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Livestock feed and forage action research and scaling in the Ethiopian highlands: Africa RISING experience

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Livestock feed and forage action research and
scaling in the Ethiopian highlands: Africa RISING
experience
Kindu Mekonnen
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Zimbabwe scientists visit
23 June 2022
Introduction
 Livestock pop in Ethiopia –cattle, shoats and equines
=137.2 million, cattle=60 million (CSA, 2018)
 Constraints for livestock production in Ethiopia (Feed,
health and breed related)
 Imbalance between feed demand and supply (Table 1)
Agro-ecological systems Total
livestock
population
Feed demand
(t yr-1)
Feed supply-
good year
(t yr-1)
Feed supply-
average year
(t yr-1)
Feed supply-
bad year
(t yr-1)
Lowland grazing (60%) 52265228 47,666,865 68,290,410 51,326,540 34,183,279
Mixed systems –RF
deficient (15%)
25424149 28,975,954 28,076,555 19,209,548 15,173,235
Mixed systems- RF
Sufficient (25%)
38734106 53,350,275 48,853,394 38,004,014 31,920,918
Total 116423483 129,993,094 145,220,359 108,540,102 81,277,432
Source: Ethiopia Livestock Master Plan -ELMP (2015)
Table 1. Feed balances for the different livestock production systems under different climatic
conditions
Africa RISING approaches to address feed and
forage related problems
 Selected representative sites in consultation with local
partners in four regions
 Diagnosed feed and forage situation (FEAST, PCA, RTS)
 Identified potential intervention options (CGIAR partners)
 Validated feed and forage intervention options (on-farm)
 Demonstrated best bet feed and forage options, and post-
harvest management and utilization practices (within and
outside AR sites) to enhance adaptation by users
 Explored different options for forage seed multiplication
(cooperatives, unions, model farmers, FTCs, local
Universities and research centers)
 Facilitated wider scaling (development partnership
arrangement)
Achievements/ contributions
 Farmers have started allocating more land for
forage production – from 100 m2 to more than 1000
m2 -because of the project effort on awareness
creation (field days, demonstration, training, visits)
 AR validated feed and forage technologies are now
mainstreaming through partner organisations
without direct AR involvement
 AR project managed to reach and benefit more than
96,432 farmers from 2017 to 2021 with feed and
forage options through direct and partners
engagement (NGOs, extension, ILSSI, TAAT,
Grass2cash project, local Universities and research
centers)- (Table 2).
 Total number of beneficiaries in 2017-2021 from feed and forage
intervention= 96,432
 Targets from 2017 to 2021= 126,059
Technological options 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Oat/vetch 1503 6647 5146 21689 4,806
Desho grass 1018 517 112 4125 2
Sweet lupin 106 113 0 0 0
Alfalfa 3 32 226 581 164
Faba bean/forage
intercropping 16 0 0 0 0
Tree luceren 11388 12535 10788 9483 1819
Feed trough 25 137 237 837 1,097
Fodder beet 0 0 61 122 198
Elephant grass 0 0 99 302 77
Total 14059 19981 16669 37481 8242
Table 2. Number of beneficiary farmers from 2017 to 2021.
 Producing suitability maps of the feed and forage options
for further investment by any interested groups (e.g. TL)
 Based on the preliminary result, tree lucerne (TL) can be
grown on 125K ha of land, which can produce a dry matter
of 1.0 -1.25 million t y-1 .

