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Agroforestry for Development of Dry Areas


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A presentation during the 13th International Conference on Dryland Development

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Agroforestry for Development of Dry Areas

  1. 1. Agroforestry for Development of Dry Areas Javed Rizvi World Agroforestry, South Asia Regional program New Delhi, India email:
  2. 2. Headquartered at Nairobi, Kenya ICRAF operates in 36 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America through 6 Regional Offices East & Southern Africa West & Central Africa Latin America South AsiaEast & Central Asia Southeast Asia ICRAF implements its research for development program in collaboration with more than 100 partners, including National Agriculture Research and Education Systems (NARES) Agroforestry is the practice and science of the interface and interactions between agriculture and forestry, involving farmers, livestock, trees and forests at multiple scales
  3. 3. Products Food Fruits, Nuts, Edible leaves/ Pods, Tubers, Roots, etc. Commodities Beverages, Oils, Toiletry, Cosmetics, Perfumes, Gums, Resins, Industrial Products Energy Biofuel Fuelwood Charcoal Timber Fodder Medicines Spices Fertilizer Services G r o u n d c o v e r e c o s y s t e m i n t e g r i t y B e t t e r w a t e r m a n a g e m e n t B i o d i v e r s i t y c o n s e r v a t i o n M i c r o - c l i m a t e m o d i f i c a t i o n N u t r i e n t c y c l i n g P o l l i n a t i o n S p i r i t u a l a n d r i t u a l v a l u e s Agroforestry Benefits for Dryland Area
  4. 4. Agroforestry and INDC • 23 countries identify agroforestry as a mitigation strategy • 29 countries identify agroforestry as an adaptation strategy Source: /agricultures- prominence-indcs- data-and- maps#.Wfa1uohx200
  5. 5. • Six molecules of CO2 = one molecule of glucose • Six oxygen molecules released as a by- product • A mature sycamore tree (around 12 m tall; weighing two tons, growing @ 5 % per year, produces 100 kg of oxygen/ tree / year Some simple but interesting math! • One person needs 9.5 tons of air/ year • Oxygen makes up about 23 percent of that ( by mass) • About 740 kg of oxygen /year/ person 7 - 8 trees’ worth. American Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)
  6. 6. Clippeton Island, Spratly Island and Vatican City have no trees
  7. 7. Average number of trees/ person (2015) 8953 1494 102 28 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Canada Brazil China India Series1 Series2
  8. 8. Popular Agroforestry Systems Dryland offers good scope for development of Agroforestry, Social forestry, Horti- Sylvi-pasture , etc which will not only supply food, nutrition, fodder, fuel to communities but forms a suitable vegetative cover for ecological maintenance. √
  9. 9. Policy Support Agroforestry technologies Inputs (QPM and Others) Credit Mainstreaming agroforestry Forward and backward linkages to market Insurance Strong Extension Services India, Nepal, Belize and Bangladesh Absence of Guidelines Efficient Linkages Not Available
  10. 10. Implementation of National Agroforestry Policy and Mission: • ICRAF a member of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on National Agroforestry Policy • Member of the Technical Group for Agroforestry Mission • Member of MoEFCC’s Committee on increasing trees outside forest India Nepal Bangladesh Indonesia Rwanda Kenya Belize (Central America) Agroforestry Mission: $ 140 million National Bamboo Mission: $ $ 197 million State Governments Finance commission: $ 9 billion CSR: $ 104 million Agroforestry Research Institute
  11. 11. ExtentofContributiontoNational Economy&ClimateResilience Over 70 % of country’s timber requirement met from trees on-farm. Dry land areas contribute about 30-40 % Generates about $ 25 billion/ year, significant part of it goes to smallholders Co-benefits through allied industries , service sector. Ecosystem services NDC commitment A Success Story: India
  12. 12. Success story form Africa: The Drylands Development Programme (DryDev) • Over 158,800 farmers (59,000 women) involved in rehabilitation of 87,013 hectare using various watershed treatments, planting of grasses and 1,829,319 trees. • To control run-off and increase water infiltration check dams on streams to manage siltation, sand dams to store underground water, infiltration trenches/pits, and half- moon micro- catchments were promoted A Farmer-led Program to Enhance Water Management, Food Security, and Rural Economic Development in the Drylands of Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali and Niger
  13. 13. Success story form China: Kubuqi Ecological Restoration Project, A Desert Green Economy Initiative • Sandy and denuded landscape • Temperatures range 32.1 - 38.7 ºC • Sandstorms are common • Annual average rainfall 280 mm. • Mobile dunes account for 61% • Majority of surface covered by loose fine sand
  14. 14. • Air and water jetting method, fast planting-high survival rate • Grid sand barrier technology to stabilize sand dunes, using Salix psammophila, crop straw and other materials (1 × 1 m or 2 × 2 m; 10 to 15 cm high) • Adjusting tree and grass species to the local conditions • Aerial seeding of grass and trees • Exclusion zone for some or all of human activities for 5 – 15 years • Optimized utilization of upper, middle and lower parts of the landscape with balanced interests between long, medium and short- term production, and realizing ecological, economic and social benefits • Production of high grade liquorice through best planting material, field & harvesting management
  15. 15. Success story form UAE: About 30,000 ha plantation in the heart of desert with more than 18 million trees
  16. 16. Challenges and Way Forward Absence of extension support services Dependable Monitoring & estimation of area
  17. 17. Africa Tree Finder The vegetationmap4africa is an interactive vegetation map Available as web‐based, Google Earth and [offline] mobile phone versions Designed as a decision support tool for the selection of suitable indigenous tree species for restoration, forestry, agroforestry and landscape diversification projects. The map currently covers eight African countries (Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia). The map also shows where planting materials for a particular species could be obtained Via the Agroforestry Species Switchboard, each tree species is linked to information in 26 web‐based databases, supporting the selection of the right tree species.
  18. 18. Parameter Ludhiana SBS Nagar Hoshiarpur Rupnagar Agroforestry area (ha) 11691.85 5501.00 19600.38 9567.30 Poplar area (ha) 3698.67 534.00 10573.13 5495.20 Poplar area as % of agroforestry 31.6 9.7 53.9 57.4 Estimation of Area under Poplar based Agroforestry Systems in Punjab state Estimated area under Poplar species is 276 thousand ha (5.63%) in Punjab state with a reasonably good accuracy of 85.2 percent
  19. 19. Parameter Yamunanagar Kurukshetra Karnal Agroforestry area (ha) 16292.88 7997.87 7641.09 Poplar area (ha) 12169.66 2581.73 2317.34 Poplar area as % of agroforestry 74.7 32.3 30.3 Estimation of Area under Poplar based Agroforestry Systems in Haryana Estimated area under Poplar species is 205 thousand ha (4.66%) in Haryana state with a reasonably good accuracy of 85.2 percent.
  20. 20. Inter sensor comparison of Poplar mapping in pilot areas of Yamuna Nagar district, Haryana Sensors Sentinel-2 (ESA) LISS-IV(ISRO) SKYSAT(Planet) Spatial resolution (pixel, m) 10 m 5.8m 1m Temporal resolution (days) 5 5 On demand Data volume Medium High Very high Cost of data rupees per tile Free Rs 12000(per tile) Rs 70000 (per tile) Ease of collection and processing Medium High Very high Processing time(working hours/km2) 24 40 60 Overall Accuracy (%) 85.2 90.1 94.2 Pilot area=(14 kmx14km)=19600 ha
  21. 21. It will cost 76 Trillion dollars to produce Oxygen for 1 year for all human beings on earth Trees Do It For Free