Nutrients present in the Food
All living beings need food.
Food gives us energy for doing activities and help us to
Nutrients are substances in our food that are required
by our body to keep it healthy and grow strong.
Food items mainly contain five types of nutrients
1. Starch or Carbohydrates
Food items like fruits, vegetables, cereals and bread
gives us a lot of energy. They contain carbohydrates.
Food items rich in carbohydrates are called energy-
Potatoes,Bananas,Yam etc. contain a lot of starch.
Jaggery, sugar, honey, dates contain carbohydrates that
Form of food Available in Time required to
Sugar Sugar, Jaggery, Fruits Immediately
Starch materials Rice,Bread,Potatoes Retain energy for
Food items like oil,nut,ghee and butter gives us more
energy than food items rich in carbohydrates. These
food items contain fats.
Fats give energy and heat to our body.
Our body need very little fat and extra fat is stored in
body for later use.
Proteins are body building substances.
They are needed by our body for building muscles,
growth and repair.
Food item rich in proteins
1 Milk, cheese, pulses, black gram, yellow
2 Egg, Fish, meat
Vitamins & Minerals
Vitamins and Minerals protect us from diseases and
keep us fit and healthy. They are called protective
Food items like fresh fruits and vegetables, milk, egg
and peanuts are rich in vitamins and minerals.
Shortage of vitamins will reduce resistance power of
Vitamins & Minerals
Mineral Function Food items
Iron Helps in formation of blood Leafy vegetables, jaggery
ragi, beetroot, apple and
Calcium Helps in formation of bones and teeth Milk, curd, almond and
• Calcium,iron,potassium,iodine and sodium are
examples of minerals.
Roughage and water
Food items like cereals, fresh vegetables , fruits and
salads cannot be digested by the body.
The part of the plant food that cannot be digested is
called roughage. It helps to remove waste materials
from our body.
Water is necessary for proper digestion, for eliminating
waste material from our body and for proper
utilisation of the nutrients.
Our body contains 2/3 of water.
Our body needs at least three litres of water every day.
A diet that has all the nutrients in the right amount,
roughage and water is called balanced diet.
Preservation of food
Preservation of food is a method to prevent food from
Drying : Removing water content of food. Drying gapes to get raisins.
Pickling : Mixing fruits and vegetables with salt and oil. Ex. Mixing
mango, lime with oil and salt.
Refrigeration : Keeping food in fridge to preserve for short time.
Deep Freezing : Keep food in freezer to preserve for longer time. Ex.
Keeping meat and fish in freezer.
Canning and bottling : Storing food in cans and bottle. Ex.
Bottling of sauces and jams.
Rest, Posture and exercise
Our body need rest for proper functioning. We need 6-
8 hours of sleep in a day.
Posture refers to body position. Incorrect postures over
a long period of time can lead to pain in joints and