Introduction To Embedded Systems

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Introduction To Embedded Systems

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Prof. Anish Goel
  2. 2. Spot the Computer 2 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  3. 3. Embedded Systems We are surrounded by Embedded Systems. Cell Phones Automatic Washing Machines. Traffic Signals with Timers. Automobile Electronics. Find a system that contains no electronic system. How can a electronic system improve the functionality/efficiency of that system. Custom design an embedded system for the same. 3 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  4. 4. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that application. An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only. In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM. Example'printer, keyboard, video game player 4 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  5. 5. Embedded Systems 5 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  6. 6. Examples of Embedded Systems 6 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  7. 7. Examples of Embedded Systems 7 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  8. 8. Examples of Embedded Systems 8 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  9. 9. Characteristics of Embedded Systems (1) 9 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  10. 10. Characteristics of Embedded Systems (2) 10 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  11. 11. Characteristics of Embedded Systems (3) 11 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  12. 12. Characteristics of Embedded Systems (4) 12 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  13. 13. Comparison 13 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  14. 14. Typical Architecture 14 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  15. 15. Implementation Alternatives 15 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  16. 16. General-purpose Processors 16 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  17. 17. 17 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  18. 18. System Specialization 18 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  19. 19. Example: Code-size Efficiency 19 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  20. 20. Written in stone-age languages 20 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  21. 21. The Design Challenge 21 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  22. 22. Functional Blocks in Microcontroller Functional Circuits in a Chip or Core Microcontroller (Microcomputer) I/O Ports Processor Non Volatile Control and PROM/ROM/E Data and Interface/Driv PROM Stack in ers External Internal Serial UART Memories RAM Communicatio Interface Timers and n Port Watchdog Serial Timer Interrupt Synchronous Controlle Communicatio r n Port Application Specific Circuits in Specific Versions DMA Network A/D Driver PWM for Modem DTMF Controlle Converte Stack/ D/A Circuit r r LAN Printer 22 Interfac Controlle Controlle e r r
  23. 23. Microcontrollers Used in Diff. Scale Systems Small-Scale Embedded System Microcontrollers 68HC05 PIC 8051 68HC08 16F8X Medium-Scale Embedded System Microcontrollers 8051 68HC11xx 80x86 80196 80251 68HC12xx Large-Scale Embedded System Microcontrollers Intel PowerPC 80960C ARM7 MPC 604 A 23 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  24. 24. Embedded System Processors General purpose processor (GPP) Microprocessor Microcontroller Embedded processor Digital signal processor (DSP) Media processor Application specific system processor (ASSP) as additional processor Multiprocessor system using GPPs and application specific instruction processors (ASIPs) GPP core(s) or ASIP core(s) integrated into application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) or VLSI circuits or an FPGA core integrated with processor unit(s) in a VLSI (ASIC) chip. 24 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  25. 25. Microcontrollers used in Embedded Systems A microcontroller is a single-chip VLSI unit which though having limited computation capabilities, possesses enhanced input-output capabilities and a number of on-chip functional units. Stream Microcontroller Family Source CISC or RISC 1 68HC11xx,HC12xx,HC1 Motorola CISC 6xx 2 8051, 80251 Intel CISC 3 80x86 Intel CISC 4 PIC16F84 or 16C76, Microchip CISC 16F876 5 Enhancements of ARM9, ARM, Texas, CISC with RISC ARM7 etc. 25 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  26. 26. MICROPROCESSORS MICRO + PROCESSOR Length of transistor is in micron region. This length becomes half every eighteen months Moore’s Law stated by Gordan Moore. More transistors per chip. 26 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  27. 27. Different aspects of a microprocessor/controller Hardware :Interface to the real world Software :order how to deal with inputs 27 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  28. 28. Microprocessors: General-purpose microprocessor CPU for Computers No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself Example'Intel’s x86, Motorola’s 680x0 Data Bus Many chips on mother’s board CPU General- Serial Purpose RAM ROM I/O Timer COM Micro- Port Port processor Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System 28 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  29. 