Robotics.fair

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Robotics.fair

  1. 1. ROBOTICS BY S.K.Venkat Raman & B. Sukumar Dept. of Computer Science, Senthamarai College of Arts & Science, V.R.S Garden, Madurai-625 021.
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Robotics ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws of Robotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of robots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why Robotics is Needed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components of robots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industries Using Robotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future prospects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ROBOTICS <ul><ul><li>It is a field of Engineering that covers the mimicking of human behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robotics includes the knowledge of Mechanical, Electronics, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical & Computer Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Robota (Czech) = A worker of forced labour </li></ul><ul><li>The word robotics is used to collectively define a field in engineering that </li></ul><ul><li>covers the mimicking of </li></ul><ul><li>various human characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Robots include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical automata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor-driven automata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-controlled robots </li></ul></ul>WHAT IS ROBOTICS
  5. 5. WHAT A ROBOT CAN MEAN ? <ul><ul><li>An automatic industrial machine replacing the human in hazardous work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An automatic mobile sweeper machine at a modern home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An automatic toy car for a child to play with. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A machine removing mines in a war field all by itself and many more… </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. TYPES OF ROBOT <ul><ul><li>Wheeled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climbing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flying </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. LAWS OF ROBOTICS <ul><li>The term robotics was coined in 1940s by science fiction writer Isaac Asimov. </li></ul><ul><li>Asimov's Laws of Robotics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A robot may not injure a human being, or through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A robot must obey the orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>given it by human beings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>except where such order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>would conflict with the first Law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A robot must protect its own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>existence as long as such </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protection does not conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with the First or Second Law. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. WHY ROBOTICS IS NEEDED ? <ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of Speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can work hazardous/dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To perform repetitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of adaptability </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. COMPONENTS OF ROBOTS <ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actuation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locomotion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. STRUCTURE <ul><ul><li>The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chain is formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of links (its bones), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>actuators (its muscles), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and joints which can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow one or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>degrees of freedom. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. POWER SUPPLY <ul><ul><li>Suitable power supply is needed to run the motors and associated circuitry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical power requirement ranges from 3V to 24V DC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>220V AC supply must be modified to suit the needs of our machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batteries can also be used to run robots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robots are driven by different motors :- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DC Motors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stepper Motors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Servo Motors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>DC Motors:- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As the name suggests, a motor which uses a DC (Direct Current) power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can run in both directions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed Controllable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Stepper Motors:- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for measured rotation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be held at a particular position ideal for many autonomous robots requiring higher precision </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Servo Motors :- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in closed loop control systems in which work is the control variable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An integral feedback device (resolver) or devices (encoder and tachometer) are either incorporated within the servo motor or are remotely mounted, often on the load itself </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. ACTUATION <ul><ul><li>Actuators are the &quot;muscles&quot; of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most popular actuators are electric motors. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sensing <ul><li>Human senses: sight, sound, touch, </li></ul><ul><li>taste, and smell provide us vital </li></ul><ul><li>information to function and survival </li></ul><ul><li>of robots </li></ul><ul><li>Robot sensors: measure robot </li></ul><ul><li>configuration/condition and its environment and send such information to robot controller as electronic signals (e.g., arm position, presence of toxic gas) </li></ul><ul><li>Robots often need information </li></ul><ul><li>that is beyond 5 human senses </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., ability to see in the dark, measure radiation, measure movement that is too small or fast for the human eye to see) </li></ul>
  17. 17. MANIPULATION <ul><ul><li>Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus the 'hands' of a robot are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often referred to as end effectors, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>while the arm is referred to as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a manipulator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some manipulators are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical Grippers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum Grippers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General purpose effectors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. LOCOMOTION <ul><ul><li>It is concerned with the motion of the robot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robot contains different types of drives:- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differential drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Car type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skid steer drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pivot drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Articulated drive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS NON DRIVEN WHEEL NON DRIVEN WHEEL NON DRIVEN WHEEL NON DRIVEN WHEEL Differential Drive 30
  20. 20. STEERING WHEELS STEERING WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS Ackerman Drive
  21. 21. DRIVRN FORWARD DRIVEN REVERSE Skid Steer Drive
  22. 22. Synchronous Drive
  23. 23. DRIVE SHAFT ROTATING PLATFORM LOWERED PLATFORM Pivot Drive
  24. 24. Pivot Linear Actuator Articulated Drive
  25. 25. Industries Using Robotics <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Military, surveillance, attack, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouses </li></ul>
  26. 26. ADVANTAGES <ul><ul><li>Revolution in Medical science and Health care systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New & wide scope in Education & Training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good help in Nuclear industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used tremendously in Sports activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play the role of an efficient assistance in Research and Development sciences . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can very well handle household business. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. FUTURE PROSPECTS <ul><ul><li>Scientists say that it is possible that a robot brain will exist by 2019 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2009, some robots acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Association for the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advancement of Artificial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence has researched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on this problem. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Robots will soon be everywhere, in our home and at work. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Singularity happens, robots will be </li></ul><ul><li>indistinguishable from human beings and some people </li></ul><ul><li>may become </li></ul><ul><li>Cyborgs: half man and half machine </li></ul><ul><li>They will change the way we live. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Thank you

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