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Ch1 What You Eat


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Ch1 What You Eat

  1. 1. Chapter 1 What You Eat and Why? Lecture PowerPoint Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Chapter 1: What You Eat and Why?
  3. 3. What is Nutrition?
  4. 4. N utrition is <ul><li>“ the science of food, the nutrients and the substances therein, their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease, and the process by which the organism ingests, absorbs, transport, utilizes, and excretes food substances”---- The Council on Food and Nutrition of the American Medical Association </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nutrients Come from Food <ul><li>Provide energy </li></ul><ul><li>Provide building blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Vital for growth and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Essential </li></ul>
  6. 6. Essential Nutrient <ul><li>Omission leads to decline </li></ul><ul><li>Regain normal function when restored to the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Has specific biological function </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why study nutrition?
  8. 8. Nutrition and Health <ul><li>Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for chronic diseases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease of the heart (26.6% of all deaths) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer (22.8%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrovascular disease (5.9%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes (3.1%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for ~2/3 of all deaths </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Maintain optimal health </li></ul><ul><li>“ Affliction of Affluence” </li></ul><ul><li>We are living longer </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Six Classes of Nutrients <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  11. 12. Nutrient Functional Categories <ul><li>Provide calories </li></ul><ul><li>For growth, development, and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate body processes </li></ul>
  12. 13. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Major source of fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharide (glucose) </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and complex forms </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Energy yielding (~4 kcal /gm) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Lipids <ul><li>Composed of carbon, hydrogen, fewer oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats and oils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Energy yielding fats and oils (~9 kcal /gm) </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul>
  14. 15. Proteins <ul><li>Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Structural material </li></ul><ul><li>(9) Essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>(11) Nonessential amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Energy yielding (~4 kcal /gm) </li></ul><ul><li>Excess protein intake </li></ul>
  15. 16. Vitamins <ul><li>Composed of various elements </li></ul><ul><li>Enable chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Fat soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Yield no energy </li></ul>
  16. 17. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic substances </li></ul><ul><li>Function in cellular processes, nervous system, water balance, structural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Not destroyed during cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Trace minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Major minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolytes </li></ul><ul><li>Yield no energy </li></ul>
  17. 18. Water <ul><li>Composed of hydrogen, oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of our body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Found in foods </li></ul><ul><li>Yields no energy </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended intake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9-13 cups/day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solvent, lubricant, medium for transport, chemical processes, and temperature regulator </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Phytochemicals <ul><li>A chemical found in plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not considered essential nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide significant health benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in fruits and vegetables </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Composition
  20. 23. Transformation of Energy Carbohydrate Protein Fat Alcohol 4 kcal/gm 4 kcal/gm 9 kcal/gm 7 kcal/gm ENERGY SOURCES Build new compounds Muscular movement Nerve transmission Ion balance
  21. 24. What is a Calorie? <ul><li>Measurement of energy </li></ul><ul><li>“ The amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius” </li></ul><ul><li>1,000 calories = 1 kcal = 1(food) Calorie </li></ul>
  22. 25. Sample Calculation of a Nutrition Label <ul><li>Per serving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate: 15g x 4 kcal/g = 60 kcal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRO: 3g x 4 kcal/g = 12 kcal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT: 1g x 9 kcal/g = 9 kcal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL: 81 kcal, rounded down to 80 </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Contribution to Total kcal <ul><li>One day ’s intake (1980 kcal) </li></ul><ul><li>290 gm of carbohydrate (x 4 kcal/gm) </li></ul><ul><li>60 gm of fat (x 9 kcal/gm) </li></ul><ul><li>70 gm of protein (x 4 kcal/gm) </li></ul><ul><li>% of kcal as carbohydrate = (290 x 4)/1980 = 0.59 or 59% </li></ul><ul><li>% of kcal as Fat= (60 x 9)/1980 = 0.27 or 27% </li></ul><ul><li>% of kcal as PRO= (70 x 4)/1980 = 0.14 or 14% </li></ul>
  24. 27. The Typical American Diet <ul><li>16% of kcal as proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~66% from animal sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10-35% advised </li></ul></ul><ul><li>50% of kcal as carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~50% from simple sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45-65% advised </li></ul></ul><ul><li>33% of kcal as fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~60 % from animal fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20-35% advised </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Assessing Our Diets <ul><li>National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) [US Dept. of Health & Human Services] </li></ul>
  26. 29. Improving Our Diets <ul><li>Monitor energy intake </li></ul><ul><li>Salt (sodium) in moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol in moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Fat in moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Eat 5-A-Day </li></ul><ul><li>Use supplements wisely, if at all </li></ul><ul><li>Mealtime is a social time </li></ul>
  27. 30. Healthy People 2010 <ul><li>Promote healthy lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce preventable deaths and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce obesity in adults and children </li></ul><ul><li>Increase intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain products </li></ul><ul><li>Lower intake of fat, saturated fats, and sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Increase intake of calcium and iron </li></ul>
  28. 32. Why Am I So Hungry? <ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical biological drive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appetite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological drive </li></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Satiety <ul><li>Regulated by the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding center </li></ul><ul><li>Satiety center </li></ul><ul><li>Meal size and composition </li></ul><ul><li>Macronutrients in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul>
  30. 35. Eating Well in College <ul><li>Freshman Fifteen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressful situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Exercise </li></ul></ul>
  31. 36. Eating Well in College <ul><li>Tips to avoid the freshmen fifteen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat breakfast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan ahead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit liquid calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock the fridge with healthy choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise regularly </li></ul></ul>