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The Art of Ancient EgyptArtfortheAfterlife    Seated Scribe    ca. 2600 BCEPainted limestone     Old Kingdom              ...
The Measure of a Man                                                     Vanessa Beecroft, VB45.007.DR, 2001              ...
Egyptomania                            Luxor Hotel                            Las Vegas, NV                               ...
EgyptDates and Places:• 3500-1000BCE• Nile River Valley (fertile--  then a lush land of  marshes and ridges)People:• Divin...
EgyptThemes:• Gods• Rulers• Life and death (the afterlife)• OfferingsForms:• Stone and mud brick construction• Natural and...
Egypt: The Vocabulary of Power                                                               Narmer                       ...
Egypt: The Vocabulary of Power• Ceremonial palette (stone slab with  circular depression) commonly used  to prepare eye ma...
“Regarding the Pain of Others” (Sontag)from Abu Ghraib Prison Iraq, 2004                                    Francisco de G...
Egypt – Tombs & the Afterlife• Knowledge of Egypt from tombs &  burial artifacts• Preoccupation with afterlife• Mastaba (s...
Egypt - Mummification                                                        King Tut’s Death maskReconstruction of King T...
Egypt – SpatialHierarchies(Old Kingdom) Hammurabi and Shamash, detail of the stele with Law Code of Hammurabi ca. 1780BCE,...
Egypt – Spatial Hierarchies                           Great Sphinx, Gizeh                                               pl...
Egypt: Old KingdomTomb Sculpture –The Measure of a Man(God and King)           Khafre Enthroned                Gizeh, Egyp...
Old Kingdom Tomb Sculpture•   Ka sculpture for king’s temple    (Valley of Kings)•   Stone (diorite) used for tomb    stat...
Egypt - OldKingdom TombSculpture  Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt,                   painted limestone           in mastab...
Egypt - Old KingdomTomb Sculpture•   Painted relief for tomb of Ti•   One of many depictions of    agriculture and hunting...
Egypt – NewKingdomArchitecture  Colonnade  (row of columns usually  spanned by lintels above)                             ...
Hypostyle hall         ClerestoryEgypt – NewKingdom                                              22’Architecture          ...
Egypt - Defying theCanon (New KingdomSculpture)AkhenatonTemple ofAtonKarnak, Egyptca. 1350 BCEsandstone13’ high
Egypt – Defying the Canon • New Kingdom pharaoh • Changed name from Amenhotep IV to         Akhenaton Akhenaton           ...
Egypt –Defying theCanon    Thutmose, Nefertiti, ca.    1353-1335BCE. Painted limestone, 1’8”, Fig. 1-34.
Egypt – Defying the Canon•   Akhenaton’s wife•   Name means “The Beautiful One Has Come”•   Influential queen (shared powe...
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Lecture, Ancient Egypt

