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  1. 1. Veggie Tales: or The Benefits of a Vegetarian Diet ©
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>What is a Vegetarian? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics about Vegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetarian Food Guide Pyramid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meal Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Living in Harmony with Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion Towards Animals </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Vegetarian? <ul><li>A vegetarian is someone who chooses not to eat meat or fish but eats eggs and dairy products. </li></ul><ul><li>A vegan (vee-g uhn ) is someone who does not eat meat, fish, eggs, dairy, honey or any animal products. </li></ul>
  4. 4. About Vegetarians <ul><li>Vegetarians make up about 3% of the population of the United States, or approximately 4.7 million adults (Stahler, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>This figure has remained steady over the past fifteen years (Riesner, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Vegans account for 40% of the vegetarian population (Messina, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Most consumers of vegetarian products are women over 35 years old (Reisner, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarian products are more popular in the health-conscious east and west coasts than in the heartland of the United States (Reisner, 2006). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Statistics About Vegetarians <ul><li>Percentage of Various Groups Who Never Eat Meat </li></ul><ul><li>(Rounded to Whole Numbers) </li></ul><ul><li>7% Total Adults </li></ul><ul><li>5% Male </li></ul><ul><li>9% Female </li></ul><ul><li>9% 45- to 54-year-olds </li></ul><ul><li>5% 18- to 24-year-olds </li></ul><ul><li>8% North East </li></ul><ul><li>6% North Central </li></ul><ul><li>6% South </li></ul><ul><li>7% West </li></ul><ul><li>6% White (excluding Hispanic) </li></ul><ul><li>7% Black (excluding Hispanic) </li></ul><ul><li>8% Hispanic </li></ul><ul><li>4% High School Not Completed </li></ul><ul><li>6% High School Graduate </li></ul><ul><li>8% College Graduate </li></ul><ul><li>(Stahler, 2006) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why Be A Vegetarian? <ul><li>There are as many reasons for being a vegetarian as there are vegetarians. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reasons may be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthier lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compassion for animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing hormones and chemicals in the diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious teachings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Vegetarian Food Guide Pyramid Copyright ADAF 1997. Reproduction of this pyramid is permitted for educational purposes only.
  8. 8. Vegetarian Food Guide Choices <ul><li>Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta </li></ul><ul><li>Six to Eleven Servings Daily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bread - 1 slice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ready-to-eat cereal - 1 oz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cooked cereal - 1/2 cup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cooked rice, pasta, or other grains - 1/2 cup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bagel - ½ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fruit Group </li></ul><ul><li>Two to Four Servings Daily </li></ul><ul><li>juice - 3/4 cup dried fruit - 1/4 cup chopped, raw fruit - 1/2 cup canned fruit - 1/2 cup 1 medium-size piece of fruit, such as banana, apple, or orange </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Beans, Nuts, Seeds, Eggs, and Meat Substitutes </li></ul><ul><li>Two to Three Servings Daily </li></ul><ul><li>soy milk - 1 cup cooked dry beans or peas - 1/2 cup 1 egg or 2 egg whites nuts or seeds - 2 Tbsp tofu or tempeh - 1/4 cup peanut butter - 2 Tbsp </li></ul>
  9. 9. Vegetarian Food Guide Choices <ul><li>Vegetable Group </li></ul><ul><li>Three to Five Servings Daily </li></ul><ul><li>cooked or chopped raw vegetables - 1/2 cup raw leafy vegetables - 1 cup </li></ul><ul><li>Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese </li></ul><ul><li>Zero to Three Servings Daily </li></ul><ul><li>milk -1 cup yogurt -1 cup natural cheese - 1-1/2 oz </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians who choose not to use milk, yogurt, or cheese need to select other food sources rich in calcium. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats, Oils, and Sweets </li></ul><ul><li>Consume Sparingly </li></ul><ul><li>candy butter salad dressing cooking oil </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul><ul><li>National Center for Nutrition and Dietetics The American Dietetic Association </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the USDA Food Guide Pyramid </li></ul>
  10. 10. Planning a Vegetarian Meal <ul><li>Choose a variety of foods from the different food groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose eight or more servings a day of calcium rich foods. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a half cup of fortified juice counts as a serving of calcium and fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Include two servings everyday of foods that include n-3 fats which are in legumes/nuts and the fat groups. </li></ul><ul><li>A serving is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One teaspoon of flaxseed oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three teaspoons of canola or soybean oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One tablespoon of ground flaxseed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One quarter cup of walnuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the best balance of fats in your diet choose olive and canola oils. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Messina, Vesanto, & Mangels, 2003). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Planning a Vegetarian Meal <ul><li>Be sure to get enough vitamin D through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily sun exposure (15 minutes a day on face, hands, and forearms is adequate for light skinned people living in Boston) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cow’s milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some brands of soy milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortified breakfast cereals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be sure to get three good food sources of vitamin B-12 everyday. