Geography of Ancient Egypt• in Africa, 90% desert w/ grasses along Nile River.
• hot dry climate, w/ more rain in winter than summer• 2 seasons: Hot summers (May to Oct) w/ avg temp of 95• Mild winters (Nov to April) w/ avg winter temp: 48degrees)
• Don’t Write!• Blue Nile(Lake Tana in Ethiopia) joins White Nile (from Lake Victoria) at Khartoum• Nile flows N 4100 miles to Med Sea!
The Gift of the Nile*Floods yearly as snows in mtns melt depositing new, fresh black soil along river, very fertile (less than 24 miles across
• Nile used for fishing, shipping, irrigation, drinking, cooking & irrigation & trade around Med
• Egypt divided into 2 lands:• „Black Land„: fertile land on banks of Nile used for growing crops• Red Land: barren desert that protected Egypt from invaders. Precious minerals & stones
•Issues:• Floods too low, many starve• Too high, seeds, granaries destroyed• Desert reduced interaction •But:• Protection from invaders• Trade/transportation w/ river• Fertile soil replenished
*Farming villages dev by 5000 BC• 3200 BC, 2 separate kingdoms dev. (Upper & Lower Egypt)• Eventually unite
Upper Egypt• Higher elevation• Skinny strip of land from 1 st Cataract to where Nile starts to fan out in branches.
Upper Egypt• 1st Cataract at Aswan. (cataract: river turns to rapids, shallow water is broken by small boulders, stones & rocky islets,• Leader wore the white crown
Lower Egypt• Lower Egypt around Nile delta in N, where Nile empties into Med *Milder climate *Leader wore Red Crown
King Narmer• Around 3000 BC, Upper & Lower united by King Narmer (Menes/Scorpion?)• Narmer palate shows unification
• Put together crowns• Put capital, Memphis near line of U/L Egypt• Est 1 st dynasty (family of rulers) where (31 dynastiesspan 2600 years)
Blue crown (the Khepresh) was a blue clothor leather headdress decorated with bronze orgold discs. The Blue Crown was worn inbattles, as well as on ceremonial occasions. The Nemes Headdress was a blue and gold striped head cloth Atef crown was a white headdress decorated with ostrich feathers. It was worn during some religious rituals
Old Kingdom 2780-2200 BC• Wide spread patterns of civilization & ruling families known as DYNASTIES control Egypt• Pharaohs ( means great house) created irrigation systems from Nile• Papyrus invented (writing becomes tool of govt)
*Capital is Memphis• Accounting & record keeping• Trade expeditions• Wealth spread out btw kings & temples
Pharaohs• Pharaohs considered to be gods (represent Horus)• Govt based on religious authority (theocracy)• Pharoah center of religion & govt, leader of military & chief priest
• Responsible for kingdom‟s well being• Caused crops to grow, Nile to flood, sun to rise, success in battle• Promote truth & justice• *Landlord & nobles rent land from them
• Pharaoh was Horus in life, became Osiris in death & united w/rest of the gods.• Next Pharaoh was incarnation of Horus
Death of a Pharaoh• Believed king ruled after death• Eternal life force called KA needed resting place after death to protect spirit.• KA was like the living king with needs & pleasures
• Mastabas built early on, but later pyramids• whole towns developed around pyramids
Don’t write!!!!Mastabas• Earliest royal burials were pits dug in the ground with mounds built over them.• Mound was built roughly in the shape of a pyramid & made from mud brick or stone,• mounds covered burial chambers that were dug deep into the ground• Pyramids developed from mastabas. (Theory is, step pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara was originally a mastaba that had successively smaller square slabs built around it)• 1000s of mastabas all over Egypt, many of them w/ wall paintings• Paintings are a huge source of information on everyday life.
