and that after death of body, Ka could inhabit
corpse or statue of person and live on: body
must remain in tact (statue with name and titles,
often later people would replace names and use
• Back of tomb with false door with eye of Horus
for Ka to pass through: tombs full of food and
objects that would be necessary for survival. 11
• Scribe marked spot on the side, another made incision: pelted
and cursed as ran away; not supposed to hurt a member of
• Body soaked in brine for a month, hung out to dry.
• Embalming took 70 days: removed all organs except heart
(thought necessary for life), organs placed in canopic jars.
• Brain thought useless and discarded.
• Body packed in natron (baking soda and salt mix, turned skin
black), later skin painted red for men, yellow for women.
• Within wrappings had charms, Book of the Dead between the
• Incision closed: eye of Horus amulet placed to ward off evil.
• Treated with oils and wrapped up to 20 times in linen, onions
under eyelids, nested in coffins and stone sarcophagus.
• In middle ages, Europeans pulverized mummy remains and
ingested!! Thought great medicinal value. Also found 12
mummies of hundreds of thousands of cats!!
Canopic jars, Egypt
Canopic jars for liver, lungs, stomach and intestines. Sometimes
buried below ground of sarcophagus.
• Mastaba with sloped sides
over tomb chamber
connected by a shaft for
access to Ka.
• Above ground: chapel for
offerings to Ka and secret
cubicle for statue.
• Originally single burials,
later multiple family.
• Interior walls with colored
relief carvings and
paintings from daily life for
food/entertainment to Ka.
Figure 3-3 Section (left), plan (center), and restored view (right) of typical Egyptian mastaba tombs.
Figure 3.4 IMHOTEP, Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty III, ca. 2630–2611 BCE.
• First artist known of recorded history: Imhotep; was a priest, scribe,
physician: later thought of as a god.
• First to use cut-stone masonry.
• Used during pharoah’s life and after his death.
• Pyramids most popular during the Old Kingdom.
• From 3rd dynasty, inside ancient necropolis. First monumental royal
Figure 3-5 Restored plan (top)
and view (bottom) of the
mortuary precinct of Djoser,
Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty III, ca.
• Stepped pyramid: faces toward cardinal directions, combination of
mastabas and later true pyramids; Resembles ziggurats but as tomb, not
• Stairs to sun god Ra: originally limestone veneer.
• Outer perimeter with 35 foot high wall to keep people away from
burials. Rooms outside pyramid to perform rites after death.
• Texts in passageways for priest during burial, insist
destiny to join gods in the sky.
• Only Ka and priest could enter sanctuary.
• Priest would wash and clothe the gods statue every
day, twice giving meals (Ka derived nourishment
from the spirit of the food) which priests then
removed and ate.
• Buried on the west side of the Nile (where sun
• Climax of pyramids in the 4th dynasty.
• Pharaohs thought sons of Re, spirit and power
resided in pyramid which would be preserved in
• Building: June-October: land flooded, population
idle, stone floated in. Housing for 4,000 workers
found near pyramid of Khafre, some records show
paid: temples built to honor their gods. Tombs and
bodies found miles away: all with back stress.
• Stone cut into cliff faces, deep into flawless stone,
used stone or copper chisels, wooden mallets and
wedges; rollers and sledges to move once out. 18
The Great Pyramids
• Shape: like sun shining through clouds, pharoah
mounted rays into heaven.
• Took approximately 23 years to build (lifespan 35).
2.3 million blocks, each about 2.5 tons.
• Dirt ramp built up as made, when completed took
away dirt and carved glyphs on the way down.
Perfectly aligned with the cardinal directions, using
very basic tools.
• When died, carried across Nile to temple: even
found 143 foot long boat outside complex to ride
• 3 pyramids arranged in
conﬁguration of Orion
(identiﬁed with Osiris);
Khufu (largest, ﬁrst),
Khafre (medium, son),
and Menkaure (smallest,
grandson) over 75 years.
Originally covered in
dressed limestone: so
precisely matched, can
barely ﬁt credit card
between slabs, most
removed and used in
*Figure 3-8 Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV. From left: Pyramids
Had gilded capstone at of Menkaure, ca. 2490–2472 BCE; Khafre, ca. 2520–2494 BCE; and Khufu, ca.
the peak to reﬂect the 2551–2528 BCE.
sun and for the pharahs’
Figure 3-10 Model of the pyramid complex, Gizeh, Egypt. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Semitic Museum.