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One half cup of cow’s milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One cup of fortified soymilk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¾ cup of yogurt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One large egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One ounce of fortified breakfast cereal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-1/2 ounce of meat substitute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One tablespoon of Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula nutritional yeast </li></ul></ul><ul><li> (Messina, Vesanto & Mangels, 2003). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy: </li></ul><ul><li>A vegetarian diet is unhealthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>It is the position of the American Dietetic Association and the Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>American Dietetic Association, 2003 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarian diets are not nutritionally sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits, including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>American Dietetic Association, 2003 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians have increased incidents of health problems because of poor nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians have lower rates of death from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood cholesterol levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rates of hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rates of type 2 diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rates of prostrate and colon cancer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Dietetic Association, 2003 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians incur health risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Studies find vegetarians have a 24% lower mortality from ischemic heart disease than non-vegetarians. (Key, 1999). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy : </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians don’t consume enough protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Facts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical protein intakes of vegetarians appear to meet and exceed protein requirements although vegans may sometimes have marginal protein intake (American Dietetic Association, 2003). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetarians easily meet their protein needs by eating a varied diet, as long as they consume enough calories to maintain their weight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not necessary to plan combinations of foods. A mixture of proteins throughout the day will provide enough essential amino acids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of protein are beans, lentils, tofu, nuts, seeds, tempeh, chickpeas, peas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many common foods, such as whole grain bread, greens, potatoes, and corn, quickly add to protein intake. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians don’t have adequate iron intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show iron intake by vegetarians is higher than that of nonvegetarians (American Dietetic Association, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of iron are dried fruits, baked potatoes, mushrooms, cashews, dried beans, spinach, chard, tofu, tempeh, bulgur, and iron-fortified foods (such as cereals, instant oatmeal, and veggie &quot;meats&quot;) are all good sources of iron (Vegetarianism in a nutshell. 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>To increase the amount of iron absorbed at a meal, eat a food containing vitamin C, such as citrus fruit or juices, tomatoes, or broccoli. Using iron cookware also adds to iron intake. </li></ul><ul><li>(Vegetarianism, 2003) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians are generally overweight because of all the carbohydrates they consume. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians have been reported to have a lower body mass indices than nonvegetarians. </li></ul><ul><li>American Dietetic Association, 2003 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy: </li></ul><ul><li>It is harmful for children and pregnant or nursing women to adhere to a vegetarian diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood and adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>American Dietetic Association, 2003 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy: </li></ul><ul><li>A vegetarian diet is not appropriate for athletes </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes can meet their nutritional needs on plant based diets. </li></ul><ul><li>American Dietetic Association, 2003 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians are not very smart people. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Higher IQ scores in childhood are associated with an increased likelihood of being a vegetarian as an adult. (Gale, Deary, Schoon, & Batty, 2007) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fallacies and Facts about Vegetarianism <ul><li>Fallacy: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians are just plain crazy. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Meat eaters are more than twice as likely to develop dementia. </li></ul><ul><li>American Dietetic Association, 2003 </li></ul>
  23. 23. Environmental Benefits <ul><li>A vegetarian diet is the most energy efficient… it takes far less energy — from the fossil fuels used to fertilize and harvest crops, to the energy required to process feed for livestock, to the gas used to transport food to the grocery store — to feed vegans and vegetarians than meat eaters. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating more fish and less red meat, a shift that many consumers make for health reasons, doesn't necessarily help reduce energy consumption. Eating tuna, swordfish, shark, and other deep-ocean fish requires labor-intensive harvesting and long-distance transport, making the seafood highly energy inefficient. </li></ul><ul><li>(Nierenberg, 2006) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Environmental Benefits <ul><li>Producing livestock, not automobiles, is the main cause of global warming. In 2002, seventeen percent of all fossil fuels were devoted to food production (Wolfson, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>“ If every American skipped one meal of chicken per week and substituted vegetarian foods instead, the carbon dioxide savings would be the same as taking more than a half-million cars off U.S. roads.” (Meat) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The average animal-based diet in the United States...generates about 1.5 metric tons of carbon dioxide more per person per year more than a plant-based diet yielding the same amount of calories…roughly the emissions difference between driving a gas-guzzling SUV and a compact car” (Nierenberg, 2006). </li></ul>