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Livestock feed_2022.pptx

  • 1. Livestock feed and forage action research and scaling in the Ethiopian highlands: Africa RISING experience Kindu Mekonnen International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Zimbabwe scientists visit 23 June 2022
  • 2. Introduction  Livestock pop in Ethiopia –cattle, shoats and equines =137.2 million, cattle=60 million (CSA, 2018)  Constraints for livestock production in Ethiopia (Feed, health and breed related)  Imbalance between feed demand and supply (Table 1) Agro-ecological systems Total livestock population Feed demand (t yr-1) Feed supply- good year (t yr-1) Feed supply- average year (t yr-1) Feed supply- bad year (t yr-1) Lowland grazing (60%) 52265228 47,666,865 68,290,410 51,326,540 34,183,279 Mixed systems –RF deficient (15%) 25424149 28,975,954 28,076,555 19,209,548 15,173,235 Mixed systems- RF Sufficient (25%) 38734106 53,350,275 48,853,394 38,004,014 31,920,918 Total 116423483 129,993,094 145,220,359 108,540,102 81,277,432 Source: Ethiopia Livestock Master Plan -ELMP (2015) Table 1. Feed balances for the different livestock production systems under different climatic conditions
  • 3. Africa RISING approaches to address feed and forage related problems  Selected representative sites in consultation with local partners in four regions  Diagnosed feed and forage situation (FEAST, PCA, RTS)  Identified potential intervention options (CGIAR partners)  Validated feed and forage intervention options (on-farm)  Demonstrated best bet feed and forage options, and post- harvest management and utilization practices (within and outside AR sites) to enhance adaptation by users  Explored different options for forage seed multiplication (cooperatives, unions, model farmers, FTCs, local Universities and research centers)  Facilitated wider scaling (development partnership arrangement)
  • 4. Achievements/ contributions  Farmers have started allocating more land for forage production – from 100 m2 to more than 1000 m2 -because of the project effort on awareness creation (field days, demonstration, training, visits)  AR validated feed and forage technologies are now mainstreaming through partner organisations without direct AR involvement  AR project managed to reach and benefit more than 96,432 farmers from 2017 to 2021 with feed and forage options through direct and partners engagement (NGOs, extension, ILSSI, TAAT, Grass2cash project, local Universities and research centers)- (Table 2).
  • 5.  Total number of beneficiaries in 2017-2021 from feed and forage intervention= 96,432  Targets from 2017 to 2021= 126,059 Technological options 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Oat/vetch 1503 6647 5146 21689 4,806 Desho grass 1018 517 112 4125 2 Sweet lupin 106 113 0 0 0 Alfalfa 3 32 226 581 164 Faba bean/forage intercropping 16 0 0 0 0 Tree luceren 11388 12535 10788 9483 1819 Feed trough 25 137 237 837 1,097 Fodder beet 0 0 61 122 198 Elephant grass 0 0 99 302 77 Total 14059 19981 16669 37481 8242 Table 2. Number of beneficiary farmers from 2017 to 2021.
  • 6.  Producing suitability maps of the feed and forage options for further investment by any interested groups (e.g. TL)  Based on the preliminary result, tree lucerne (TL) can be grown on 125K ha of land, which can produce a dry matter of 1.0 -1.25 million t y-1 .
  • 7. Challenges  Lack of good quality seeds of the improved forage options to facilitate wider scaling, Example - fodder beet  Unaffordable seed price– alfalfa- USD 35 per kg of seed  Competing use of forages- feeding at early stage rather than managing a portion for seed production  Wider scaling through DPs demand fund allocation  Lack of proper varietal release policy and seed certification? Fodder beet seed production in Africa RISING site in Sinana, Ethiopia
  • 8. Oat-vetch mixture provides high biomass yields (12 t ha-1 of DM). It is a balanced diet in terms of protein and energy. Milk yield improvement as a result of supplementation: oat-vetch Livestock feed and forage management and utilization practices- Examples
  • 9. Oat-vetch mixture Intercropping selected faba bean varieties with improved forage crops: The intervention provides both grain for the hh and feed for the hh’s livestock.
  • 10. Sweet lupin: yields up to 3 t ha-1 of grain and 8 t ha-1 of haulm. Supplementation of 200 g of sweet lupine grain daily to sheep results in a daily body weight gain of about 75 g.
  • 11. Alfalfa: biomass yield of 20 t DM ha-1 can be obtained from 6 to 8 cuts under farmers’ fields and management conditions.
  • 12. Tree Lucerne: produce more than 7 t ha-1 of dry biomass year-1. A 1 kg supplement of dried TL leaf feed to a lactating dairy cow can give up to 1.2 litres of extra milk.
  • 13. Brachiaria: produce 8.5 -10 t ha-1 DM. Propagated by seed, cuttings and root split.
  • 14. Desho grass: produce 4-5.5 t ha-1 DM, harvesting can be done 3-4 times per year depending on the environment.
  • 15. Fodder beet: high biomass yield= 20.2±5.26 t DM ha-1. Milk yield improvement as a result of supplementation: up to
  • 16. Feed trough and feed shed: reduce wastage (30-50 %), save 10-20% of labor time for feeding.
  • 17. Africa Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation africa-rising.net The presentation has a Creative Commons license. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.