Autonomic NS: controls smooth muscles, heart, glands Somatic NS: - sensory nerves from body leading to brain - motor nerves leading from brain to muscles
Can even walk on a treadmill without a brain….
SI (primary)– receives relayed inputs from the thalamus and represents information about touch, pain, temperature sense, and limb proprioreception (limb position). SII (secondary)- receives inputs primarily from SI
Monkey measurements done by labeling for radioactive glucose.
Association areas function to produce a meaningful perceptual experience of the world, enable us to interact effectively, and support abstract thinking and language.The association areas integrate information from different receptors or sensory areas and relate the information to past experiences. Then the brain makes a decision and sends nerve impulses to the motor areas to give responses. 
Pride & joy of the human brain. The frontal lobe or prefrontal association complex is involved in planning, controlling thoughts, actions, & emotions, as well as abstract thought.
a set of brain structures, including the hippocampus , amygdalae , anterior thalamic nuclei , septum , limbic cortex and fornix , which seemingly support a variety of functions including emotion , behavior , motivation , long-term memory , and olfaction .  Hippocampus :    Required for the formation of long-term memories and implicated in maintenance of cognitive maps for navigation. Amygdala :    Involved in signaling the cortex of motivationally significant stimuli such as those related to reward and fear in addition to social functions such as mating . Fornix :   carries signals from the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies and septal nuclei . Mammillary body :  Important for the formation of memory; Septal nuclei : Located anterior to the interventricular septum, the septal nuclei provide critical interconnections Limbic lobe Parahippocampal gyrus :  Plays a role in the formation of spatial memory Cingulate gyrus :    Autonomic functions regulating heart rate , blood pressure and cognitive and attentional processing Dentate gyrus :  thought to contribute to new memories In addition, these structures are sometimes also considered to be part of the limbic system: Entorhinal cortex: Important memory and associative components. Piriform cortex:  The function of which relates to the olfactory system. Fornicate gyrus: Region encompassing the cingulate, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus Nucleus accumbens: Involved in reward, pleasure, and addiction Orbitofrontal cortex: Required for decision making.
Basal Ganglia are involved in some aspects of motor control Have no direct projections to spinal neurons though. They are an important part of a cortical-subcortical motor loop. Major output is through the globus pallidus to the thalamus, which relays these signals to M1 and premotor regions. Interact with cortex, primarily motor and premotor cortex, to mediate motor learning and control. Thought to monitor, track and influence the progression of motor acts and even planned motor acts. Huntington ’s Disease primarily affects the BG nuclei. Thalamus – “gateway to the cortex” w/ exception of some olfactory inputs, all sensory modalities make synaptic relays in the thalamus before continuing on to the primary sensory areas, like V1, M1, A1, S1. As mentioned subnuclei of the thalamus receive inputs from the BG and from the cerebellum. [GO TO NEXT SLIDE THEN COME BACK] The cerebellum is not directly involved in motor control, but it influences sensory-motor behavior by its inputs to the motor system thru the thalamus and by its projections to brainstem nuclei that project to the spinal cord. It is mainly involved in coordinating movements or integrating information about the body and motor commands. It may act like a clock and insure appropriate timing between movements allowing for smooth coordinated movements like walking.
strongly connected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including voluntary motor control, procedural learning relating to routine behaviors or "habits”, and cognitive,  emotional functions.  Currently popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection, that is, the decision of which of several possible behaviors to execute at a given time.
Lecture2 psych125 bunge
Welcome! Please note: seats are reserved for enrolled students The Developing Brain PSYCH 125 BUNGE Fall 2012
Announcements1. Waitlist Zoe Xu, Student Services Office1. Research Participation Program (RPP) Emma Bruehlman-Senecal, RPP coordinator
Poll #1: background in the brain• How much do you know about brain anatomy? A) Quite a lot B)I know the main brain regions & their functions C)I’ve had a little exposure E) Which is the front of the brain?
