Intensification of maize-legume based
systems in the semi-arid areas of Tanzania to
increase farm productivity and improve...
Kongwa- Kiteto Consortium
ARI-Hombolo
PRC-Kongwa
Tuboreshe Chakula project
NAFAKA
Ministry of Agriculture, Food
Security a...
Project Sites: Environment
Kongwa District is found in Dodoma
Region. We are working in Mlali ward
with a population of ab...
Challenges to increased
production/productivity
1. Fragile farming environments
• Erosion prone farms
• Degraded land scap...
Project Theory of Change
SphereofinfluenceSphereof
interest
Novel & multidisciplinary approaches
used to improve agricultu...
Research approach• RO1 to inform
investment.
• Increased productivity
(new varieties- at scale),
land use for livestock an...
Research output 1: Underpinning food
security and safety work
Average crop productivity (kg/ha) by crop and
district
Crop ...
• 46% of farmers have adequate food to last 12 months (334
respondents)
• Jan (21%), Feb (22%) & March (17%) are the most ...
Food safety and knowledge access
• Food safety: Aflatoxins
1. 19% of households are aware of aflatoxin with 28% in groundn...
Biophysical characterisation
• A sentinel block of 10 km2 established in
Kongwa for landscape assessment of soil and
veget...
WP 1: On-farm evaluation of improved
legume & cereals varieties
PVS on groundnuts
• Best bet varieties for semi-arid
areas...
WP 1: On-farm evaluation of improved
legume & cereals varieties
• ICEAP0557, ICEAP 554 selected early
medium maturity grou...
Research output 2: WP 2. ISFT
c
cb
a
cb
b
0.0
1.5
3.0
4.5
0 15 30 45 60
Phosphorus application rate (kg P ha-1)
(b)
b
ba
a...
Research output 2: WP 3. Land management (soil
and water conservation)
• Soil moisture challenge: Insitu water harvesting
...
Res. Output 2: WP 4. Processing, utilization & nutrition
Aflatoxtin detected in
most crops - bambara
Crop Number of
sample...
Res. Output 2: WP 5. Crop/livestock/poultry integration
• Typology of livestock management
systems for semi- arid agro-eco...
Research deliverables
1. Products
1. Evaluated 6 new and or novel
varieties/ lines selected best 2 for
each crop
2. Fodder...
Research deliverables
1. Capacity building
– Field days and training- 560
farmers
– ARI Hombolo PVS, Diagnostic
surveys
2....
Lessons learned/projections/challenges
1. Partnerships convergence & complementarity: Complement of
partners is fluid. Pre...
If we open a quarrel between the past
and the present, we shall find that we
have lost the future
Sir Winston Churchill
2013-2014 Planning
1. High
yielding
and
nutrient
rich crops
varieties
2. ISFM land
& water
management
Increased
productivi...
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Intensification of maize-legume based systems in the semi-arid areas of Tanzania to increase farm productivity and improve farming natural resource base

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Presented by Ganga Rao, NVRP, Kimaro, A., Makumbi, D., Mponda, O., Msangi, R., Rubanza, C.D., Seetha, A., Swai, E. and Okori, P. at the Africa RISING East and Southern Africa annual review and planning meeting, Lilongwe, Malawi, 3-5 September 2013

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Intensification of maize-legume based systems in the semi-arid areas of Tanzania to increase farm productivity and improve farming natural resource base

  1. 1. Intensification of maize-legume based systems in the semi-arid areas of Tanzania to increase farm productivity and improve farming natural resource base Ganga Rao, NVRP, Kimaro, A, Makumbi, D, Mponda, O., Msangi, R., Rubanza, C.D., Seetha, A., Swai, E. and Okori, P. Africa RISING East and Southern Africa annual review and planning meeting, Lilongwe, Malawi, 3-5 September 2013
