Robotics and Embedded
Rock In Robos
1. Overview of Embedded system
2. Introduction to Robotics
3. Advanced Robotics
4. Introduction to At mega 16 microcontroller
5. Soft wears ( AVR6.1)
6. Arduino Technologies
7. Softwears ( Arduino)
8. Bluetooth interfacing
9. Zig bee interfacing
10. GSM interfacing
11. GPS interfacing
12. Ultrasonic sensor interfacing
13. Accelerometer interfacing
1. Embedded Systems
An embedded system is some combination of hardware and software that is
specifically designed for a particular function. The whole system is embedded
into an appliance. This reduces human effort to a great extent. A single chip
contains both hardware and software.
Embedded System in Daily Life
2. Introduction to Robotics
Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture,
and operation of robots. This field overlaps with electronics, computer
science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology, and bioengineering.
How Does NASA Use Robots?
NASA uses robots in many different ways. Robotic arms on spacecraft are used to move
very large objects in space. Spacecraft that visit other worlds are robots that can do work
by themselves. People send them commands. The robots then follow those commands.
This type of robot includes the rovers that explore the surface of Mars. Robotic airplanes
can fly without a pilot aboard. NASA is researching new types of robots that will work
with people and help them.
3. Advanced Robotics
Advanced Robotics basically deals with interfacing advance module such as DTMF (Dual
tone multiple frequency), Bluetooth, Zigbee, interfacing of GSM module, interfacing of GPS
module, interfacing of ultra sonic sensor and interfacing of accelerometer.
Each module is different from another in the respect where ultrasonic sensor is used to find
the distance between two large objects whereas a Bluetooth module is used to
communicate wirelessly. GPS module is used to find the location of an object whereas GSM
module is used to send the message or to make a call.
4. INTRODUCTION TO ATMEGA MICROCONTROLLER
A Microcontroller is a programmable digital processor with necessary peripherals. Both
microcontrollers and microprocessors are complex sequential digital circuits meant to
carry out job according to the program / instructions.
ATmega16 is an 8-bit high performance microcontroller of Atmel’s Mega AVR family with
low power consumption. Atmega16 is based on enhanced RISC (Reduced Instruction Set
Computing, Know more about RISC and CISC Architecture)
Some of the features of Atmega16 are:
16KB of Flash memory
1KB of SRAM
512 Bytes of EEPROM
Available in 40-Pin DIP
8- Channel 10-bit ADC
Two 8-bit Timers/Counters
One 16-bit Timer/Counter
4 PWM Channels
Digital to Analog Comparator
An Arduino Board is AVR microcontroller based board which follows the standard
arduino schematic and is flashed with the arduino boot-loader.
The arduino is referred as open source hardware, since the
standard schematic is open to everyone and anybody can
make their own version of arduino board following the
standard schematic. All arduino boards should be
compatible with the arduino IDE which can be used
to program the arduino boards. The arduino IDE
is also open source and anybody can contribute
their libraries to the arduino.
The arduino board has all the required circuitry to
get the built-in AVR microcontroller running. The output or inputs
can be taken from the boards or given to the board using convenient
connectors. Both digital and analog inputs and outputs are available in all arduino
boards. The arduino boards can also communicate with other devices using standard
communication ports like USART, IIC, and USB etc. The most impressive thing is that most
of the arduino boards are bread-board compatible which makes both the hobbyist and
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using
short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz from fixed and
mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by telecom
vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data
cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.
Organization of Bluetooth
In May of 1998, Intel, Ericsson, Nokia, IBM and Toshiba were formed as a Special Interest
Group, named SIG; its goal is to set up a short range radio frequency wireless technology. By
June of 1999, members of SIG had been increased to 751 members, which includes Compaq、
Dell、Motorola、3Com、HP、Lucent、and Samsung, and they have all come to a consensus
of royalty free standard in order to lower the technical cost for making it being widely used.
Bluetooth interfacing through microcontroller
A Bluetooth module consists of four pins as shown in the figure. Four pins are Ground,
+5v,Tx,Rx.The Tx pin is called as Transmitter pin of Bluetooth and it is connected to the
Receiver pin of At mega 16 microcontroller while Rx pin is known as the receiver pin of
Bluetooth and it is connected to the Transmitter pin of At mega 16 microcontroller.
Fig. Bluetooth module
TX – transmitter pin
RX – receiver pin
It is essential to give your robot eyes for preventing crashes. Ultrasonic sensors, also
known as transducers, have a similar working system as a radar or sonar by interpreting
the echoes of radio or sound waves generated by the sensor. In this way, a robot can
detect obstacles and the distance to obstacles. In this article, we make an overview of
most popular ultrasonic sensors used in robotic applications and tutorials to learn how
to interface and programming these sensors in order to build robots.
HC-SR04 provides measurement function between 2 and 400 centimetres at range
accuracy of 3 millimetres. The HC-SR04 module hosts the ultrasonic transmitter, the
receiver and control circuit.
The HR-SR04 has four pins namely Vcc, Trigger, Echo, GND and they are explained in detail
1) VCC: 5V DC supply voltage is connected to this pin.
2) Trigger: The trigger signal for starting the transmission is given to this pin. The trigger
signal must be a pulse with 10uS high time. When the module receives a valid trigger
signal it issues 8 pulses of 40 KHz ultrasonic sound from the transmitter. The echo of this
sound is picked by the receiver.
3) Echo: At this pin, the module outputs a waveform with high time proportional to the
4) GND: Ground is connected to this pin.
The explosion in wireless technology has seen the emergence of many standards, especially
in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio band. There have been a multitude of
proprietary protocols for control applications, which bottlenecked interfacing. Need for a
widely accepted standard for communication between sensors in low data rate wireless
networks was felt.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that
provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the
Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The
system provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world.
It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a
Concept of GPS
A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites
high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include:
GPS modem is a device which receives signals from satellite and provides information
about latitude, longitude, altitude, time etc. The GPS navigator is more famous in mobiles
to track the road maps. The GPS modem has an antenna which receives the satellite signals
and transfers them to the modem. The modem in turn converts the data into useful
information and sends the output in serial RS232 logic level format. The information about
latitude, longitude etc is sent continuously and accompanied by an identifier string.
This article shows how to interface the GPS modem with ATmega16 and extract the location
(latitude and longitude) from the GPGGA string and display it on LCD.
INTERFACING GPS WITH MICROCONTROLLER
While originally a military project, GPS is considered a dual-use technology, meaning it has
significant military and civilian applications.
GPS has become a widely deployed and useful tool for commerce, scientific uses, tracking,
and surveillance. GPS's accurate time facilitates everyday activities such as banking, mobile
phone operations, and even the control of power grids by allowing well synchronized hand-