  25. 25. Environmental Benefits <ul><li>Meat production emits gases into our atmosphere destroying our planet and it also contaminates the water through animal waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Topsoil erosion, overgrazing and deforestation in South American countries (clearing forests to allow for grazing and grain production) are other environmental problems involved with livestock production. </li></ul><ul><li>Meat production uses fifty percent of all the water consumed in the United States for any purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>When one pound of steak sizzles on the grill it has already consumed 2,500 gallons of water </li></ul><ul><li>(Wegman 1997). </li></ul>
  26. 26. Environmental Benefits <ul><li>Livestock consumes half of the U.S. agricultural yield. </li></ul><ul><li>Beef gives back only 10 pounds of edible protein for every 100 pounds of protein consumed and only four calories for every 100 calories consumed by the animal. </li></ul><ul><li>The return on livestock was sufficient when cattle were allowed to graze on grass pastures, turning plants that were not edible by humans into useful protein. Now cattle are given high-quality protein such as grains and soy. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are waste factories, turning out 90 percent waste and10 percent edible protein. </li></ul><ul><li>(Wegmann, 1997) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ending World Hunger <ul><li>It is estimated 14 vegetarians can live on the resources needed to feed only one person who eats meat and other animal products (Wegmann, 1997). </li></ul><ul><li>One acre of land can grow approximately 40,000 pounds of potatoes or 25 pounds of beef. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes 50,000 gallons of water to produce one pound of California beef but only 5 gallons of water to produce one pound of wheat.” (Duppler, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmed animals consume 70 percent of the corn, wheat, and other grains that we grow. </li></ul><ul><li>One-third of all the raw materials and fossil fuels used in the U.S. go to raising animals for food (Meat). </li></ul>
  28. 28. Living in Harmony with Nature <ul><li>A diet that is not in harmony with nature causes problems on all levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the inhumane treatment of animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A diet that is in harmony with nature brings benefits on all levels of life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sustainable environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>humane treatment of all life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Wegmann, 1997) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Compassion towards Animals <ul><li>In 1872 Charles Darwin’s work, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, concluded that animals are capable of feeling emotions. Current thinking in the scientific community supports Darwin’s theory to some extent (Wilhelm, 2006, p. 29).  </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding eating animals is a moral and ethical decision based on the sanctity of all life and accepting the responsibility to be stewards of the environment. This responsibility extends to the animals who share the earth with us. </li></ul><ul><li>A vegetarian saves the lives of approximately 100 animals annually (Meat) and saves them from suffering the inhumane treatment of being cruelly treated and slaughtered. </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings do not need meat to survive and can thrive on a vegetarian diet. Consequently, there is no need to indulge in slaughtering animals. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Celebrity Vegetarians <ul><li>Leonardo Da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>Leo Tolstoy </li></ul><ul><li>Clara Barton </li></ul><ul><li>George Bernard Shaw </li></ul><ul><li>Mahatma Gandhi </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Paul McCartney </li></ul><ul><li>Janet Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>k.d. lang </li></ul><ul><li>Dennis Kucinich </li></ul>
  31. 31. Works Cited <ul><li>Bob and Larry Publishing (1998). Veggie tales theme song. Retrieved June 22, 2008, from iTunes database. </li></ul><ul><li>Dupler, D. (2007, Sept. 28) Vegetarianism. Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine . Oct. 16, 2007 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Gale, C. R., Deary, I. J., Schoon, I., & Batty., G. D. (2007, February 3). IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study. British Medical Journal, 334 (7587), 327-328. Abstract retrieved June 16, 2008, from PubMed database. (PMID: 17175567 ) </li></ul><ul><li> (n.d.). PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals . Retrieved June 17, 2008, from </li></ul><ul><li>Key, Timothy J, et al. , (1999). Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70 (3)3, 516S-524S, September 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Meat and the environment//vegetarian101. (n.d.). PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of   Animals . Retrieved June 17, 2008, from </li></ul><ul><li>Messina, V., Vesanto, M., & Mangels, A. R. (2003). A new food guide: For North American vegetarians. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, 64 (2), 82-86. Retrieved June 15, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Nierenberg, D. (2006). Eat vegetables, save energy. World Watch , 19 (4), 7-7. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Works Cited (cont.) <ul><li>Position of the American Dietetic Association and the Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets. (2003). Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103 (6), 748-765. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from The Vegetarian Resource Group Web site: </li></ul><ul><li>Reisner, (2006). Pass the tofurky, please. Business Week Online , Retrieved June 16, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database. h tt p:// </li></ul><ul><li>Stahler, C. (2006). How many adults are vegetarian? In Vegetarian Journal (4) [The Vegetarian Resource Group]. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarianism in a nutshell. (2003, April 29). Vegetarian Resource Group .      Retrieved June 17, 2008, from </li></ul><ul><li>Wegmann, J. (1997) Living and enjoying the vegetarian life. Iowa State Daily, 17 Oct. 10, 1997. Retrieved Oct. 2007 from </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm, K. (2006, February/March). Do animals have feelings? Scientific American , 26-29. Retrieved June 17, 2008, from Web site: http:/// </li></ul><ul><li>Wolfson, M. (2007). An inconvenient food: The connection between meat and global warming.  USA TODAY Magazine, Sept. 1, 2007: 20-22. Rpt. in USA TODAY . </li></ul>