1. Pyramid of Menkaure, 2. Pyramid of Khafre, 3. Mortuary temple of Khafre, 4. Causeway, 5. Great Sphinx
6. Valley temple of Khafre, 7. Pyramid of Khufu, 8. Pyramids of the royal family and mastabas of nobles
• False chamber below,
one airshaft points to
polar stars in north,
another to Orion.
• From Queens’ chamber
aligns with star of Isis.
• Passage to kings
chamber with corbelled
ceiling: slabs of 400 ton
granite over to release
weight and allow
• Sarcophagus also
made of granite: had to
be placed and built *Figure 3-9 Section of the Pyramid of Khufu, Gizeh, Egypt.
Figure 3-11 Great Sphinx (with Pyramid of Khafre in the background at left), Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV, ca. 2520–2494 BCE.
Sandstone, approx. 65’ high, 240’ long.
• Many tombs plundered as funeral ended, afterward started making
smaller and inconspicuous. Khufu’s with many dead ends: still
• Great Sphinx before Khafre’s temple, silent tomb guardian (like later
• Lion ﬁgure with human head of Khafre, nemi scarf and folds only kings
allowed to wear. Carved from natural outcrop of stone: some layers
softer and have eroded. Head height of 6 story building, 13 feet wide. 24
• Image of
home for the
Ka, stone for
royals (one of
7 for Khafre).
• Made of
• In sunlight
color of Horus
for the sky.
Figure 3-12 Khafre, from Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty
IV, ca. 2520–2494 BCE. Diorite, approx. 5’ 6” high.
Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
• Block Statues popular in the
middle and new kingdoms
leave no space, uniﬁed with
• Lotus and papyrus intertwined
(uniﬁed), wings of Horus shelter
head, short pleated kilt, linen
headdress with cobra symbol,
false beard, still canon of
• Canon of proportions
can be gridded to
side of stone before
carving to make
correct (heel to hair
• Pharoah: arms down,
hands in ﬁsts (bumps
could be cloth, or
scroll of papyrus.
• Left leg forward (no hip shift), taller,
idealized body, repetition of rectangles makes
• Queen: lower rank; foot less forward, more
naturalistic, arm bent, in embrace, smaller.
Gesture of marital status.
• Both originally painted, never completed.
Figure 3-13 Menkaure and Khamerernebty (?), from Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty
IV, ca. 2490–2472 BCE. Graywacke, approx. 4’ 6 1/2” high. Museum of Fine
Arts, Boston. 27
• Unknown identity,
crossed legs shows scribe.
• Literacy only in priests
and government ofﬁcials,
1-2% of elite literate.
• Right hand posed to write
with pen (lost), intelligent
• On ground, carves
openings, sagging chest
and belly, relaxed and
more realistic (would be
inappropriate for a god
• This scribe important
*Figure 3-14 Seated scribe (Kay?), from his mastaba at Saqqara, Egypt,
enough, had own tomb
Dynasty V, ca. 2450–2350 BCE. Painted limestone, approx. 1’ 9” high.
Louvre, Paris. 28
• Ti was a commoner, achieved
power at court and money to
build own mastaba.
• Shows hunting birds and hippos,
foxes ﬂeeing in proﬁle:
provisions for Ka.
• Killing of hippos ofﬁcial duty of
court members: would damage
crops, also companions of Seth
(god of darkness shows triumph
• Water: wavy lines at the bottom.
• Ti much bigger in typical
representation, servants more
natural. Left leg forward shows
man, body dead but spirit alive.
Figure 3-16 Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, relief in
the mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty V, ca. 2450–
2350 BCE. Painted limestone, hunting scene approx. 4’
• Same tomb,
• Degree of
with strata of
at mother for
Figure 3-17: Goats treading seed and cattle fording a canal, mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt
The Middle Kingdom
• 2150 the power of the kings had been challenged,
eventually united again under a single king: 11, 12,
and 13th dynasties to revive. Unified 2000 years,
little art remains (stolen for later)
• Literature of time makes reference to violence,
hunger and misery. One man who argued with soul
to abandon life and commit suicide but spirit replies
it would forever part.
