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PICK & PLACE ROBOT

PICK & PLACE ROBOT IS ONE OF THE AUTOMATED MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM

PICK & PLACE ROBOT

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PICK AND PLACE ROBOT
Presented by
NAME : S.ARUNKUMAR
DEPARTMENT : MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
COLLEGE : SUDHARASAN ENGG COLLEGE
INTRODUCTION
In this project, stud mechanism has been used in robot for pick
and place operations those are very frequently used in industries and
domestic purpose. Use of stud makes the mechanism simple and
inexpensive.
PICK & PLACE ROBOT
WORKING
Stud (having threads at both ends) working concept has
been used here for pick and place robot. At one end of the stud, DC motor
has been engaged and at another end movement of longitudinal
beam/opening and closing of gripper has been attached as shown in Two
motors have been used, one for opening-closing of gripper to grip the part or
component and second for up-down movement of longitudinal beam. As
motor rotates, stud rotates. On other end than motor end, thread has been
tied which is going to be loose or tight as motor rotation to be clockwise or
anticlockwise, in result motion of longitudinal beam/opening-closing of
gripper happens.
End-of-arm tooling
The most essential robot peripheral is the end effector, or end-of-
arm-tooling (EOT).Common examples of end effectors include welding
devices (such as MIGwelding guns, spot-welders, etc.), spray guns and also
grinding and deburring devices (such as pneumatic disk or belt grinders,
burrs, etc.), and grippers (devices that can grasp an object, usually
electromechanical or pneumatic). Other common means of picking up objects
is by vacuum or magnets. End effectors are frequently highly complex, made
to match the handled product and often capable of picking up an array of
products at one time. They may utilize various sensors to aid the robot system
in locating, handling, and positioning products.
Controlling movement
For a given robot the only parameters necessary to completely locate the end
effector (gripper, welding torch, etc.) of the robot are the angles of each of the
joints or displacements of the linear axes (or combinations of the two for robot
formats such as SCARA). However, there are many different ways to define the
points. The most common and most convenient way of defining a point is to
specify a Cartesian coordinate for it, i.e. the position of the 'end effector' in mm in
the X, Y and Z directions relative to the robot's origin. In addition, depending on
the types of joints a particular robot may have, the orientation of the end effector
in yaw ,pitch , and roll and the location of the tool point relative to the robot's
faceplate must also be specified. For a jointed arm the coordinates must be
converted to joint angles by the robot controller and such conversions are known
as Cartesian Transformations which may need to be performed iteratively or
recursively for a multiple axis robot. The mathematics of the relationship between
joint angles and actual spatial coordinates is called kinematics. See robot
controlPositioning by Cartesian coordinates may be done by entering the
coordinates into the system or by using a teach pendant which moves the robot in
X-Y-Z directions. It is much easier for a human operator to visualize motions
up/down, left/right, etc. than to move each joint one at a time.

