Neuropharmacology: Neuroanatomy

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Lecture 2 from a college level neuropharmacology course taught in the spring 2012 semester by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (psy391@gmail.com) at Willamette University. Includes major areas of the central nervous system, anatomical terminology, brain imaging techniques

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Neuropharmacology: Neuroanatomy

  1. 1. Brain I: Neuroanatomy Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Goals• Major Brain Areas• Neuroimaging
  3. 3. Spinal Cord• Divided into regions: – Cervical – Lumbar• Function – Motor – Sensation
  4. 4. BrainstemThe Medulla is the base of the brainstem thatcontrols heartbeat and breathing. Example: SIDS
  5. 5. Beneath Skull• Dura: thick/tough layer• Arachnoid: contains blood vessels• Pia: thin layer
  6. 6. ______ lobe
  7. 7. Match Color
  8. 8. Sensory Areas
  9. 9. 2.2 Description of 3-Dimensional Space • Coronal: – section from ear to ear, like a loaf of bread – most commonly used for animal research • Sagital: – section from front to back – mid-sagital shows brain with left and right cortex separated • Axial: – section that parallels horizon – Common for showing humans
  10. 10. Different Planes
  11. 11. Anatomical Terminology
  12. 12. Functions of Different Cortical Areas• Frontal: cognition, executive function• Temporal: hearing• Occipital: vision• Parietal: integration of sensory information Dorsal Posterior Anterior Ventral
  13. 13. Corpus Callosum• Fibers that connect left and right cortex Fornix
  14. 14. Cingulate Gyrus• Tissue surrounding corpus collosum – Anterior – Posterior
  15. 15. Cerebellum (a mid-saggital) • Located below theCC occipital cortex • Important for motor function BS • Site of action of alcohol
  16. 16. Cerebellum • Located below the occipital cortexCC • Important for motor functionBS • Site of action of alcohol
  17. 17. Thalamus • Located in the center of the brain • Major relay center, information from spinal cord goes to thalamus, thalamus has many connections to the cortex
  18. 18. Hippocampus • Bilateral structure • Hippocampus is greek for seahorse • Essential for memory, especially spatial memory • Effected by long term alcohol exposurehttp://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/Synaptic/info/pathway/hippocampal.htm
  19. 19. 1.2 Hippocampus: Coronal ccBox a contains hippocampus: CA = cornu ammonis DG = dentate gyrus CC = corupus collosum
  20. 20. Amygdala The Amygdala consists oftwo lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to theemotions of fear and anger.
  21. 21. Brain Areas Important for Hormone Control Rene Descartes • Pineal Gland – Very small subcortical structure – Releases the hormone melatonin • Hypothalmus – Hypo = “below” therefore located under thalamus – Regulates activity of Pituitary – Pituitary communicates with other endocrine glands (e.g. testes) – Important for steroids
  22. 22. Ventricles: Contain CSF Abnormal Ventricles
  23. 23. http://www.omsi.edu/visit/life/aging/brainText.cfm
  24. 24. Hypothalamus• Paraventriclar Nucleus: stress response• Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN): circadian rhythms• Mammillary body: #5
  25. 25. Neuroanatomy Video (1.5 min)• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Li5nMsXg 1Lk
  26. 26. Animal Research = ?Very helpful, but ….
  27. 27. Hippocampus Comparison
  28. 28. More brains rat & dog
  29. 29. (Thalamus
  30. 30. CA B D E L K H F G J I
  31. 31. and sheep brain
  32. 32. Cranial Nerves• I. Olfactory: smell (S)• II. Optic: vision (S)• III. Oculomotor: pupil construction (M)• IV. Trochlear: eye movement (M)• V. Trigeminal: face & teeth (S), jaw (M)• X. Vagus: heart (SM), autonomic nervous system
  33. 33. Brain Imaging • Can provide information about anatomy (structure) or physiology (function) • Imaging procedures differ in their: – Spatial resolution: the ability to differentiate nearby brain regions – Temporal resolution: the ability to differentiate brain activity at different timesFor more about brain imaging and drug abuse goto:http://www.nida.nih.gov/NIDA_Notes/NNVol11N5/Basics.html
  34. 34. Electroencephalography (EEG) 1873-1941• Developed by Hans Berger in 1929• Electrodes are placed on the surface of the skull• Electrical activity from the cortex is recorded Time
  35. 35. 1.7 Computed Tomagraphy (EMI scan, axial) Gr: tomos (slice) & graphein (to write). • Developed in the 1970’s • X-ray beams are passed through the head • A 2 or even 3- dimensional structural map is createdFor more information about CT, goto:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computed_axial_tomography
  36. 36. Positron Emission Tomography (PET, another axial) • Radioactive material is 1.7 injected into the blood • Scanner records the radioactivity (positron) in different parts of the brain • Provides information about function • Very useful for researchFor more detailed information about PET, goto:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positron_emission_tomography
  37. 37. Figure 2. Brain Glucose Metabolic Images Showing Axial Planes at the Level of the Orbitofrontal Cortex Volkow, N. D. et al. JAMA 2011;305:808-813Copyright restrictions may apply.
  38. 38. Functional Magnetic Resonance2.2 Imaging (fMRI) • A cylindrical magnet creates a magnetic field • A sensor records blood flow and brain activation • Can also be used for just structure • White matter • Gray matter • Ventricle
  39. 39. Comparison of Imaging Techniques4.7 MeasuresProcedure Brain: Advantage Disadvantage Function Excellent temporal Measures only from brainEEG resolution (msec) surfaceCT Structure Found in many Some radiation exposure hospitals Function Wide variety of Poor temporal resolution (min),PET Poor spatial resolution (cm) uses RadiationfMRI Function Good temporal Patient cannot have resolution (sec), metal implants Good spatial resolution (0.5cm)
  40. 40. The Brain Techniques to Study the Brain A brain lesion experimentallydestroys brain tissue tostudy animal behaviors after such destruction. Hubel (1990)
  41. 41. What plane? Sarah Tappon, 8/5/2009
  42. 42. Sarah Tappon, 8/5/2009
  43. 43. What is the impact of …?
  44. 44. Example Brain Research• Brain Development: Healthy, Hyperactive & Childhood Schizophrenia• http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?15762• Juddith Rappaport, M.D.• 2:40 up 37:50• Jargon – Myelination: formation of white matter (myelin) – Intramural: part of the National Institutes of Health in DC – Prospectively: to follow forward in time – Apolipoprotein E: gene that is associated with Alzheimer’s Disease – Heritability: extent that a trait is due to genetic factors in a sample

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