• Pyramids on smaller scale to thwart thieves.
• Increased size of sarcophagus (literally flesh-eaters)
The New Kingdom
• Burial tombs still needed care: some 500 feet into
hillsides, mortuary temples along Nile.
• Innovations of weaponry (bow and arrow) and war
• Ahmose I made luxurious new capital at Thebes.
• Thutmose III (died in 51st year of reign) possibly greatest
pharoah of Egyptian history, conquered Syria and
Mesopotamia, brought glassmaking.
• Hatshepsut stepmother of Thutmose III; after her husband
(and half-brother) Thutmose II died, she came to rule as regent
for 12 year old boy (whose mother was a minor wife). He took
over in his late 20’s. Unknown how Hatshepsut died: naturally or
violently, many portraits destroyed after death by son who had his
ascension slowed by her.
• Called self “his majesty” declared self king in 2nd year of reign.
First female monarch of recorded history.
• Dressed as male pharoah: headdress and kilt, sometimes beard,
some sculptures more delicate with breasts.
• Ruled for 21 years, known for peaceful rule of most
powerful and prosperous empire in the world. 33
• Not intended as
wanted burial in
Valley of the
• Began in 7th
year, took 15
• Built by
Senmut: advisor,*Figure 3-21 Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut (with the Middle Kingdom mortuary temple of
Mentuhotep II at left), Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1473–1458 BCE.
• 3 terraces connected by ramps, had sphinxes, pools, plants,
• Relief showing her coronation and decorations usually for
• Most of her sculptures destroyed,
here with offering jars pieced
back together after having been
smashed and thrown into dump.
• Ritual honor of the sun god.
• Royal male headdress and
pharaoh beard, had hacked off
cobra from front.
Figure 3-22 Hatshepsut with offering jars, from the
upper court of her mortuary temple, Deir el-Bahri, Egypt,
ca. 1473–1458 BCE. Red granite, approx. 8’ 6” high.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
• Ramses II last great warrior king,
19th dynasty. After death of father
threw aside brother and became
• Known for battle against the
Hittites to regain empire in Asia,
his victory shown on walls of his
temple. Cemented ties to the
Hittites by marrying their
• Had 200 wives and concubines,
sired 96 sons and 60 daughters
during 67 year reign. Outlived 13
heirs, died at 90.
• Found in 1881; skin, hair, and
teeth still in tact. 5’8”, curved
spine of age. Had dyed hair red,
peppercorns in nose to keep hook.
Mummified head of Ramses II 36
• Found burial in 1995 near KV5 with remains of many
sons. Largest tomb ever found. Only partially excavated,
(major floods every 50 years) could have lower level,
robbed within 500 years of construction.
• Normally tombs with 5 rooms: here over 150. Many
images of Ramses greeting sons into next world.
• Temple of Ramses II had inscriptions that he used
prisoners of war as laborers, located in Nubia to proclaim
identification with Ra and show Egyptian domination.
Also had temple for Queen and chief wife Nefertari. 37
*Figure 3-23 Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1290–1224 BCE. Sandstone, colossi approx. 65’ high.
• In 1968 tunneled 180 feet into cliff to move 600 feet higher for the
ﬂooding of the new Aswan dam (no more yearly ﬂoods)
• 4 colossal statues of self at front with typical headdress, each 65 feet
tall seated. Figures of family between legs.
• Statues toppled by Christians: was pharaoh at time Moses left Egypt. 38
Figure 3-23 Alternate View
view of rock-cut façade fr SE (moved to higher ground in 1960s)
• Hypostyle hall eight 33 foot tall
statues of Osiris with face of
Ramses. Pillars not load
Figure 3-24 Interior of the temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel
(now relocated), Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1290–1224 BCE.
Sandstone, pillar statues approx. 32’ high.
• Nobleman scribe and
counter of grain.
• In text: “enjoying
recreation in his eternal
• Hunting with wife and
naturalistic, he is typical)
• Men’s skin often darker
(time outside), noble
women lighter, expected
to stay out of sun.
• Not static pose:
swinging throwing stick.
*Figure 3-30 Fowling scene, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt,
Water in usual way, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1400–1350 BCE. Fresco on dry plaster, approx. 2’ 8” high.
some shading on the British Museum, London.
