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Pathophysiology: Neuroanatomy Part I


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This presentation was given to first year pharmacy students as part of a course on medical physiology and pathophysiology.

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Pathophysiology: Neuroanatomy Part I

  1. 1. Neuroanatomy & Neurophysiology Brian J. Piper, Ph.D., M.S.
  2. 2. Goals• Major Brain Areas – Sensory – Motor – Emotion – Cognition• Neuroimaging
  3. 3. Spinal Cord• Divided into regions: – Cervical – Thoracic – Lumbar – Sacral• Function – Motor – Sensation
  4. 4. Beneath Skull• Dura: thick/tough layer• Arachnoid: contains blood vessels• Pia: thin layer
  5. 5. ______ lobe
  6. 6. Match Color
  7. 7. Description of 3-Dimensional Space• Coronal: – section from ear to ear, like a loaf of bread• Axial: – section that parallels horizon• Sagittal: – section from front to back – mid-sagittal shows brain with left and right cortex separated
  8. 8. Corpus Callosum• Fibers that connect left and right cortex
  9. 9. Anatomical Terminology
  10. 10. Cingulate Gyrus• Tissue surrounding corpus collosum – Anterior – Posterior
  11. 11. BrainstemThe Medulla is the base of the brainstem thatcontrols heartbeat and breathing. Example: SIDS
  12. 12. Cerebellum • Located below the occipital cortexCC • Important for motor functionBS • Site of action of alcohol
  13. 13. Cerebellum (a mid-sagittal) • Located below theCC occipital cortex • Important for motor function BS • Site of action of alcohol
  14. 14. Functions of Different Cortical Areas• Frontal: cognition, executive function• Temporal: hearing, olfaction• Occipital: vision• Parietal: integration of sensory information Dorsal Posterior Anterior Ventral
  15. 15. Sensory Areas
  16. 16. Thalamus • Located in the center of the brain • Major relay center, information from spinal cord goes to thalamus, thalamus has many connections to the cortex
  17. 17. Hippocampus • Bilateral structure • Greek for seahorse • Essential for memory, especially spatial memory • Forms new neurons
  18. 18. Animal Research = ?Very helpful, but ….
  19. 19. Hippocampus Comparison
  20. 20. Amygdala The Amygdala consists oftwo lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear
  21. 21. Brain Areas Important for Hormone Control Rene Descartes • Pineal Gland – Very small subcortical structure – Releases the hormone melatonin • Hypothalamus – Hypo = “below” therefore located under thalamus – Regulates activity of Pituitary – Pituitary communicates with other endocrine glands (e.g. testes) – 4F!
  22. 22. Ventricles: Contain CSF
  23. 23. What is the impact of …?
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Brain Imaging• Can provide information about anatomy or physiology• Imaging procedures differ in their: – Spatial resolution: the ability to differentiate nearby brain regions – Temporal resolution: the ability to differentiate brain activity at different times
  26. 26. Electroencephalography (EEG) 1873-1941• Developed by Hans Berger in 1929• Electrodes are placed on the surface of the skull• Electrical activity from the cortex is recorded Time
  27. 27. Computed Tomagraphy (EMI scan, axial) Gr: tomos (slice) & graphein (to write).• Developed in the 1970’s• X-ray beams are passed through the head• A 2 or even 3- dimensional structural map is created
  28. 28. Atypical CT 68 year old man Cerebellar hemorrhage extending into midbrain & ventriclesKlein JP, Ryther RC (2009). Images in clinical medicine. Central nervous system hemorrhage. NewEngland Journal of Medicine, 361(18), 1786.
  29. 29. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) • Radioactive material is injected into the blood • Scanner records the radioactivity (positron) in different parts of the brain • Provides information about function • Very useful for researchFor more detailed information about PET, goto:
  30. 30. Figure 2. Brain Glucose Metabolic Images Showing Axial Planes at the Level of the Orbitofrontal Cortex Volkow, N. D. et al. JAMA 2011;305:808-813Copyright restrictions may apply.
  31. 31. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)• A cylindrical magnet creates a magnetic field• A sensor records blood flow and brain activation• Can also be used for just structure • White matter • Gray matter • Ventricle
  32. 32. Comparison of Imaging Techniques MeasuresProcedure Brain: Advantage Disadvantage Function Excellent temporal Measures only from brainEEG resolution (msec) surfaceCT Structure Found in many Some radiation exposure hospitals Function Wide variety of Poor temporal resolution (min),PET Poor spatial resolution (cm) uses Radiation exposurefMRI Function Good temporal Patient cannot have resolution (sec), metal implants Good spatial resolution (0.5cm)
  33. 33. What plane? Sarah Tappon, 8/5/2009
  34. 34. Useful video• 2 Mininute Neuroanatomy Overview (Humorous, really!)• AWKM
  35. 35. CA B D E L K H F G J I
  36. 36. and sheep brain
  37. 37. Cranial Nerves• I. Olfactory: smell (S)• II. Optic: vision (S)• III. Oculomotor: pupil construction (M)• IV. Trochlear: eye movement (M)• V. Trigeminal: face & teeth (S), jaw (M)• X. Vagus: heart (SM), autonomic nervous system
  38. 38. The Nervous System
  39. 39. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic NS “Arouses” (fight-or-flight)Parasympathetic NS “Calms” (rest and digest)