Embedded system (Chapter 1)


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Embedded system (Chapter 1)

  1. 1. 08072013 EC501 EMBEDDED SYSTEM APPLICATIONS CHAPTER 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES • Understand the concept of embedded system: INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEM DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING POLITEKNIK SULTAN HAJI AHMAD SHAH Dr. Bakhtiar Bin Md Shaari @ email: dbms@polisas.edu.my 1. Describe the meaning of embedded system 2. Explain microcontroller as the heart of embedded system 3. Relate embedded system examples with real life application 4. Differentiate Microcontroller and microprocessor 5. Discuss the advantages of microcontroller application EMBEDDED SYSTEM Definition Embedded system is a computer system that cannot be programmed by the user because it is preprogrammed for a specific task and embedded within the equipment which it serves. (McGraw-Hill Science & Technology Encyclopedia:) Embedded system is a product controlled by its own internal microprocessor or microcontroller with a purpose for specific functions needed for the system MICROCONTROLLERS AS HEART OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM • A microcontroller is the data processing "brain" of an embedded system. • Definition for: embedded system • A combination of hardware and software which together form a component of a larger machine. • An example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that controls an automobile engine. • An embedded system is designed to run on its own without human intervention, and may be required to respond to events in real time. • Source: www.computeruser.com/resources/dictionary Microcontroller as the Heart of Embedded System Like • In an embedded system, a microcontroller receives input signals, processes the input signals and generates output signals based on the processing. Microcontroller like brain?? Woww.. It is great For example, in a thermometer embedded system, the microcontroller may receive a signal from a temperature measuring device, process the signal and send data to a display device to show the temperature being sensed. right? Because, the microcontroller will: Receive Input Signal Output Process it Produce an 1
  2. 2. 08072013 EMBEDDED SYSTEM EXAMPLES Embedded systems are used in all aspects of modern life and there are many examples of their use, including: 1. Telecommunications systems 2. Consumer electronics 3. Transportation systems EMBEDDED SYSTEM EXAMPLES ..cont… Physically, embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. 4. Medical equipment 5. Etc EMBEDDED SYSTEM EXAMPLES Line Follower Robot • Microcontroller is great…how about our computer (microprocessor)? Next slide describe the difference between uP and uC Washing Machine uP For more detail, please refer book page 25 uC Air-Bag Applications Areas Application Areas • TV • stereo • remote control • phone / mobile phone • refrigerator • microwave • washing machine • electric tooth brush • oven / rice or bread cooker • watch • alarm clock • electronic musical instruments • electronic toys (stuffed animals,handheld toys, pinballs, etc.) • medical home equipment (e.g. blood pressure, thermometer) •… • [PDAs?? More like standard computer system] Consumer Products 2
  3. 3. 08072013 Application Areas • Medical Systems – pace maker, patient monitoring systems, injection systems, intensive care units, … • Office Equipment – printer, copier, fax, … • Tools – multimeter, oscilloscope, line tester, GPS, … • Banking – ATMs, statement printers, … • Transportation – (Planes/Trains/[Automobiles] and Boats) • radar, traffic lights, signalling systems, … Application Areas • Automobiles – engine management, trip computer, cruise control, immobilizer, car alarm, – airbag, ABS, ESP, … • Building Systems – elevator, heater, air conditioning, lighting, key card entries, locks, alarm systems, … • Agriculture – feeding systems, milking systems, … • Space – satellite systems, … Application Areas • Facts: – 1997: The average U.S. household has over 10 embedded computers (source: www.it.dtu.dk/~jan) Automobiles • 1998: 90% Embedded Systems vs. 10% Computers – (source: Frautschi, www.caliberlearning.com) • 2001: The Volvo S80 has 18 embedded controllers and 2 busses (source: Volvo) 3
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  5. 5. 08072013 Embedded in a Shoe! Characteristics of Embedded System • Embedded systems are designed to do a specific task • Embedded systems are not always standalone devices The microprocessor embedded in this adidas running shoe calculates the pressure between the runner's foot and the ground five million times per second and continuously changes the cushioning to match an adjustable comfort level. The computer controls a motor that lengthens and shortens a cable attached to a plastic cushioning element. • The program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to as firmware, and are stored in read-only memory or flash memory chips. Microcontroller versus generalpurpose microprocessor Microcontroller versus generalpurpose microprocessor • Microprocessor is an IC which has only the CPU inside them i.e. only the processing. Application of microprocessor includes Desktop PC’s, Laptops, notepads etc. • Microprocessor is the general purpose microprocessors such as Intel’s x86 family (8086, 80286,80386, 80486 and the Pentium) or Motorola’s family • A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Microprocessor based system Microprocessor (µP) vs. Microcontroller (µC) To store the information (during CPU operation) CPU / µP Register ALU To process the information Control Unit To control the direction of information A system designer using a general-purpose microprocessor must add RAM, ROM, I/O ports and timers externally to make them functional. (CPU, Memory, I/O) 5
  6. 6. 08072013 Micro controller system µP vs. µC µC CPU / µP DATA BUS ALU Register RAM ROM I/O Timer Serial COM Control Unit ADDRESS BUS All the support devices like Read only memory, Read – Write memory, Timer, Serial interface, I/O ports are internal. In other words, the processor, RAM, ROM, I/O ports and timer are all on a single chip. CONTROL BUS Differences between microcontrollers and microprocessor based system Microcontroller Microprocessor Dedicated to one specific task Can do many different task Support devices are internal for a micro controller Support devices are external in a microprocessor based system Micro controllers offer software protection micro processor base system fails to offer a protection system. Time required to build the circuit will be less, the size will be less and power consumption will be less Time required to build the circuit will be more, the size will be more and power consumption will be more Not expensive The advantages of microcontroller application Expensive End-of-chapter Problems 1 1. Microcontrollers are normally less expensive than microprocessors. (true/false) • Small size • program is difficult to copy because of copy protection functions and an emulator will be required to copy it. • Reduce chip count • Many applications do not require as much computing power • Reduced power consumption • Reduced design cost End-of-chapter Problems 1 ..cont.. 3. List the differences between microcontroller and microprocessor. 5. List the advantages of microcontroller application. 6. 2. When comparing a system board based on a microcontroller and a general purpose microprocessor, which one is cheaper? 4. Microcontroller normally has which of the following devices on-chip? What does the term embedded system mean? a) RAM b) ROM c) I/O d) all of the above 6
  7. 7. 08072013 Wassalam Terima Kasih 7