Poll #2: for enrolled students only• How likely is it that you will stay in this course? A) Definitely staying B) Probably staying C) Unsure D) Probably not staying E) Definitely not staying
Lecture 2: Human Brain Anatomy Agenda for today: 1. 6-minute film 2. Brief quiz based on film 3. Lecture 4. Brief quiz Biological Psychology, 3rd edition
True (button A) or False (button B)?This deep midline structure is called thethalamus. Sensory information from thebody passes through it on its way to the True!cortex.
True (button A) or False (button B)? The region shown in purple is called the occipital lobe. It contains visual cortex, which processes visual information.This is actually the parietal lobe. What is a key function of this region?
The structure shown in red is called the:A)ThalamusB)HypothalamusC)HippocampusD)Temporal lobe What is the key function of this
Peripheral nervous system: AutonomicWhich of these systems (sympathetic or parasympathetic) would you want to engage ifyou were fleeing from/fighting a tiger? What about if you were trying to shore up energy& heal your wounds after a battle with the tiger? W. W. Norton
Peripheral Nervous System: Somatic A dermatome specifies the area served by a spinal nerve
Spinal cord Inputs from body (sensation) Outputs to body (motor control) W. Norton W.
Spinal cord circuits take care of simplereflexesQuestion for next class: What important function(s) does the brainserve, beyond what the spinal cord & brain stem can accomplish?The brain takes years to develop, consumes 30% of the body’senergy, and has gotten so large that unassisted childbirth is
Brodmann’s map (1909) • 52 areas, based on cell morphology, density, and lay • Not the only map, but the most widely used cytoarchitectonic map: ‘cyto’ = cell (i.e., cellular composition W. W. Norton
Divisions of the brain• gross morphology (i.e., shape, on a macroscale) • temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal lobes• microanatomy • individual gyri • tissue staining (histology) to examine cell shape, connections • tract tracing to identify connections btwn regions
Divisions of the brain• gross morphology (i.e., shape, on a macroscale) • temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal lobes • individual gyri• microanatomy• functional anatomy: • identifying brain regions according to what they do • distinguish btwn primary sensory cortices, secondary sensory cortices, and association areas
Touch: somatosensory cortex S1: • gets inputs from thalamus • represents info about touch, temperature, limb position, pain S2: • gets inputs from S1 • higher order processing W. W. Norton
Primary visual cortexLateral View Medial View W. W. Norton
Retinotopy in Primary Visual Cortex• injected radioactive glucose into bloodstream while monkey viewedimage• “developed” brain like a photograph• Map of retina reproduced in brain! Roger Tootell et al., 1988
Thalamus All sensory modalities (except smell) relay info via thalamus en route to primary sensory cortices - participates in multiple circuits through projections to/from lots of cortical and subcortical regions W. W. Norton
Cerebellum Important for: • posture maintenance • walking • coordinated movements • also cognition…? • e.g. subvocal rehearsaltegrates info about body and motor commands to produceoordinated movements (but no direct control over movement)
QuizA. B. C. Which of these lobes would play the biggest role in… •deciding which of two courses to take? •finding your way to the classroom? •remembering facts that you learned in class?
QuizWhat does ‘topography’ mean, in the context of thebrain?A)A map of the gyri and sulci of the brainB)The spatial organization of cytoarchitectonic regionsC)The fact that frequencies of sound are represented ina systematic way across primary auditory cortexD)the ordered projection of a sensory surface, like theretina or the skin, or an effector system, like themusculature, to the brain
Summary, part 1Divisions of Nervous system: • CNS • brain • spinal cord • PNS • somatic NS • autonomic NSWays to divide up the brain: • gross morphology (lobes, gyri) • microanatomy (cells, cell layers, tracts) • functional anatomy
Summary, part 2Functional brain anatomy:• motor cortex (precentral gyrus)• somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus)• primary visual cortex (occipital lobe; around calcarine sulcus)• primary auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus)• association areas: prefrontal c., parts of temporal & parietal c.• limbic system (cingulate gyrus, medial temporal lobes, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex…)• basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus)• thalamus• cerebellum
Extras for pre-meds & brain enthusiasts• Movie on course site: Brain anatomy using real human brain• Marion Diamond’s neuroanatomy lectures on YouTube• Links on course site to brain atlases
Next classPrenatal brain development 9 months http://capturedbycarrie.com/