  2. 2. Kongwa- Kiteto Consortium ARI-Hombolo PRC-Kongwa Tuboreshe Chakula project NAFAKA Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives ARI Naliendele Dep. of Agric Kiteto & Kongwa
  3. 3. Project Sites: Environment Kongwa District is found in Dodoma Region. We are working in Mlali ward with a population of about 28,000 people Kiteto district is found in the Manyara region with an estimated population of 152,757
  4. 4. Challenges to increased production/productivity 1. Fragile farming environments • Erosion prone farms • Degraded land scapes • Low soils fertility 2. Degradative farming (crop/livestock) pracices • Overgrazing • Limited integration 3. Low production potential varieties grown 4. Local demand for legumes (consumption) is low Context of the Interventions
  5. 5. Project Theory of Change SphereofinfluenceSphereof interest Novel & multidisciplinary approaches used to improve agricultural innovation Strengthened M&E and learning in place for team Team operations is at optimum and well supported High quality staff motivated to work for project success Preconditions among project partners Output 1 Introduce, & evaluate improved varieties of maize and grain legumes Output 2 Deploy ISFT to improve plant nutrition, yields and agro- ecosystem resilience Output 3 Validate & promote land management options for sustainable intensification Output 4 Post-harvest processing utilization and food safety for improved nutrition outcomes Project outputs Smallholder farm households especially women and children move out of poverty, food and nutritional insecurity while maintaining and/or improving ecosystem stability and overall agricultural productivity Development Impact Government policy is supportive of investments in agriculture Opportunities for improved access to seed and innovations support intensification Existing land tenure systems support farm to landscape level interventions Farmer organizations are functional & supportive of the project Preconditions amongst in action site Outcome 1 Increased crop yields in maize-legume farming systems by up to 100% for cereals and 80% for legumes. Outcome 2 Improved land productivity and agro-ecology robustness support productive and sustainable agriculture Project level outcomes Outputsand activities OutcomesImpacts Sphereofaction
  6. 6. Research approach• RO1 to inform investment. • Increased productivity (new varieties- at scale), land use for livestock and poultry • Increase land productivity (nutrient use, decrease degradation) • Address household nutrition and food security • 560 FARMHOUSE HOLDS ENGAGED IN YEAR 1 Scaling up and roll-out Experiment Scaling-up Validate + Scaling up Increasingresilienceand productivity Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Problem identification and targeting Participatory technology evaluation Adaptation Scaling up and or out.
  7. 7. Research output 1: Underpinning food security and safety work Average crop productivity (kg/ha) by crop and district Crop Kongwa Kiteto Total Maize 782.3 623.4 753.3 Sunflower 391.3 555.2 433.4 Groundnut 608.9 450.8 529.9 Pigeonpea 200.3 117.3 158.8 Sorghum 323.5 207.2 314.6 Bambara 332.7 160.6 295.1 • Productivity at 50% of potential yield for above crops • Farmers involved in extensive farming using mechanized agriculture
  8. 8. • 46% of farmers have adequate food to last 12 months (334 respondents) • Jan (21%), Feb (22%) & March (17%) are the most lean months • Cash purchases (62%), labour exchange for food (28%) are major coping strategies for food insecurity Village % house holds with enough food to last 12 months Yes No Moleti 29.6 70.4 Mlali 46.8 53.2 Laikala 45.8 54.2 Chitego 54.7 45.3 Njoro 50.8 53.9 FOOD SECURITY Food insecurity: Limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways.
