Welcome! Please note: seats are reserved for enrolled                                           students   The Developing ...
Announcements1. Waitlist    Zoe Xu, Student Services Office1. Research Participation Program (RPP)   Emma Bruehlman-Seneca...
Poll #1: background in the brain• How much do you know about brain anatomy?  A) Quite a lot  B)I know the main brain regio...
Poll #2: for enrolled students only• How likely is it that you will stay in this course?   A) Definitely staying   B) Prob...
Lecture 2: Human Brain Anatomy                   Agenda for today:                   1. 6-minute film                   2....
True (button A) or False          (button B)?This deep midline structure is called thethalamus. Sensory information from t...
True (button A) or False                  (button B)?       The region shown in purple is called the       occipital lobe....
The structure shown in red is called the:A)ThalamusB)HypothalamusC)HippocampusD)Temporal lobe    What is the key function ...
Parts of the Nervous System
Peripheral nervous system: AutonomicWhich of these systems (sympathetic or parasympathetic) would you want to engage ifyou...
Peripheral Nervous System: Somatic                       A dermatome specifies the                       area served by a ...
Spinal cord         Inputs from body (sensation)              Outputs to body (motor control) W. Norton                   ...
Spinal cord circuits take care of simplereflexesQuestion for next class: What important function(s) does the brainserve, b...
Central nervous system: the brain
Central nervous system: the brain
Directions             W. W. Norton
Gross Anatomy                “gray matter”                “white matter”                 What do gray                     ...
Sulci and Gyri                cortex is stripped                 away here to                expose the sulci             ...
Brain Atlas
Sections/slices of the brain  Coronal                               Axial                 Sagittal
Divisions of the brain• gross morphology (i.e., shape, on a macroscale)  • temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal lobes  •...
Lobes of the brain                     W. W. Norton
Major gyri             W. W. Norton
Divisions of the brain• gross morphology (i.e., shape, on a macroscale)  • temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal lobes  •...
Different types of neurons03-05        Different patterns of lamination                                           W. W. No...
W. W. Norton
Brodmann’s map (1909)          • 52 areas, based on cell morphology, density, and lay          • Not the only map, but the...
Same old map, new look                         W. W. Norton
Divisions of the brain• gross morphology (i.e., shape, on a macroscale)  • temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal lobes• m...
Divisions of the brain• gross morphology (i.e., shape, on a macroscale)  • temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal lobes  •...
Topographic organization (Wilder Penfield,1940s, 50s)
Touch: somatosensory cortex                     S1:                     • gets inputs from                       thalamus ...
Primary visual cortexLateral View               Medial View                               W. W. Norton
Retinotopy in Primary Visual Cortex• injected radioactive glucose into bloodstream while monkey viewedimage• “developed” b...
Visual processing                    W. W. Norton
Neural circuitry mapped out fornon-human primates
Hearing: Primary Auditory Cortex                                   W. W. Norton
Tonotopy in Primary Auditory Cortex
Primary, secondary, and associationcortices               Primary cortex               Secondary cortex               Asso...
Frontal cortex: Goal-directed behavior
“Limbic system”: Arousal, motivation,memory, etc.                            3.20 Adapted from Kandel, E.R. Schwartz, J.H....
Location of subcortical nuclei andcerebellum
Basal ganglia: action selection & motor learning,but also a more general role in cognitive control& learning              ...
Slice through the basal ganglia
Thalamus All sensory modalities (except smell) relay info via thalamus en route to primary sensory cortices               ...
Cerebellum     Important for:     • posture maintenance     • walking     • coordinated movements     • also cognition…?  ...
QuizA.            B.             C. Which of these lobes would play the biggest role in… •deciding which of two courses to...
QuizWhat does ‘topography’ mean, in the context of thebrain?A)A map of the gyri and sulci of the brainB)The spatial organi...
Summary, part 1Divisions of Nervous system:     • CNS       • brain       • spinal cord     • PNS       • somatic NS      ...
Summary, part 2Functional brain anatomy:• motor cortex (precentral gyrus)• somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus)• prima...
Extras for pre-meds & brain enthusiasts•   Movie on course site:     Brain anatomy using real human brain•   Marion Diamon...
Next classPrenatal brain development                       9 months                                  http://capturedbycarr...
Lecture2 psych125 bunge
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Brief intro to neuroanatomy for The Developing Brain

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  • Test out the i>clicker
  • Autonomic NS: controls smooth muscles, heart, glands Somatic NS: - sensory nerves from body leading to brain - motor nerves leading from brain to muscles
  • Can even walk on a treadmill without a brain….
  • SI (primary)– receives relayed inputs from the thalamus and represents information about touch, pain, temperature sense, and limb proprioreception (limb position). SII (secondary)- receives inputs primarily from SI
  • Monkey measurements done by labeling for radioactive glucose.
  • Association areas function to produce a meaningful perceptual experience of the world, enable us to interact effectively, and support abstract thinking and language.The association areas integrate information from different receptors or sensory areas and relate the information to past experiences. Then the brain makes a decision and sends nerve impulses to the motor areas to give responses. [20]
  • Pride & joy of the human brain. The frontal lobe or prefrontal association complex is involved in planning, controlling thoughts, actions, & emotions, as well as abstract thought.