Djoser & the Step Pyramid• Djoser, Pharaoh (dynasty 3 2667-2648 BC), built monument to self designed by architect Imhotep• Built pyramid instead by putting 6 mastabas on top of one another
• Step Pyramid, world‟s most monumental stone structure (shows hi level of govt control of labor & resources & organization)
• Djoser’s Step Pyramid complex has several structures pivotal to its function in both life & afterlife. Its purpose was to create an afterlife for the king so that he could be eternally reborn.• Complex surrounded by a wall (14 doors, one leads to colonnade) , which is surrounded by a trench• Roofed colonnade had side chambers, lead to hallway w/columns• Large court near pyramid w/ platform & double steps (represents throne to cont. to rule in afterlife)• Small s tomb w/ 3 chambers, decorated, showing king running festivals• Pyramid w/ substructure w/ chambers & galleries that look like palace (place for the ka)• Burial chamber blocked by 3.5 ton block. Robbed• Northern funerary temple for rituals (king can use it to go to north Star)
• No wheel• Quarried stone blocks (used granite & limestone)• Blocks (weigh 1.5-2.5 tons) transported on sleds, barges
• Inclined earthen ramps built up & torn down as pyramid finished (may be straight or spiral around pyramid)• No written records or art of how built
• DON”T WRITE!!!!• Built by farmers outside of farming season (slaves also)• 20,000 to 30,000 workers• Lived in villages around pyramids, had supervisors!• 118 known pyramids (2008)• buried with treasures to help pharoah in next world• Walls covered with pics & hieroglyphs telling story of Pharaohs deeds• "Friends of Khufu," "Drunkards of Menkaure
The Pyramids of Giza (don’t write)• Giza Pyramids were built 4,500 years ago.• Egypts pharaohs expected to become gods in the afterlife. To prepare for the next world they erected temples to the gods & massive pyramid tombs for themselves—filled with all the things each ruler would need to guide &sustain himself in the next world.• Pharaoh Khufu began the first Giza pyramid project, circa 2550 B.C.• His Great Pyramid is the largest in Giza & towers some 481 feet (147 meters) above the plateau. Its estimated 2.3 million stone blocks each weigh an avg of 2.5 to 15 tons.• Khufus son, Pharaoh Khafre, built the 2nd pyramid at Giza, circa 2520 B.C. His necropolis also included the Sphinx. The Sphinx may stand sentinel for the pharaohs entire tomb complex.• The 3rd of the Giza Pyramids is smaller than the first two. Built by Pharaoh Menkaure circa 2490 B.C., it featured a much more complex mortuary temple.• Each massive pyramid is but one part of a larger complex, including a palace, temples, solar boat pits, and other features.
*Don’t write!!Shape thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun, & most pyramids were faced with polished, highly reflective white limestone, in order to give them a brilliant appearance when viewed from a distance*While it is generally agreed that pyramids were burial monuments, there is continued disagreement on the particular theological principles (One theory is that they were designed as a type of "resurrection machine)• Egyptians believed dark area of the night sky around which the stars appear to revolve was the physical gateway into the heavens.• One of the narrow shafts that extends from the main burial chamber through the entire body of the Great Pyramid points directly towards the center of this part of the sky.• suggests the pyramid may have been designed to serve as a means to magically launch the deceased pharaohs soul directly into the abode of the gods.• All Egyptian pyramids were built on the west bank of the Nile, which as the site of the setting sun was associated with the realm of the dead in Egyptian mythology
Don’t’ Write!!!• Probably took 23 years (Khufu 2551 to 2528 BC)• Herodotus writes about 10 years of preparation & 20 years of building• Per Day: With 2500000 stones, 342 stones have to be moved daily (working during 365 days a year) or 431 stones daily (working during 290 days a year).• Per minute 10-hour day: every 2 minutes a stone (34 to 43 per hour) 8-hour day: nearly a stone every minute (42 to 53 stones per hour
Mummification• Mummification: Process to dry a dead body1.Workshops run by priests2. Remove brain by using a hook thru nose
3. Remove liver, lungs, stomach & intestines. Placed in 4 canopic jars to be protected by sons of Horus
4.Body soaked for 70 days in salt solution (natron)5. Spices rubbed on body (cinnamon, myrrh) & holes filled with linen soaked in resin6.Make up artist
7.Next oils & resin brushed on8. Gold plate with wedjet eye over incision9. Body wrapped in linen10.Amuletsinserted btw linens
Don‟t write!UshabtiIt means “the one who answers”.The ushabti is small statue, sometimes in the form of amummy, that was placed in atomb. They were thought to take care of or do work for the mummy in their afterlife. S Westwood 2010
• Monument carved from bedrock w/ blocks of limestone to enlarge it (hammers, bronze chisels)• Body of lion (represents strength of ruler) & head of a man (face of the ruler)• Represents Ra, sun god
• Largest surviving sculpture from ancient world• Mysteries: Unknown Purpose: Symbolic guard? Portrait? Who built it? Khafre? Khufu?• Legend says secret passages exist under the body & archaeologists have found 3 tunnels. Mystery!
