Pathophysiology: Neuroanatomy Part II


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This presentation was given to first year pharmacy students as part of a course on medical physiology and pathophysiology.

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  • Sensory homunculus is shown.
  • Neuroscientist’s fallacy is to refer to these as unique systems.
  • The parietal occipital sulcus (not shown) separates parietal & occipital lobes.
  • Left visual field information is sensed by photoreceptors on medial half of left eye and lateral half of right eye. Right visual field is sensed on medial half of right eye and lateral half of left eye.
  • Dorsal pathway proceeds to posterior parietal cortex & ventral stream to inferior temporal cortex.
  • Cochlea is Latin for snail shell (2.5 turns). High frequency sounds are interpreted near oval window and low frequency near apex.
  • PrecentralGyrus (primary motor cortex) & Postcentralgyrus (primary sensory cortex)
  • Medial Column: back, neck, abdomen, pelvis; Lateral Column: arms (cervical enlargement) & legs (thoracic enlagement)
  • Stimulating one nuclei in the hypothalamus can result in undirected expression of emotion (“sham rage”) whereas another results in biting rats neck & killing it without emotional expression (“silent attack”).
  • Bilateral lesions of the amygdala may present with hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperphagia, and hyperdocility.
  • Brodman’s areas is a cytoarchitectural way of identifying different brain areas. This is best for post-mortem but is less useful for living patients.
  • Pathophysiology: Neuroanatomy Part II

    1. 1. Functional Neuroanatomy Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.
    2. 2. Goals• Sensory – Vision – Audition – Touch• Emotion• Motor• Language
    3. 3. Major Subdivisions of Brain
    4. 4. Sulci & Gyri
    5. 5. Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Lateral Surface)
    6. 6. VisionRetina -> Optic Nerve -> Thalamus -> Occipital Cortex
    7. 7. Implications of Visual Wiring 1. optic nerve 2. optic chiasm 3. optic tract 4. optic radiation A. unilateral blindness B. bitemporal hemianopsia C. left homonymous hemianopsia
    8. 8. Beyond Occipital where pathway what pathway
    9. 9. AuditoryCochlea: Coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in theinner ear that transforms sound vibrations toauditory signals.Carpet Explanation
    10. 10. Localization of Sound1. Intensity differences2. Time differences
    11. 11. Vestibular • Semicircular Canals: mediate balance & movement of head
    12. 12. Taste Traditionally, taste sensations consisted of sweet,salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Recently, receptors fora fifth taste have been discovered called “Umami”. Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami (Fresh Chicken)
    13. 13. Gustatory Receptors• Sweet: sucrose• Sour: pH• Saltiness: NaCl• Bitter: organic (carbon)• Umami: Monosodium Glutamate• Fat: ?
    14. 14. Gustatory Pathways
    15. 15. SmellLike taste, smell is a chemical sense. Odorants enter the nasal cavity to stimulate 5 millionreceptors to sense smell. Unlike taste, there are many different forms of smell.
    16. 16. Touch & Motor Function M S
    17. 17. Motor Homunculus
    18. 18. Motor Neurons Medial Column Lateral ColumnBrodal (2010). Central Nervous System. p. 282.L/M images from:
    19. 19. Sensory HomunculusPhantom Limbs (0 to 4 min):
    20. 20. Limbic System: Emotional Brain hypothalamus (#2)
    21. 21. Hypothalamus & AggressionStimulation of Medial Hypothalamus Stimulation of Perifornical Nucleus of Hypothalamus
    22. 22. Hypothalamus & Hunger
    23. 23. Amygdala Lesions: Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
    24. 24. Positron Emission Tomography
    25. 25. “Only left-handers are in their right mind.” Handedness Right LeftLanguageCenter Left 95% Right 5%
    26. 26. Left-handers are more likely to have their language center in their right cortex Handedness Right LeftLanguageCenter Left 95% 70% Right 5% 30%
    27. 27. Summary
    28. 28. Insula
    29. 29. Lesions of Insula • Smoking following brain damage was examined in patients with insula damage.Naqvi et al. (2007). Science, 315, 531-534.
    30. 30. Lesions of Insula • Smoking following brain damage was examined in patients with insula damage. • He quit because his “body forgot the urge to smoke”Naqvi et al. (2007). Science, 315, 531-534.