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PICK & PLACE ROBOT

  • 1. PICK AND PLACE ROBOT Presented by NAME : S.ARUNKUMAR DEPARTMENT : MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE : SUDHARASAN ENGG COLLEGE
  • 2. INTRODUCTION In this project, stud mechanism has been used in robot for pick and place operations those are very frequently used in industries and domestic purpose. Use of stud makes the mechanism simple and inexpensive.
  • 4. WORKING Stud (having threads at both ends) working concept has been used here for pick and place robot. At one end of the stud, DC motor has been engaged and at another end movement of longitudinal beam/opening and closing of gripper has been attached as shown in Two motors have been used, one for opening-closing of gripper to grip the part or component and second for up-down movement of longitudinal beam. As motor rotates, stud rotates. On other end than motor end, thread has been tied which is going to be loose or tight as motor rotation to be clockwise or anticlockwise, in result motion of longitudinal beam/opening-closing of gripper happens.
  • 5. End-of-arm tooling The most essential robot peripheral is the end effector, or end-of- arm-tooling (EOT).Common examples of end effectors include welding devices (such as MIGwelding guns, spot-welders, etc.), spray guns and also grinding and deburring devices (such as pneumatic disk or belt grinders, burrs, etc.), and grippers (devices that can grasp an object, usually electromechanical or pneumatic). Other common means of picking up objects is by vacuum or magnets. End effectors are frequently highly complex, made to match the handled product and often capable of picking up an array of products at one time. They may utilize various sensors to aid the robot system in locating, handling, and positioning products.
  • 6. Controlling movement For a given robot the only parameters necessary to completely locate the end effector (gripper, welding torch, etc.) of the robot are the angles of each of the joints or displacements of the linear axes (or combinations of the two for robot formats such as SCARA). However, there are many different ways to define the points. The most common and most convenient way of defining a point is to specify a Cartesian coordinate for it, i.e. the position of the 'end effector' in mm in the X, Y and Z directions relative to the robot's origin. In addition, depending on the types of joints a particular robot may have, the orientation of the end effector in yaw ,pitch , and roll and the location of the tool point relative to the robot's faceplate must also be specified. For a jointed arm the coordinates must be converted to joint angles by the robot controller and such conversions are known as Cartesian Transformations which may need to be performed iteratively or recursively for a multiple axis robot. The mathematics of the relationship between joint angles and actual spatial coordinates is called kinematics. See robot controlPositioning by Cartesian coordinates may be done by entering the coordinates into the system or by using a teach pendant which moves the robot in X-Y-Z directions. It is much easier for a human operator to visualize motions up/down, left/right, etc. than to move each joint one at a time.
  • 7. Estimated worldwide annual supply of industrial robots in units): Year supply 1998 69,000 1999 79,000 2000 99,000 2001 78,000 2002 69,000 2003 81,000 2004 97,000 2005 120,000 2006 112,000 2007 114,000 2008 113,000 2009 60,000 2010 118,000 2012 159,346 2013 178,132 2014 229,261 2015 253,748 2016 294,312 2017 381,335
  • 9. Market structure Japan had the largest operational stock of industrial robots, with 286,554 at the end of 2015. The United States industrial robot-makers shipped 35,880 robot to factories in the US in 2018 and this was 7% more than in 2017. The biggest customer of industrial robots is automotive industry with 33% market share, then electrical/electronics industry with 32%, metal and machinery industry with 12%, rubber and plastics industry with 5%, food industry with 3%. In textiles, apparel and leather industry, 1,580 units are operational.
  • 10. WORKING PROCESS American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems —Safety Requirements (ANSI/RIA R15.06-1999) defines a singularity as “a condition caused by the collinear alignment of two or more robot axes resulting in unpredictable robot motion and velocities”It is most common in robot arms that utilize a “triple-roll wrist”. This is a wrist about which the three axes of the wrist,controlling yaw, pitch, and roll, all pass through a common point. An example of awrist singularity is when the path through which the robot is traveling causes the firstand third axes of the robot's wrist (i.e robot axes 4 and 6) to line up. second wrist axis then attempts to spin 180° in zero time to maintain the orientation of the end effector. Another common term for this singularity is a “wrist flip”. The result of a singularity can be quite dramatic and can have adverse effects on the robot arm, the end effector, and the process. Some industrial robot manufacturers have attempted to sidestep the situation by slightly altering the robot's path to prevent this condition.Another method is to slow the robot‘ travel speed, thus reducing the speed required for the wrist to make the transition. The ANSI/RIA has mandated that robot manufacturers shall make the user aware of singularities if they occur while the system is being manually manipulated.
  • 12. Types and features A set of six-axis robots used for welding. Factory Automation with industrial robots for palletizing food products like bread and toast at a bakery in Germany The most commonly used robot configurations are articulated robots, SCARA robots, delta robots and Cartesian coordinate robots, (gantry robots or x-y-z robots). In the context of general robotics, most types of robots would fall into the category of robotic arms (inherent in the use of the word manipulator in ISO standard 8373). Robots exhibit varying.
  • 13. Degrees of autonomy: Some robots are programmed to faithfully carry out specific actions over and over again (repetitive actions) without variation and with a high degree of accuracy. These actions are determined by programmed routines that specify the direction, acceleration,velocity, deceleration, and distance of a series of coordinated motions.Other robots are much more flexible as to the orientation of the object on whichthey are operating or even the task has to be performed on the object itself,which the robot may even need to identify. For example, for more precise guidance, robots often contain machine vision sub-systems acting as their visual sensors, linked to powerful computers or controllers.[3] Artificial intelligence, or what passes for it, is becoming an increasingly important factor in the modern industrial robot.The earliest known industrial robot, conforming to the ISO definition was completed by "Bill" Griffith P. Taylor in 1937 and published in Meccano Magazine,March 1938.
  • 14. Implementation The first two IRB 6 robots were sold to Magnusson in Sweden for grinding and polishing pipe bends and were installed in production in January 1974. Also in 1973 KUKA Robotics built its first robot, known as FAMULUS, also one of the first articulated robots to have six electromechanically driven axes.
  • 16. Application Industries for assembly process automation welding Medical application Hazardous environment PCB manufacturing units Space exploration Furnace manufacturing units Oil refineries Notable robotic arms and low cost robotic arms