Don‟t‟ write!! Most think Sphinx built by Khafre ( 2575—2465 BC)*Theory that it may be older. Inscription in Great Pyramid (600 BC), records that Pharaoh Khufu— Khafres father—repaired Sphinxs tail & headdress.*Some believe Sphinx mayhave been built by Khufu,others date it as far backas 3100 BC, before theunification ofUpper & Lower Egypt
• DON’T WRITE!!!• According Dream Stele, while Thutmose IV was on a hunting trip, he stopped to rest under the head of the Sphinx, which was buried up to the neck in sand. He fell asleep & had a dream in which the Sphinx told him that if he cleared away the sand &restored it he would become the next Pharaoh.• After completing the restoration of Sphinx he placed a carved stone tablet, now known as the Dream Stele, btw 2 paws of Sphinx.• The restoration of the Sphinx & text of Dream Stele was a piece of propaganda on Thutmoses part, to make him the legit king
1st Intermediate Period 2160-2040 BC*Lower levels of wealthy rebel• class of feudal lords dev.• Pharaoh now son of a god.• Crops fail, hunger widespread, famine, ess trade• Pharaohs blamed. Gov became rulers
Middle Kingdom:2050-1630 BC*11th-13th dynasties: *Mentuhotep II (2061 BC) takes over Theben throne & reunites Egypt*Mentuhotep IV‟s vizier, Amenemhet I, overthrows him
* moves capital to Itjtway (El-Lisht today?)• Ruled 30 yrs, bringing peace• makes son Senurset I coregent (Amen is murdered)*Return to Old Kingdom pyramids.
*Senusret III, (1878-1839 BC) warrior pharaoh, led successful wars against Nubia,Kush, Meso, Syria & Palestine. Built forts, designed canals around cataracts
• Mining in Sinai*Thebes capital, Abydos center of trade & Karnak est to worship Amun & Osiris
2nd Intermediate Period:1650-1550 Bc• Don’t Write!• Queen Sobekneferu dies, no heirs,• Power splits between multiple centers (Avairs, Thebes & Itjtway) & provisional governors take over• 13th dynasty pharaohs lose power as when Hyksos take over. Warlike, use horses, chariots, bronze weapons, destroy cities!
2nd Intermediate Period :1650-1550 BC• military tech advances (bow bronze weapons, chariots).• Horse lute & lyre• Princes rebel against Hyskos• 1600 BC Pharaohs use same tools to fight back & drive out Hyksos (cultural diffusion
New Kingdom 1580-1090 BC• Ahmose 1 expels Hyskos,, reasserts Egypt‟s power in Thebes, Nubia & Canaan, opens mines, trade routes & building programs! (18th dynasty 1549 BC )
New Kingdom 1580-1090 BC• Wealthiest, most powerful period• Standing army takes territory (archers, charioteers, foot soldiers)• Lots of trade• Thebes becomes center again w/ focus on Karnak, Luxor & Valley of the Kings
DON’T WRITE• Many important pharaohs! HatshepsutThutmose III Ramses II Akhnaton And King Tut!
Hatshepsut 1491-1479 BC• Married to Thutmose II. Took over at death, blocked step-son from throne• Wore men‟s clothes, ceremonial beard)
• Focus on trade to Punt (near Somalia) bringing back gold, animals, plants, ivory• Built, temple at Karnak & worked on Valley of the Kings (new burial place
Karnak A city of temples near the ancient city of Thebes. Thebes is now called Luxor. S Westwood 2010
Thutmose III 1479-1424 BC• Step-son of Hat. (May have killed her)
• Warrior!!! Ran 17 military campaigns in 19 years!• Conquers Palestine, Phoenicia, Syria & Nubia• Brings new ideas & goods to Egypt
• Don’t Write!!!!• New Kingdom warrior pharaoh image include: 1. The pharaoh leading his soldiers into battle & returning in victory. 2. Attacking the enemy in his chariot, 3. Wearing war regalia, e.g. the blue war crown or other pharaonic headdresses. 4. Holding 1 or more enemies w/ 1 hand, while he clubs their heads with a mace- “smiting the enemy.”5.In the guise of a sphinx trampling the enemy.6. Offering the spoils of war to the god Amun,
Ramses II 1279-1213 BC*Ramses the Great*Ruled 66 years*Known for war campaigns in Nubia & Med
• Don‟t Write!• Signed treaty w/ Hittites for peace• Added to Amon-Ra‟s temple at Luxor, temple to self (Rasmesseum), added to temple of Karnak carved Abu Simbel out of cliff along Nile
• At least 8 royal wives & officially 20 boys & 20 girls, but probably over 100 kids!• Nefertari most famous(small temple at AbuSembal, large opulenttomb (depicted w/husband, unusual)
Amenhotep IV: 1353-1335?,1.Cont dad‟s effort to worship 1 god, Amon-Ra2. Switched to Aton (“sole god, beside whom there is no other”) Sun disk, creator & giver of life. (monothiestic)
3. Change name to Ikhnaton (or Akhnaton)4.built own capital by the Nile, called, "Akhetaten", th e Horizon of the Aton.(Tel-El Amarna)
• Priests freak out when Ikh ordered all to worship one god, destroyed Amon‟s name on temples (even Dad‟s name!) & pics of other gods be destroyed
• Went against Egypt‟s way of life. Hated by priests as they lost power• Debate over succession upon death. (Wife? Son? Tut!)