  • a set of brain structures, including the hippocampus , amygdalae , anterior thalamic nuclei , septum , limbic cortex and fornix , which seemingly support a variety of functions including emotion , behavior , motivation , long-term memory , and olfaction . [1] Hippocampus : [3] [4] [5] Required for the formation of long-term memories and implicated in maintenance of cognitive maps for navigation. Amygdala : [3] [4] [5] Involved in signaling the cortex of motivationally significant stimuli such as those related to reward and fear in addition to social functions such as mating . Fornix : [3] [5] carries signals from the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies and septal nuclei . Mammillary body : [3] Important for the formation of memory; Septal nuclei : Located anterior to the interventricular septum, the septal nuclei provide critical interconnections Limbic lobe Parahippocampal gyrus : [4] Plays a role in the formation of spatial memory Cingulate gyrus : [3] [4] [5] Autonomic functions regulating heart rate , blood pressure and cognitive and attentional processing Dentate gyrus : [4] thought to contribute to new memories In addition, these structures are sometimes also considered to be part of the limbic system: Entorhinal cortex: Important memory and associative components. Piriform cortex: [5] The function of which relates to the olfactory system. Fornicate gyrus: Region encompassing the cingulate, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus Nucleus accumbens: Involved in reward, pleasure, and addiction Orbitofrontal cortex: Required for decision making.
  • Basal Ganglia are involved in some aspects of motor control Have no direct projections to spinal neurons though. They are an important part of a cortical-subcortical motor loop. Major output is through the globus pallidus to the thalamus, which relays these signals to M1 and premotor regions. Interact with cortex, primarily motor and premotor cortex, to mediate motor learning and control. Thought to monitor, track and influence the progression of motor acts and even planned motor acts. Huntington ’s Disease primarily affects the BG nuclei. Thalamus – “gateway to the cortex” w/ exception of some olfactory inputs, all sensory modalities make synaptic relays in the thalamus before continuing on to the primary sensory areas, like V1, M1, A1, S1. As mentioned subnuclei of the thalamus receive inputs from the BG and from the cerebellum. [GO TO NEXT SLIDE THEN COME BACK] The cerebellum is not directly involved in motor control, but it influences sensory-motor behavior by its inputs to the motor system thru the thalamus and by its projections to brainstem nuclei that project to the spinal cord. It is mainly involved in coordinating movements or integrating information about the body and motor commands. It may act like a clock and insure appropriate timing between movements allowing for smooth coordinated movements like walking.
  • strongly connected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including voluntary motor control, procedural learning relating to routine behaviors or "habits”, and cognitive, [1] emotional functions. [2] Currently popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection, that is, the decision of which of several possible behaviors to execute at a given time.
  • Lecture2 psych125 bunge

    1. 1. Welcome! Please note: seats are reserved for enrolled students The Developing Brain PSYCH 125 BUNGE Fall 2012
    2. 2. Announcements1. Waitlist Zoe Xu, Student Services Office1. Research Participation Program (RPP) Emma Bruehlman-Senecal, RPP coordinator
    3. 3. Poll #1: background in the brain• How much do you know about brain anatomy? A) Quite a lot B)I know the main brain regions & their functions C)I’ve had a little exposure E) Which is the front of the brain?
    4. 4. Poll #2: for enrolled students only• How likely is it that you will stay in this course? A) Definitely staying B) Probably staying C) Unsure D) Probably not staying E) Definitely not staying
    5. 5. Lecture 2: Human Brain Anatomy Agenda for today: 1. 6-minute film 2. Brief quiz based on film 3. Lecture 4. Brief quiz Biological Psychology, 3rd edition
    6. 6. True (button A) or False (button B)?This deep midline structure is called thethalamus. Sensory information from thebody passes through it on its way to the True!cortex.
    7. 7. True (button A) or False (button B)? The region shown in purple is called the occipital lobe. It contains visual cortex, which processes visual information.This is actually the parietal lobe. What is a key function of this region?
    8. 8. The structure shown in red is called the:A)ThalamusB)HypothalamusC)HippocampusD)Temporal lobe What is the key function of this
    9. 9. Parts of the Nervous System
    10. 10. Peripheral nervous system: AutonomicWhich of these systems (sympathetic or parasympathetic) would you want to engage ifyou were fleeing from/fighting a tiger? What about if you were trying to shore up energy& heal your wounds after a battle with the tiger? W. W. Norton
    11. 11. Peripheral Nervous System: Somatic A dermatome specifies the area served by a spinal nerve
    12. 12. Spinal cord Inputs from body (sensation) Outputs to body (motor control) W. Norton W.