• Abundance in afterlife.
*Figure 3-31 Musicians and dancers, detail of a fresco from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1400–
1350 BCE. Fragment approx. 1’ x 2’ 3”. British Museum, London.
• From same tomb. At burial family would have meal at tomb, and every
• Noble guests in formal rows, servants and entertainers more realistic:
proﬁle shows lesser importance, two musicians facing forward: very
• Shows soles of feet, shaded, movements of strands of hair, pleated
• Women in tomb art
• Many models from
tombs survive: not
wanted by robbers.
• Show common
• Top: women
Models placed in tombs
New Kingdom: Amarna Period
• Amenhotep IV introduces monotheism, changes his name to
Akhenaton (reviled god Amen, sacred to Thebes and
temples). Proclaims religion of Aton: enlarged powers of old
sun god to god of all men and moves capital to Akhetaten.
• New and universal god, prophet of Aton: 17 year reign.
• Tried to annihilate memory of former gods; priests resented
diminuition of gods they had served.
• Devoted completely to religious reform: Hittites began
taking back territory. Letters from his father asking why he
has neglected land.
• Temporary relaxation of focus on death: literature with
poetry, celebrates physical beauty and sensual pleasures.
• Amarna period: elongated head
and neck, intimate poses,
naturalistic, relaxed, androgynous
• Curving contours, full-lipped,
heavy lidded eyes.
• Was physically a weak man: narrow
chest, weak arms, pot belly,
feminine hips. So realistic:
diagnosis of glandular disorder
Marfans syndrome. Another
symptom causes you to be cold
(explains sun god?)
• Holds crook and ﬂail (for Osiris and
Egyptian royalty). Combined hedjet
and deshnet crowns.
*Figure 3-32 Akhenaton, from the temple of Aton, Karnak,
Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Sandstone, approx.
13’ high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. 45
• Model of Nefertiti, wife of
Akhenaton to be used when
making her royal portraits.
Unﬁnished (left eye), found in
artists studio with clay and casts
• Exaggerated weight of crown
(hair pulled up inside as well) and
length of neck, giving her ﬂower
• Attempt at realism unknown,
creases at corners of mouth show
Figure 3-33 THUTMOSE, Nefertiti, from Tell el-Amarna,
Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Painted limestone,
approx. 1’ 8” high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.
• Sunken relief of royal
family. King and Queen
seated: Queen on throne
with plants of uniﬁed
• Children in unnatural
proportions of miniature
adults, behavior of
• King kisses and pats
daughters, other stroking
mothers cheek, all 3
nude, younger shaved as
custom: older with patch
Figure 3-35 Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters, from Tell el-Amarna,
of hair in braid.
Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Limestone, approx. 12 1/4” high.
• Center: sun reaches Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.
down, rays end in hands • Akhenaton also made open-air altars for sun
and ankhs (breath of life).
• Tiye mother of Akhenaton,
commoner by birth,
married for love.
• Older with lines and
furrows, carved wood,
ebony eyes with glass,
earrings of gold and lapis
• Covering original silver
foil headdress with cobras
and jewelry. Headcloth of
plaster and linen, small
blue beads added when son
in power for solar
Figure 3-34 Tiye, from Gurob, Egypt, Dynasty
XVIII, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Wood, with gold,
silver, alabaster, and lapis lazuli, approx. 3 3/4”
high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.
New Kingdom: Tutankhamen
• Akhenaton’s son by minor wife, ruled 9 years and
died at 18.
• Persuaded by priests to restore polytheism and move
capital back to Thebes. Also changed name from
• Best know for tomb discovery in tact in 1922.
5,000 works of art including mummy. Toured in 1970,
greatest number of visitors recorded for any single
tour of works.
• Shows what wealth others must have had!! Also
could be more wealthy due to restoring polytheism.50
Tutankhamen tomb Discovery
• Howard Carter made the discovery, had been
digging for 6 years and was twice within 2 yards of the
tombs entrance. When he found, lit a match into the
dark and saw “everywhere the glint of gold.”