Don’t write!!!!Portrayals of Akhenaten, w/ a sagging stomach, thick thighs, larger breasts, & long, thin face led Egyptologists to suppose that Akhenaten suffered some kind of genetic abnormality. Marfan or Froelichs syndrome?
King Tut 1334-1325 BC1. Son of Akhnaton2. ruler at 93. Married sister4. Original name Tutankhaton. Changed to Tutankhamun.
5.Returned Egypt 2 traditional beliefs in Amon Ra.6. Dedicated temples at Karnak & Luxor, gave gifts to priests of Amon Ra7.Murdered at 18/19?
• Don’t write!!• Wife wrote letter to marry Hittite king’s son, but was killed along way. Forced to marry Ay, general who took throne.• War fought, Egypt loses.• Angry priests destroy records of father & son (why tomb survived)
Decline of Egypt• Abt 1300 Bc small invasions begin w/ Hittites• Ramses II makes peace treaty in 1200 BC w/ Hittites, become allies• Waves of invaders, including Sea Peoples sweep through
DON’T WRITE! 1150-332 invaded repeatedly• Ethiopians 1150 BC• Libyans 950 BC• Kush 751 BC• Assyrians 670 BC• Persians 525 BC• Greeks 331 BC (Alexander the Great w/ Cleopatra as last pharaoh)• Romans: 31 BC now Roman province
Why did it decline?• Pharaohs often concerned w building for own glory• Heavy taxes• Lots of $$$$$ spent trying to expand border• Little individual freedom• Stuck w/ social class system (No real middle class)
Egypt‟s Economy:*Agricultural: wheat, barley, vegetables, figs, melons, pomegranates, flax (linen) onions, leeks, cabbages, beans, cucumbers & lettuce.*Fruit trees & vines for shade & fruit
• Most villagers farmers, work for Pharoah.• *Paid in units of beer, bread, cloth & meat• Simple tools: winnowing scoops, hoes, rakes, *Repair during flood season!
Egypt’s Economy• Traded w/ countries around Med, Aegean & Red Seas (No coins, bartered!)• Import: silver, iron, cedar logs, horses, ivory, copper, cattle, skins & spices.• Export: gold & minerals, wheat, barley & papyrus sheet
• Polytheistic (many gods)• Believed gods control all.• Pharaoh is Horus/Osiris• Priests highest social class, powerful• Book of the Dead: guided the soul in the after life
Anubis: God of the Dead *weighs heart against a feather, to get eternal life, weigh feather. Too heavy, eaten by Devourer of Souls *Head of a jackal
• Ra: god of sun. head of a hawk, w/ sun disk S Westwood 2010
• Amon-god of air/wind. Thought of as the soul & to have created world.*Worshipped at Thebes,
• Osiris: god growing things, after life & rebirth.• Marries sister Isis• Killed by Seth (tricked into a chest, then cut up. Isis puts him back puts him back together. (pharaoh in death)
• Isis: goddess of women & kids. Married to Osiris• Set(h); God of chaos. Brother of Isis & Osiris. “kills” Osiris. Battles Horus.
• Horus: sky god, god of war, god to protect against evil.• Was son of Ra, by MK, son of Isis & Osiris. *His sons protect canopic jars
Eye of HorusA picture of the eye of god Horus .A symbol of protection and truth. S Westwood 2010
Major Contributions!• Medicine: Surgery,dentistry, setting bones, medicines(Surgical tools such as knives, hooks, drills, forceps & pinchers, scales,spoons, saws)
• Land surveying: to build pyramids & to tax accurately• Papyrus: made paper. (stalk of papyrusreed on Nile (splitinto strips, placed crosswise, dampened,pressed. Gluedtogether as it dried)
• Large scale irrigation: Nile• Ship-building: learned how to build out of wood planks & create sails
• Calendar: 365 day calendar w/ 12 months.(30 days permonth, 10days in week,5 remainingwere feastdays)
• Math: 1 stroke for 1,2 of 2, etc. No zero• Engineering: square & right angles, calculate area
• Public administration: army of scribes track data, history, etc to make predictions harvest, tax yield & allot to govt projects
More Major Contributions• Hieroglyphs: alphabet of 24 sings. Represent consonants (vowels have no sign)
Don’t Write!!!• Stacked, not left to right.• Visually hieroglyphs are mostly figurative: represent real or illusional elements, sometimes stylized & simplified, but all generally recognizable in form. However, the same sign can, according to context, be interpreted in diverse ways
Senet A race game played in Ancient Egypt. The original rules are still unknown though boards and playing pieces have been found. S Westwood 2010
scarabSacred Egyptian symbol ofa beetle. It was a protectorof written products S Westwood 2010
cartouche The name of a pharaoh inhieroglyphs surrounded by an oval band. S Westwood 2010
ankh of A symbol „eternal life S Westwood 2010