  9. 9. Food safety and knowledge access • Food safety: Aflatoxins 1. 19% of households are aware of aflatoxin with 28% in groundnut & 26% in maize 2. Use of gradeout grain – 15% throw away – 45% eat roasted & as groundnut flour – 30% make flour (maize) • Farm credit. (12%) in Kongwa and (25%) in Kiteto • Extension: 40% received extension services on general crop production with 4% on groundnuts • Farmer organisation: 9% of respondents were members of farmers clubs Research Output 2Research Output 2
  10. 10. Biophysical characterisation • A sentinel block of 10 km2 established in Kongwa for landscape assessment of soil and vegetation using the land degradation surveillance framework • Infiltration measurement in one of the plots • Soil sampling and analysis is ongoing
  11. 11. WP 1: On-farm evaluation of improved legume & cereals varieties PVS on groundnuts • Best bet varieties for semi-arid areas of central Tanzania identified • Seed production on-going Varieties Yield (tons/ha) 1. ICGV-SM 99568 0.55 0.44 2. ICGV-SM 02724 1.50 1.28 3. MANGAKA 0.73 0.35 4. PENDO 0.61 0.28 5.MNANJE 0.87 0.77 6. LOCAL LANDRACES 0.27 0.17
  12. 12. WP 1: On-farm evaluation of improved legume & cereals varieties • ICEAP0557, ICEAP 554 selected early medium maturity group • Seed production: community seed systems groundnuts and pigeonpea piloted • Maize evaluations slated for 2013-2014 • 2012-2013 used to promoted released materials
  13. 13. Research output 2: WP 2. ISFT c cb a cb b 0.0 1.5 3.0 4.5 0 15 30 45 60 Phosphorus application rate (kg P ha-1) (b) b ba a a b 0.0 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 0 15 30 45 60Maizegrain(Mgha-1) Phosphorus application rate (kg P ha-1) (a)• Optimum P rate for maize is 30 kg P ha-1 (Fig. a, b) • Farmers, may apply 15 kg P ha-1 without losing maize yield. • Maize response to N fertilizer was poor, suggesting other compounding factors factors, (Fig. 1c, d). Njoro in Kiteto Mlali Village Kiteto
  14. 14. Research output 2: WP 3. Land management (soil and water conservation) • Soil moisture challenge: Insitu water harvesting technologies tested and show yield advantage • Deep tillage improved yields • Ox-ripper and ox-ridger tillage increased yield by 25% % and 30 % respectively. • Higher yields with tractor drawn implements (mainly in Kiteto) • Scope to improve insitu water harvesting and better targeting
  15. 15. Res. Output 2: WP 4. Processing, utilization & nutrition Aflatoxtin detected in most crops - bambara Crop Number of samples Aflatoxin (ppb)- incidence & levels Groundnut 163 70% up to 4000 ppb Maize 366 20% up to 340 ppb Bambara 78 43.5 % 1ppb to 411ppb Pigeonpea 29 0 % Beans 4 0 % P. Millet 35 0 % Sorghum 64 11% (>10 ppb) Sunflower 143 13% upto 293 ppb Groundnut:Mrk 28 100% up to 504 ppb Maize: Mkt 23 26 % (>10ppb) Safety: < 4 ppb or 20 ppb
  16. 16. Res. Output 2: WP 5. Crop/livestock/poultry integration • Typology of livestock management systems for semi- arid agro-ecologies • Feed resource quality –fodder quality of promising tree/shrub plant species – Explorations to collect plant samples for analysis for- biomass and nutrient quality of pastures and crop residues – Characterizing the grazing systems.
  17. 17. Research deliverables 1. Products 1. Evaluated 6 new and or novel varieties/ lines selected best 2 for each crop 2. Fodder / fertilizer tree and shrub species for target propagation 2. Technologies/ processes transferred… 1. Pest management p. pea (farmers) 2. Agronomy groundnuts. P. pea
  18. 18. Research deliverables 1. Capacity building – Field days and training- 560 farmers – ARI Hombolo PVS, Diagnostic surveys 2. Links with other projects/partners … – Tuboreshe Chakula – Nafaka – IITA – Aflatoxin work
  19. 19. Lessons learned/projections/challenges 1. Partnerships convergence & complementarity: Complement of partners is fluid. Pre-season engagement is critical for buy-in….. Can be costly 2. Benchmarks are critical: Targeting within investment domains easily compounded by fluidity/complexity of subsistent agriculture especially resource endowments (12% can access credit). This may affect scaling up and out..one size fits all 1. Champions for change: Alternative models for diffusion. 9% of farmers engaged are member of farmer organisations. Champions at community level are essential. This may compound design of evaluations because such people are usually targeted by others.
  20. 20. If we open a quarrel between the past and the present, we shall find that we have lost the future Sir Winston Churchill
  21. 21. 2013-2014 Planning 1. High yielding and nutrient rich crops varieties 2. ISFM land & water management Increased productivit y 3. Improved crop managemen t Improved agricultural productivity and nutrition outcomes • Confirmation/ evaluations all technologies • Design validation • Community Contexts • Emergent issues (food supply- vegetables) • Scale issues: seed increase, FO support -limited extension • Integration:- Livestock/poultry systems • Capacity strengthening • Seed production • Agronomy • Aflatoxin • S&T strengthening

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