• Fruit, flowers, camp bed, toy box, 4 chariots
covered in gold, golden couches, walls, solid gold
• Outside: “death shall come on swift wings to him
who disturbs the peace of the king”. More than 20
people connected to unsealing died under mysterious
Tutankhamen tomb Discovery continued…
• Lord Canarvon (paid for expedition) came for tomb
opening. Went to Aswan and was bitten on cheek by
mosquito: shaved and opened wound, became
infected. No antibiotics: died at 57.
• At exact moment of death, all electricity went out in
• Cobra snake got into Carter’s house and ate his pet
• Vultures (signs of lower Egypt) circled tomb all day.
• 1972 artifacts at British museum, weeks before
foreman of museum dropped dead: crews sworn to
secrecy not to mention curse. 52
• Chair back from
Tut’s tomb: he and
with sign of Aten,
not as formal.
• Remnants of his
Back of chair in tomb of Tutankhamen, Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca.
1323 BCE. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
• Royal mummy inside 3 coffins shaped as Osiris.
Outermost 2 in wood with gilded gold, inside solid
gold weighing 250 pounds.
• Tut found in original state: dried flowers and beads
on chest, linen around head. End of mummy ritual
poured gallons of oil into coffin: made face affix to
mask and body stick to coffin: had to cut into parts to
• In linen found over 100 pieces of jewelry.
• Tut had spine disease: found 130 walking sticks.
• Both innermost and
middle with beaten
gold, lapis lazuli,
• Rigid pose, closed
crook and ﬂail (used
to thresh grain,
• Two goddesses
protecting head, *Figure 3-36 Innermost and middle
cofﬁn of Tutankhamen, from his
wings around upper tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty
body of Horus.
XVIII, ca. 1323 BCE. Gold with
inlay of enamel and semiprecious
stones, approx. 6’ 1” long. Egyptian
• Death mask with relaxed
face, conﬁdent in afterlife.
• Unusually full lips and thin
nose hints at Amarna style.
• Mask to prove person
belonged with kings,
inscription from the Book of
the Dead on the back.
*Figure 3-37 Death mask of Tutankhamen, from the
innermost coffin in his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty
XVIII, ca. 1323 BCE. Gold with inlay of semiprecious
stones, 1’ 9 1/4” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
• Lid shows Tut as
great hunter: side
great warrior (too
young to ﬁght but
must be shown as
• Tut larger, drawing
bow against Asian
enemies who fall in
confusion into desert
surface with dots.
Slays in great
• Vulture goddess
shelters with wings. Figure 3-38 Painted chest, from the Tomb of Tutankhamen, Thebes, Egypt, ca. 1333–
1323 BCE. Wood, approx. 1’ 8” long. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
3 sets of chariots
Book of the Dead
• Book of the Dead to help survive tests: placed among
mummy. Illustrated on papyrus scrolls, some 70 feet
• Some sold with owners name inscribed in blank space,
costing a middle class person 6 months salary: worth the
price; importance of afterlife.
• Last judgement: if worthy of eternal life. Weighs heart
(seat of soul) against feather (of goddess Maat: protector
of truth and right).
• Led into
*Figure 3-39 Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca.
1290–1280 BCE. Painted papyrus scroll, approx. 1’ 6” high. British Museum, London.
• Ammit (half hippo/lion) waits to devour sinful.
• Above witnesses. Ibis headed god Thoth stenographer, (invented
• After justiﬁed, brought to Horus (falcon head) to green faced Osiris
(shown mummiﬁed in white shroud, ﬂoating on natron)
• Four sons of Horus entrusted with organ on lotus blossom out of lake.
• Goddess Isis and Nephys to receive eternal life.
Opening of the Mouth, from the Last Judgement of Hu-Nefer
• Restored the mummies ability to breath, feel, hear, and speak. Most
important: can say prayers to get into the next world.
• Priest with leopard skin, altar, two priests in white robes with ritual
• Two mourning women, mummy, and Anubis. Stele tomb behind with
• Late Period: Egypt lost commanding
role, empire dwindled, land invaded and
ruled by foreign powers.
• Mentemhet is last mentioned reign, 25th
dynasty in 7th century b.c.e.
• Rigid, frontal, arms at side, left leg
advanced, only realism in head and
double-wig differs from Old Kingdom.
Figure 3-40 Mentuemhet, from Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XXVI, ca. 650
BCE. Granite, approx. 4’ 5” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.