Introduction Of Robotics Robot and Robotics technologies represented a practical applications of physics, computer science, engineering and mathematics. It provides a very powerful and flexible approach to demonstrate a variety of engineering concept.
What is a Robot ? As such no formal defination, Research Engineers at Robosapiensindia came up with the undermentioned defination…“An electrical or mechanical or electromechanical, programmable or non programmable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”
IntroductionIsaac Asimov popularized the term robotics. Asimov is avisionary who envisioned in the 1930’s the positronic brainfor controlling robots. He invented the three laws ofrobotics:• A robot may not harm a human through action or inaction, allow a human to come to harm• A robot must obey the orders given by human beings, except when such orders conflict with the First Law• A robot must protect its own existence as long as it does not conflict with the First or Second Laws
Learning Objective• What the word robot means and its origins• Some of the current uses of robots in society• Explain some of the key problems involved in designing and building robots
Current Robotic Technologies• Industrial robots(which can be re-programmed) are usedextensively in factories to weld, paint,lift and transport goods in place ofhumans• The car manufacturing industry is agood example. Robots weld and fit carcomponents to new vehicles
Current Robotic Technologies• Large organisations and companies reapmany benefits from robotic technologiesbecause:• Robots are less expensive than payinghuman workers over the long run androbots are not prone to injure themselves.
Robots are currently used for situations where human safety is an issue • Robots are used internationally by Police, Army, Navy and Air force organisations • Robotic technology is used to deal with hazardous situations such as dealing with suspicious packages, riots and for the collection of foreign intelligence• NASA scientists use robotic technologies (Mars Explorer) toexplore other planets
Industrial Application•Repetitive tasks•High speed•High precision movements•Pre-planned trajectories and task policies•Automated and no human interference required
Current RobotsDesign Goals:• Sensor-rich• Controllable• Reliability• Efficiency
Shared Challenges• Configuring sensors and actuators in running system• Coordinating sensors and actuators asynchronously• monitoring/interacting/debugging running system• Development when access to robot is limited• Re-use of components across hardware platforms and device
Robotics in Movies• MATRIX• I-ROBOT• TERMINATOR
Contd…..• All these movies are based on the fact that rules of robotics are violated• Robots turn against their very own creators humans• So we should build robots keeping the rules of robotics in mind
Robotics Fiction•Matrix is an artificial reality created by sentient machinesin order to pacify and subdue the human population• It contains numerous references to philosophical andreligious ideas and to the hacker subculture, as well ashomage’s to the style of Japanese animation andcyberpunk•It shows the conflict between humans & machines andshows how machines can turn hostile against humans ifnot controlled cautiously
A robot must have the following essential characteristics• Mobility: It possesses some form of mobility.• Programmability: It can be programmed to accomplish a large variety of tasks. After being programmed, it operates automatically.• Sensors: On or around the device that are able to sense the environment and give useful feedback to the device.• Mechanical capability: Enabling it to act on its environment rather than merely function as a data processing or computational device (a robot is a machine); and• Flexibility: It can operate using a range of programs and manipulates in a variety of ways.
Asimo• ASIMO is a humanoid robot created by Honda. ASIMO was created at Honda’s Research & Development Wako Fundamental Technical Research Center in Japan.• The name ASIMO is an acronym for “Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility”.
Contd…..• The main concept behind Hondas robot was to create a more viable mobility that allow robots to help and live in harmony with people.• ASIMO has the unique ability to walk forward, backward, side step and even climb stairs with human-like agility. With the capability to navigate and operate in our world, ASIMO will be able to perform tasks to assist .• ASIMO has two Degrees of Freedom on its neck, six on each arm and six on each leg.• ASIMO may also someday be helpful in dangerous work environments such as moving harmful chemicals or fighting fires.
Kismet (robot) Kismet is a robot made in the late 1990s at Massachusetts Institute of Technology with auditory, visual and expressive systems intended to participate in human social interaction and to demonstrate simulated human emotion and appearance. The name Kismet comes from the Arabic , Turkish , Urdu Hindi and Punjabi word meaning "fate" or sometimes "luck".
Contd....• Kismet simulates emotion through various facial expressions, vocalizations, and movement. Facial expressions are created through movements of the ears, eyebrows, eyelids, lips, jaw, and head. Four color CCD cameras mounted on a stereo active vision head and two wide field of view cameras allow Kismet to decide what to pay attention to and to estimate distances. Maxon DC servo motors with high resolution optical encoders are positioned to give Kismet three degrees of eye movement, which allow it to control gaze direction and gives Kismet the ability to move and orient its eyes like a human. This allows Kismet to simulate human visual behaviors.
Contd.... The iCub is a small-size humanoid robot being designed by the RobotCub Consortium, consisting of several European universities. The iCub is the humanoid baby-robot being designed within the RobotCub project. It is a full humanoid robot sized as a three and half year-old child; about 3 feet tall. It has 53 degrees of freedom, including articulated hands that are used for manipulation and gesturing. iCub robot, like a human child and it is a fine simulation of a human child. The iCub is able to crawl and walk, make human-like eye and head movements and recognise and grasp objects.
ConclusionAlthough most robots in use today are designedfor specific tasks, the goal is to make universalrobots, robots flexible enough to do just aboutanything a human can do.