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A Brief Introduction to Neuro Anatomy: The Major Cord


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A Brief Introduction to Neuro Anatomy: The Major Cord

  1. 1. A Brief Introduction to Neuroanatomy Part One: The Major Cord Spine and Spinal Cord Anatomy Lucas Brammar
  2. 2. A Brief Introduction to Neuroanatomy The Major Cord • Development of the Spine and Spinal Cord • The vertebral column • Spinal Cord • The Meninges Unlocking the Cranial Vault • Bones and joints of the skull • Return of the meninges • Gross structure of the brain and the skull vaults • Gross structure of the brain stem Vasculature • Major arterial supply to the brain and brain stem • Venous drainage of the brain – sinuses Nerve Spotting • Introduction to the Cranial Nerves • Introduction to Cranial Nerve Examinations Brachial plexus to be covered in musculoskeletal tutorials
  3. 3. A Brief Introduction to Neuroanatomy Motor On • Motor regions of the brain • The Basal Ganglia (nuclei) • Cerebellum Somatosensory Systems • Sensory regions of the brain • Sensory pathways • The great pain problem… Reflexes • Major spinal cord reflexes • Upper and Lower Motor Neurone defecits Motor Pathways • Motor neurones • Corticospinal Tract • Brain stem motor tracts Special Senses • Vision and the visual cortex • Vestibulocochlear systems • Audition and Olfaction and the olfactory cortex
  4. 4. Part One: The Major Cord • Brief introduction to the development of the spine and spinal cord • Vertebrae and the vertebral column • Spinal cord and meninges Outline
  5. 5. Development of the Spinal Cord Three key embryonic layers: • Ectoderm (neural tissue and skin) • Mesoderm (connective tissues) • Endoderm (most viscera) Images: wikimedia commons
  6. 6. The Spine Spine is constructed of vertebrae Anterior Posterior Vertebral body Transverse process Spinous process Pedicle Spinal canal Image:
  7. 7. The Spine • 7 Cervical • 12 Thoracic • 5 Lumbar • 5 fused Sacral (“sacrum”) • Coccyx Image: wikimedia commons
  8. 8. Cervical Vertebrae • Transverse foraminae • Bifid spinous processes* • Small vertebral body Image: wikimedia commons
  9. 9. Atlas and Axis • C1 = Atlas • C2 = Axis “The atlas holds up the World” No vertebral body Odontoid peg The atlanto-axial joint
  10. 10. The C-Spine Image: Jeremy Jones,
  11. 11. Thoracic Vertebrae • Sloping spinous process • Facets on transverse processes • “heart shaped” vertebral foramen Image:
  12. 12. Lumbar Vertebrae • Very large vertebral body • Small transverse and spinous process • “kidney-shaped” vertebral foramen Image:
  13. 13. Sacrum and Coccyx Image:
  14. 14. Fitting it together… • Intervertebral discs (secondary cartilagenous) Images: active motion physiotherapy, Basic science of disc degeneration (Adams M)
  15. 15. Intervertebral disc prolapse Image: Dr Muhammad Essam,
  16. 16. Fitting it together… • Apophyseal joints (gliding synovial joints) Inferior articular process Superior articular process Image:
  17. 17. Conditions affecting the spine… • Sponylosis • Spinal stenosis • Sponylolisthesis • Disc disease • “Back pain” • Osteoperosis • Traumatic injury • Many more…
  18. 18. The Spinal Cord Cauda Equina Head Foramen magnum L1 / L2 (^ T12 in children) Image: wikimedia commons
  19. 19. Spinal Cord: Summary • Begins at foramen magnum, terminates between L1-L2 (as high as T12 in children) • Terminates as the conus medullaris tapering to the thin filum terminale. • ‘Fans out’ into peripheral nerves – the cauda equina Image: wikimedia commons
  20. 20. Spinal Cord in Cross Section Image: Spinal nerve
  21. 21. Spinal Nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves: • 8 cervical • 12 thoracic • 5 Lumbar • 5 Sacral • 1 coccyggeal Image: wikimedia commons
  22. 22. Meninges The meninges are tissue coverings surrounding the spinal cord and the brain Epidural space • Dura mater (“hard mother”) = fibrous tissue • Arachnoid mater = fine tissue layer • Pia mater = vascular, adherent to tissue Image: wikimedia commons
  23. 23. Epidural • Injection of Local anaesthetic into epidural space • Dangerous: don’t hit the subarachnoid space! Image: wikimedia commons