29. Microcontroller : A smaller computer On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... Example'Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC 16X CPU RAM ROM A single chip Serial I/O Timer COM Port Port Microcontroller 29 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  30. 30. Basic Microcomputer System. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT MEMORY 30 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  31. 31. Microprocessors and Computer Architecture. What is needed to make systems smart???? Human Brain !!! We are surrounded by microprocessors. Where are they??? In cell phones. In cars. Smallest electronic system you can think of. Largest system you can think of. They are there is Shoes as well. What???? In shoes??? What would a piece of semi-conductor do in a shoes? 31 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  32. 32. Why Microprocessors? They will act as brain of the system. They add intelligence to the system. They can be programmed to perform a task. Once programmed, they make the system work automatically. Computer Architecture! Specialized branch that deals with the Microprocessor Architecture. For instance: What is the memory requirement of the system. How many input and output devices are to be connected to the system. 32 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  33. 33. Block Diagram of a Computer 33 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  34. 34. Layers of a Computer System High Level Sum := Sum + 1 Assembly MOV BX,SUM INC (BX) Machine 1101010100001100001000110111010111110 Register Transfer Fetch Instruction, Increment PC, Load ALU with SUM ... Gate Circuit 34 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  35. 35. CPU PLATFORM ARM Power PC x86 Intel 8051 Atmel AVR MSP-430 MC68HC12 35 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  36. 36. PERIPHERALS Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, JTAG, SPI, SSC and ESSI Universal Serial Bus (USB) Networks: Ethernet, Controller Area Network, LonWorks, etc Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units Discrete IO: General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog Converter (ADC/DAC) 36 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  37. 37. MICROCONTROLLER over MICROPROCESSOR Single chip computer Integrated memory Integrated peripherals Minimum circuit Cost reduction 37 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  38. 38. FEATURES OF A MICROCONTROLLER Central Processing Unit - ranging from small and simple 8-bit processors to sophisticated 32- or 64-bit processors Input/Output Interface such as serial ports Peripherals such as timers and watchdog circuits RAM for data storage ROM, EEPROM or Flash Memory program storage Clock Generator - often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal, resonator or RC circuit 38 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  39. 39. APPLICATIONS Calculators Washing Machine Microwave Ovens Cell phones Industrial Automation & Robotics Engines (Automobiles) “Footwear's” Cyborg 39 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  40. 40. 32-bit Electronic Fuel Injection Systems (EFI) Electronic engine control for minimizing exhaust emissions and maximizing fuel economy Instrumentation for measuring vehicle performance parameters and for diagnosis of on-board system malfunctions Driveline control Vehicle motion control Safety and convenience Entertainment/communication/navigation 40 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  41. 41. Control Outputs to Engine 41 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  42. 42. INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION & ROBOTICS Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility (ASIMO) Most developed humanoid in the world. 42 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  43. 43. AHS:( Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems) Most advanced systems in the ITS field Reduces traffic accidents Enhances safety Improves transportation efficiency Reduces the operational work of drivers 43 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  44. 44. ELECTRONIC SHOES by ADDIDAS Adapts to the environment Senses the cushioning level on every step & Understands whether the cushioning provided is too soft or too firm Adapts itself to provide the right level of cushioning Sensor, located just below the runner’s heel Takes 1,000 readings a second Accurate to a tenth of a millimeter Microprocessor capable of making five million calculations per second Adapts with a motor-driven cable system that spins at 6,000 rpm 44 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  45. 45. What happens when a man is merged with a computer? First human Cyborg. Half man, half machine. Microprocessor chip inside his arm. Plans to integrate his brain with a Chip Prof. Kevin Warwick 45 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel
  46. 46. Thank you !!! But wait… This presentation is open source…. Log on to my website: www.discovermechatronics.blogspot.com You can view/download this presentation. You can brows my projects on this website. 46 Introduction to Embedded Systems Anish Goel

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