    13. 13. Spinal cord circuits take care of simplereflexesQuestion for next class: What important function(s) does the brainserve, beyond what the spinal cord & brain stem can accomplish?The brain takes years to develop, consumes 30% of the body’senergy, and has gotten so large that unassisted childbirth is
    14. 14. Central nervous system: the brain
    15. 15. Central nervous system: the brain
    16. 16. Directions W. W. Norton
    17. 17. Gross Anatomy “gray matter” “white matter” What do gray & white matter correspond
    18. 18. Sulci and Gyri cortex is stripped away here to expose the sulci S SULCU FISSURE S GYRUSource: Ludwig & Klingler, 1956 in Tamraz & Comair, 2000
    19. 19. Brain Atlas
    20. 20. Sections/slices of the brain Coronal Axial Sagittal
    21. 21. Divisions of the brain• gross morphology (i.e., shape, on a macroscale) • temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal lobes • individual gyri
    22. 22. Lobes of the brain W. W. Norton
    23. 23. Major gyri W. W. Norton
    24. 24. Divisions of the brain• gross morphology (i.e., shape, on a macroscale) • temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal lobes • individual gyri• microanatomy • tissue staining (histology) to examine cell shape, connections
    25. 25. Different types of neurons03-05 Different patterns of lamination W. W. Norton
    26. 26. W. W. Norton
    27. 27. Brodmann’s map (1909) • 52 areas, based on cell morphology, density, and lay • Not the only map, but the most widely used cytoarchitectonic map: ‘cyto’ = cell (i.e., cellular composition W. W. Norton
    28. 28. Same old map, new look W. W. Norton
    29. 29. Divisions of the brain• gross morphology (i.e., shape, on a macroscale) • temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal lobes• microanatomy • individual gyri • tissue staining (histology) to examine cell shape, connections • tract tracing to identify connections btwn regions
    30. 30. Divisions of the brain• gross morphology (i.e., shape, on a macroscale) • temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal lobes • individual gyri• microanatomy• functional anatomy: • identifying brain regions according to what they do • distinguish btwn primary sensory cortices, secondary sensory cortices, and association areas
    31. 31. Topographic organization (Wilder Penfield,1940s, 50s)
    32. 32. Touch: somatosensory cortex S1: • gets inputs from thalamus • represents info about touch, temperature, limb position, pain S2: • gets inputs from S1 • higher order processing W. W. Norton
    33. 33. Primary visual cortexLateral View Medial View W. W. Norton
    34. 34. Retinotopy in Primary Visual Cortex• injected radioactive glucose into bloodstream while monkey viewedimage• “developed” brain like a photograph• Map of retina reproduced in brain! Roger Tootell et al., 1988
    35. 35. Visual processing W. W. Norton
    36. 36. Neural circuitry mapped out fornon-human primates
    37. 37. Hearing: Primary Auditory Cortex W. W. Norton
    38. 38. Tonotopy in Primary Auditory Cortex
    39. 39. Primary, secondary, and associationcortices Primary cortex Secondary cortex Association cortex W. W. Norton
    40. 40. Frontal cortex: Goal-directed behavior
    41. 41. “Limbic system”: Arousal, motivation,memory, etc. 3.20 Adapted from Kandel, E.R. Schwartz, J.H., and Jessell, T.M. (Eds.), Principles of Neural Science, 3rd edition. Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange, 1991. Copyright © 1991 by Appleton & Lange.
    42. 42. Location of subcortical nuclei andcerebellum
    43. 43. Basal ganglia: action selection & motor learning,but also a more general role in cognitive control& learning produces dopamine
    44. 44. Slice through the basal ganglia
    45. 45. Thalamus All sensory modalities (except smell) relay info via thalamus en route to primary sensory cortices - participates in multiple circuits through projections to/from lots of cortical and subcortical regions W. W. Norton
    46. 46. Cerebellum Important for: • posture maintenance • walking • coordinated movements • also cognition…? • e.g. subvocal rehearsaltegrates info about body and motor commands to produceoordinated movements (but no direct control over movement)
    47. 47. QuizA. B. C. Which of these lobes would play the biggest role in… •deciding which of two courses to take? •finding your way to the classroom? •remembering facts that you learned in class?
    48. 48. QuizWhat does ‘topography’ mean, in the context of thebrain?A)A map of the gyri and sulci of the brainB)The spatial organization of cytoarchitectonic regionsC)The fact that frequencies of sound are represented ina systematic way across primary auditory cortexD)the ordered projection of a sensory surface, like theretina or the skin, or an effector system, like themusculature, to the brain
    49. 49. Summary, part 1Divisions of Nervous system: • CNS • brain • spinal cord • PNS • somatic NS • autonomic NSWays to divide up the brain: • gross morphology (lobes, gyri) • microanatomy (cells, cell layers, tracts) • functional anatomy
    50. 50. Summary, part 2Functional brain anatomy:• motor cortex (precentral gyrus)• somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus)• primary visual cortex (occipital lobe; around calcarine sulcus)• primary auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus)• association areas: prefrontal c., parts of temporal & parietal c.• limbic system (cingulate gyrus, medial temporal lobes, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex…)• basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus)• thalamus• cerebellum
    51. 51. Extras for pre-meds & brain enthusiasts• Movie on course site: Brain anatomy using real human brain• Marion Diamond’s neuroanatomy lectures on YouTube• Links on course site to brain atlases
    52. 52. Next classPrenatal brain development 9 months http://capturedbycarrie.com/

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