Robotics & Embedded Systems


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Presentation on Embedded System and Robotics.

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Robotics & Embedded Systems

  1. 1. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS & ROBOTICS<br />Prof. Anish Goel<br />
  2. 2. Embedded Systems<br />We are surrounded by Embedded Systems.<br />Cell Phones<br />Automatic Washing Machines.<br />Traffic Signals with Timers.<br />Automobile Electronics.<br />Find a system that contains no electronic system.<br />How can a electronic system improve the functionality/efficiency of that system.<br />Custom design an embedded system for the same.<br />2<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  3. 3. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS<br />Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that application.<br />An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only.<br />In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM.<br />Example:printer, keyboard, video game player<br />3<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  4. 4. MICROPROCESSORS <br />MICRO + PROCESSOR<br />Length of transistor is in micron region.<br />This length becomes half every eighteen months<br />Moore’s Law stated by Gordan Moore.<br />More transistors per chip.<br />4<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  5. 5. Different aspects of a microprocessor/controller<br />Hardware :Interface to <br /> the real world<br /> Software :order how to deal with inputs<br />5<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  6. 6. Microprocessors:<br />Data Bus<br />CPU<br />General-Purpose Micro-processor<br />Serial COM Port<br />I/O Port<br />RAM<br />ROM<br />Timer<br />Address Bus<br />General-Purpose Microprocessor System<br /> General-purpose microprocessor<br />CPU for Computers<br />No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself<br />Example:Intel’s x86, Motorola’s 680x0<br />Many chips on mother’s board<br />6<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  7. 7. Microcontroller :<br />RAM<br />ROM<br />CPU<br />A single chip<br />Serial COM Port<br />I/O Port<br />Timer<br />Microcontroller<br />A smaller computer<br />On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...<br />Example:Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC 16X<br />7<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  8. 8. Basic Microcomputer System.<br />PROCESS<br />INPUT<br />OUTPUT<br />MEMORY<br />8<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  9. 9. Microprocessors and Computer Architecture.<br />What is needed to make systems smart????<br />Human Brain !!!<br />We are surrounded by microprocessors.<br />Where are they???<br />In cell phones.<br />In cars.<br />Smallest electronic system you can think of.<br />Largest system you can think of.<br />They are there is Shoes as well.<br />What???? In shoes???<br />What would a piece of semi-conductor do in a shoes?<br />9<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  10. 10. Why Microprocessors?<br />They will act as brain of the system.<br />They add intelligence to the system.<br />They can be programmed to perform a task.<br />Once programmed, they make the system work automatically.<br />Computer Architecture!<br />Specialized branch that deals with the Microprocessor Architecture.<br />For instance:<br />What is the memory requirement of the system.<br />How many input and output devices are to be connected to the system.<br />10<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  11. 11. Block Diagram of a Computer<br />11<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  12. 12. Layers of a Computer System<br />High Level Sum := Sum + 1<br />Assembly MOV BX,SUM INC (BX)<br />Machine 1101010100001100001000110111010111110<br />Register Transfer Fetch Instruction, Increment PC, Load ALU with SUM ...<br />Gate <br />Circuit<br />12<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  13. 13. CPU PLATFORM<br />ARM<br />Power PC<br />x86<br />Intel 8051<br />Atmel AVR<br />MSP-430<br />MC68HC12<br />13<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  14. 14. PERIPHERALS<br />Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc <br />Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, JTAG, SPI, SSC and ESSI <br />Universal Serial Bus (USB) <br />Networks: Ethernet, Controller Area Network, LonWorks, etc <br />Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units<br />Discrete IO: General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) <br />Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog Converter (ADC/DAC) <br />14<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  15. 15. MICROCONTROLLER over MICROPROCESSOR<br />Single chip computer<br />Integrated memory<br />Integrated peripherals<br />Minimum circuit<br />Cost reduction<br />15<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  16. 