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Lecture, Ancient Egypt

  1. 1. The Art of Ancient EgyptArtfortheAfterlife Seated Scribe ca. 2600 BCEPainted limestone Old Kingdom http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/seated-scribe.html
  2. 2. The Measure of a Man Vanessa Beecroft, VB45.007.DR, 2001 c-print Illustration of the Egyptian canon of proportions
  3. 3. Egyptomania Luxor Hotel Las Vegas, NV Steve Martin, King Tut, SNL, 1979 http://www.hulu.com/watch/55342 Elizabeth Taylor Cleopatra 1963 Howard Carter, Tutankhamen’s Tomb, 1923http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ZWB5-aXMXQ The Bangles, Walk Like an Egyptian, 1986
  4. 4. EgyptDates and Places:• 3500-1000BCE• Nile River Valley (fertile-- then a lush land of marshes and ridges)People:• Divine rulers• Agriculture• Hieroglyphic writing system• Polytheism (many gods) Map of Ancient Egypt
  5. 5. EgyptThemes:• Gods• Rulers• Life and death (the afterlife)• OfferingsForms:• Stone and mud brick construction• Natural and conceptual treatments of figures• Strict adherence to Egyptian canon Menkaure and (rule of representation according to Khamerernebty(?), unity of measurement) ca. 2490-2472BCE.• Registers of space Fig. 1-27.• Hierarchy of scale
  6. 6. Egypt: The Vocabulary of Power Narmer (crown of Lower Egypt)Hathor(divinemother) BeheadedNarmer enemies(crown ofUpperEgypt) Horus (protector Papyrus Circular of pharaohs) (Lower depression Egypt) (surrounded Slain by feline enemies Heads) Palette of King Narmer, ca. 3000-2920BCE, Predynastic period
  7. 7. Egypt: The Vocabulary of Power• Ceremonial palette (stone slab with circular depression) commonly used to prepare eye makeup• Marks transition from prehistorical to historical Egypt• Story of unification of Upper and Lower Egypt• Divine ruler (Narmer) and gods (Hathor (cow), Horus (falcon), etc)• Symbols of authority• Canon of proportions (would last for Palette of King Narmer, ca. 3,000 yrs) 3000-2920BCE. Fig. 1-22• Hierarchy of scale (Narmer much larger than attendants and enemies)• Composite view (head profile, chest frontal, legs in profile• Hieroglyphs (Narmer’s name)
  8. 8. “Regarding the Pain of Others” (Sontag)from Abu Ghraib Prison Iraq, 2004 Francisco de Goya, Disasters of War (What more can be done?), 1810-20, etching
  9. 9. Egypt – Tombs & the Afterlife• Knowledge of Egypt from tombs & burial artifacts• Preoccupation with afterlife• Mastaba (stone or brick structure erected over burial chamber)• Shaft connected tomb with outside world (so ka (spirit) could escape)• Contained chambers & compartments (statues, paintings, reliefs, etc. to accompany dead)• Axis mundi (ziggurat) Imhotep, Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precint of Djoser, 2630- 2611BCE. Fig. 1-24. Ziggurat at Ur, ca. 2100BCE. Fig. 1-11.
  10. 10. Egypt - Mummification King Tut’s Death maskReconstruction of King Tut’s face by Elisabeth Dayneshttp://www.daynes.com/en/home.php http://fieldmuseum.org/explore/multimedia/video-gilded-lady-mummy
  11. 11. Egypt – SpatialHierarchies(Old Kingdom) Hammurabi and Shamash, detail of the stele with Law Code of Hammurabi ca. 1780BCE, Babylon (Ancient Near East) Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, 4th Dynasty, ca. 2551-2528BCE. Fig. 1-1.
  12. 12. Egypt – Spatial Hierarchies Great Sphinx, Gizeh plateau, ca. 2551-2528BCE• Funerary precinct with burial pyramids and temples (enormous expense, built over 75 yrs)• Pyramid symbol of god Re (god of the sun, reborn daily)• Testifies to king’s power (oversee huge workforce quarrying, carrying, and dressing stone (wooden rollers/sleds)• Masonry (ashlar) construction with internal chambers (hoisted Man-headed lion (image of up on ramps with ropes/pulleys) Khafre & symbol of Re)• Stone facing reflected sun Fernand Khnopff The Sphinx (The Caress) 1896 oil on canvas
  13. 13. Egypt: Old KingdomTomb Sculpture –The Measure of a Man(God and King) Khafre Enthroned Gizeh, Egypt 4th Dynasty diorite, 5 ft 6” ca. 2500 BCE
  14. 14. Old Kingdom Tomb Sculpture• Ka sculpture for king’s temple (Valley of Kings)• Stone (diorite) used for tomb statuary• Quarried 400 miles up river• Attributes of pharaoh (nemes headdress (uraeus cobra), kilt, false beard)• Enthroned (resembles two lions’ bodies)• Between legs intertwined lotus and papyrus (symbolize united Egypt)• Horus (protector) behind head Khafre Enthroned• Idealized body (youthful divine Gizeh, Egypt 4th Dynasty leader) diorite, 5 ft 6”• Compact, frontal, solid, ca. 2500 BCE symmetrical (eternal power)
  15. 15. Egypt - OldKingdom TombSculpture Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt, painted limestone in mastaba of Ti, Saqqara 4’ high, Egypt, ca. 2450 BCE
  16. 16. Egypt - Old KingdomTomb Sculpture• Painted relief for tomb of Ti• One of many depictions of agriculture and hunting• Hippopotamus hunt (an allegory for Detail Hall of defeat of evil) Bulls• Ti and attendants in thick grove of Lascaux ca. 25,000 BCE papyrus• Animals (birds, foxes, fish, hippopotami) at top and bottom• Strict adherence to canon (system of proportions) in Ti Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt,• Composite (conceptual) painted limestone relief in representation (head in profile, mastaba of Ti, Saqqara 4’ high, Egypt, ca. 2450 chest frontal, legs in profile) BCE• Timeliness and enduring power in Victory Stele of Naram-Sin Ti’s aloof stance (detail) ca. 2254-2218BCE
  17. 17. Egypt – NewKingdomArchitecture Colonnade (row of columns usually spanned by lintels above) Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, New Kingdom, ca. 1473 BCE Sphinx of Hatshepsut, New Kingdom, ca. 1473 BCE
  18. 18. Hypostyle hall ClerestoryEgypt – NewKingdom 22’Architecture CapitalAmiens 66’Cathedral13th century ColumnCEFrance Model of the hypostyle hall Stonehenge, Temple of Salisbury Plain Amen-Re Wiltshire Karnak, Egypt England ca. 1290 BCE 2550 – 1600 BCE
  19. 19. Egypt - Defying theCanon (New KingdomSculpture)AkhenatonTemple ofAtonKarnak, Egyptca. 1350 BCEsandstone13’ high
  20. 20. Egypt – Defying the Canon • New Kingdom pharaoh • Changed name from Amenhotep IV to Akhenaton Akhenaton Temple of Aton • In honor of Aton (only god, sun) Karnak • Declared monotheism and moved ca. 1350 BCE temple down river (to Akhenaton) 13’ high • Brief departure from strict adherence to canon • Naturalism and realism • Androgynous & effeminate representation (thin, elongated face and arms, swollen belly, hips) • Identifying himself with Aton (not represented naturalistically but as sun itself)?The Royal FamilyAkhenaton, Nefertitiand their family
  21. 21. Egypt –Defying theCanon Thutmose, Nefertiti, ca. 1353-1335BCE. Painted limestone, 1’8”, Fig. 1-34.
  22. 22. Egypt – Defying the Canon• Akhenaton’s wife• Name means “The Beautiful One Has Come”• Influential queen (shared power?)• Named sculptor (Thutmose)• Deliberately unfinished (left eye not inlaid)• Ideal beauty over true likeness• Possibly resembles flower (enlarged head over thin, delicate neck) Thutmose, Nefertiti, Painted limestone 1’8” tall ca. 1353-1335BCE

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