16. FEATURES OF A MICROCONTROLLER<br />Central Processing Unit - ranging from small and simple 8-bit processors to sophisticated 32- or 64-bit processors <br />Input/Output Interface such as serial ports <br />Peripherals such as timers and watchdog circuits <br />RAM for data storage <br />ROM, EEPROM or Flash Memory program storage <br />Clock Generator - often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal, resonator or RC circuit <br />16<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  17. 17. APPLICATIONS<br />Calculators<br />Washing Machine <br />Microwave Ovens<br />Cell phones <br />Industrial Automation & Robotics<br />Engines (Automobiles)<br />“Footwear&apos;s”<br />Cyborg<br />17<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  18. 18. 32-bit Electronic Fuel Injection Systems (EFI)<br />Electronic engine control for minimizing exhaust emissions and maximizing fuel economy<br />Instrumentation for measuring vehicle performance parameters and for diagnosis of on-board system malfunctions<br />Driveline control<br />Vehicle motion control<br />Safety and convenience<br />Entertainment/communication/navigation<br />18<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  19. 19. Control Outputs to Engine<br />19<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  20. 20. INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION & ROBOTICS<br />Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility (ASIMO)<br />Most developed humanoid in the world.<br />20<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  21. 21. AHS:( Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems)<br />Most advanced systems in the ITS field <br />Reduces traffic accidents <br />Enhances safety <br />Improves transportation efficiency <br />Reduces the operational work<br /> of drivers <br />21<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  22. 22. ELECTRONIC SHOES by ADDIDAS<br />Adapts to the environment <br />Senses the cushioning level on every step & Understands whether the cushioning provided is too soft or too firm <br />Adapts itself to provide the right level of cushioning <br />Sensor, located just below the runner’s heel <br />Takes 1,000 readings a second <br />Accurate to a tenth of a millimeter <br />Microprocessor capable of <br /> making five million calculations<br /> per second <br />Adapts with a motor-driven cable <br /> system that spins at 6,000 rpm <br />22<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  23. 23. What happens when a man is merged with a computer?<br />First human Cyborg.<br />Half man, half machine.<br />Microprocessor chip inside his arm.<br />Plans to integrate his brain with a Chip<br />Prof. Kevin Warwick<br />23<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  24. 24. ROBOTICS IS INTEGRATION OF:<br />ELECTRONICS + MECHANICS + SOFTWARE = ROBOTICS<br />24<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  25. 25. Nanorobots (Nanites)<br />Based on nanotechnology.<br />Robots having dimensions in the range of Nanometer.<br />Mission to MARS in 2020 by NASA.<br />25<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  26. 26. Sony’s- AIBO<br />Robo-Dogs<br />Emulates all the behavior of a Dog.<br />Also used as a pet which takes care of house.<br />Can control home devices. <br />26<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  27. 27. EVOLUTION OR IS IT ?<br />27<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  28. 28. Are the three Laws Really Safe ?<br />28<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  29. 29. TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS<br />29<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  30. 30. PROJECTS DESIGNED & IMPLEMENTED USING MICROCONTROLLER 8051<br />Digital Data Acquisition System.<br />Micromouse: An Autonomous Robot.<br />Application Specific Industrial Robot.<br />Industrial Automation<br />Material handling system.<br />30<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  31. 31. Digital Data Acquisition System.<br />Temperature Monitoring, Recording & Control using 8051.<br />Temperature Sensor:DS1621 Digital thermometer & Thermostat.<br />Display Device: 16x2 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)<br />Memory: External RAM (32KBytes).<br />Control using Electromechanical Relay.<br />31<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  32. 32. MICROMOUSE<br />Autonomous, maze solving robot.<br />Touch Sensors used as input.<br />D.C motors used as actuators.<br />Brain: Microcontroller 8051.<br />Chassis completely made out of scrap.<br />32<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  33. 33. Application Specific Industrial Robot<br />Designed for Specific Industrial Purpose.<br />Mechanism on top provides X-Y axis movement.<br />Vehicle provides movement in the plane.<br />Automatic pick and place mechanism.<br />33<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />
  34. 34. Thank you !!! But wait…<br />This presentation is open source….<br />Log on to my website:<br /><br />You can view/download this presentation.<br />You can brows my projects on this website.<br />34<br />Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel<br />