Pmbok 4th edition chapter 3 - Project Management Processes for a Project


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Pmbok 4th edition chapter 3 - Project Management Processes for a Project

  2. 2. Project ManagementProject management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, andtechniques to project activities to meet project requirements.This application of knowledge requires the effective management ofappropriate processes.A process is a set of interrelated actions and activities performed toachieve a pre‐specified product, result, or service.Each process is characterized by its inputs, the tools and techniquesthat can be applied, and the resulting outputs.
  3. 3. Project Management  Approachln order for a project to be successful, the project team must:ln order for a project to be successful the project team must:• Select appropriate processes required to meet the project  objectives,• Use a defined approach that can be adopted to meet  requirements,• Comply with requirements to meet stakeholder needs and Comply with requirements to meet stakeholder needs and  expectations, and• Balance the competing demands of scope, time, cost, quality,  resources, and risk to produce the specified product, service, or  result. result
  4. 4. Project Management Process Groups• initiating Process Group: Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.• Planning Process Group: Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course 0f action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve. j p j• Executing Process Group: Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.• Monitoring and Controlling Process Group: Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.• Closing Process Group: Those processes performed to f l l h f d finalize all activities ll across all process groups to formally close the project or phase.
  5. 5. 3.1 Common Project Management Process interactionsThe project management processes are presented as discreteelements with well‐defined interfaces.However, in practice they overlap and interact in ways that are notcompletely d l l detailed h l d here.Most experienced project management practitioners recognize thereis more than one way to manage a project.
  6. 6. 3.1 Common Project Management Process interactionsThe required process groups and their constituent processes areguides for applying appropriate project management knowledge andskills during the project.The application of the project management processes is iterative, and h l f h dmany processes are repeated during the project.
  7. 7. 3.2 Project Management Process GroupsA process group includes the constituent project managementprocesses that are linked by the respective inputs and outputs wherethe result or outcome of one process becomes the input to another.The process groups are not project phases.When large or complex projects are separated into distinct phases orsubprojects such as feasibility study, concept development, design,prototype, build, test, etc.,all of the process groups would normally be repeated for each phaseor subproject.
  8. 8. Table 3‐1 reflects the mapping of the 42 Project management processes 5 Project Management Process Groups 9 Project Management Knowledge Areas.The project management processes are shown in the process group inwhich most of the activity takes place. y pFor example, when a process that normally takes place in thePlanning Process Group is updated in the Executing Process Group, itis not considered a new process.
  9. 9. PM Knowledge Areas & Process GroupsPM Process Initiating Process Planning Process Group Executing Process Monitoring & Controlling ClosingGroups / Group Group Process Group ProcessKnowledge GroupArea ProcessesProject Develop Project Charter Develop Project Management Direct and Manage Project Monitor and Control Project Work Close ProjectManagement Plan Execution Integrated Change ControlIntegrationProject Scope Collect requirements Verify ScopeManagement Define Scope Control Scope Create WBSProject Time Define Activity y Schedule ControlManagement Sequence Activity Estimating Resource Estimating Duration Develop ScheduleProject Cost Estimating Cost Control CostManagement Budgeting CostProject Quality Quality Planning Perform Quality Assurance Perform Quality ControlManagementProject HR Human Resources Planning Acquire Project TeamManagement Develop Project Team Manage Project TeamProjectP j t Identify Stakeholders Id tif St k h ld Plan Communications Pl C i ti Distribute Information Di t ib t I f ti Performance Reporting P f R tiCommunications Manage stakeholdersManagement expectationsProject Risk Plan Risk Management Risk Monitoring and ControlManagement Risk Identification Qualitative / Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk R Ri k Response Planning Pl iProject Plan procurement Conduct procurement Administer Contract CloseProcurement procurementManagement
  10. 10. PM Knowledge Areas & Process Groups/ by Rita
  11. 11. 3.3 Initiating Process GroupThe initiating Process Group consists of those processes performed todefine a new project or a new phase of an existing project byobtaining authorization to start the project or phase.Within the initiating processes, the initial scope is defined and initialfinancial resources are committed committed.internal and external stakeholders who will interact and influence theoverall outcome of the project are identified.lf not already assigned, the project manager will be selected.This information is captured in the Project Charter and stakeholderregister.register
  12. 12. 3.3 Initiating Process GroupWhen the project charter is approved, the project becomes officiallyauthorized.Although the project management team may help write the projectcharter, approval and f d h l d funding are h dl d external to the project handled l hboundaries(Figure 3‐4). 3 4).
  13. 13. 3.3 Initiating Process Grouplnvoking the lnitiating processes at the start of each phase helpskeep the project focused on the business need the project wasundertaken to address.The success criteria are verified, and the influence and objectives ofthe project stakeholders are reviewed reviewed.A decision is then made as to whether the project should becontinued, delayed, or discontinued.lnvolving the customers and other stakeholders during initiationgenerally improves the probability of shared ownership, deliverableacceptance,acceptance and customer and other stakeholder satisfaction satisfaction.
  14. 14. 3.3.1 Develop Project CharterDevelop Project Charter is the process 0f developing a document thatformally authorizes a project or a phase and documenting initialrequirements that satisfy the stakeholders needs and expectations.ln multiphase projects, this process is used to validate or refine thedecisions made during the previous iteration of Develop ProjectCharter.
  15. 15. 3.3.2 ldentify StakeholdersId tif St k h ld is the process of identifying all people orIdentify Stakeholdersorganizations impacted by the project, and documentingrelevant information regarding their interests, involvement,and impact on project success.
  16. 16. 3.4 Planning Process GroupThe Planning Process Group consists of those processes performed toestablish the total scope of the effort, define and refine theobjectives, and develop the course of action required to attain thoseobjectives.The planning processes develop the project management plan andthe project documents that will be used to carry out the project. p j y p j The multi‐dimensional nature of project management createsrepeated feedback loops for additional analysis. As more projectinformation or characteristics are gathered and understood understood,additional planning may be required.
  17. 17. 3.4 Planning Process GroupSignificant changes occurring throughout the project life cycle triggera need to revisit one or more of the planning processes and, possibly,some of the initiating processes.This progressive detailing of the project management plan is oftencalled "rolling wave planning," indicating that planning and rolling planning,documentation are iterative and ongoing processes.
  18. 18. 3.4.1 Develop Project Management PlanDevelop Project Management Plan is the process of documenting theactions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans.The project management plan becomes the primary source of information for howthe project will be planned, executed, monitored and controlled, and closed.
  19. 19. 3.4.2 Collect Requirements• Collect Requirements i th is the process of defining and  f d fi i d documenting stakeholders needs to meet the project objectives.
  20. 20. 3.4.3 Define Scope• Define Scope i is the th process of d l i a d t il d f developing detailed description of the project and product.
  21. 21. 3.4.4 Create WBS• Create Work Breakdown Structureis the i th process 0f subdividing project deliverables and project work into i t smaller, more manageable components. ll bl t
  22. 22. 3.4.5 Define Activities is the i th process of id tif i• Define Activities f identifying th the specific actions to be performed to produce the project d li j t deliverables. bl
  23. 23. 3.4.6 Sequence Activities is the i th process of id tif i and• Sequence Activities f identifying d documenting relationships among the project activities. ti iti
  24. 24. 3.4.7 Estimate Activity Resources• Estimate Activity Resources i the is th process of estimating f ti ti the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required t perform each i t li i d to f h activity.
  25. 25. 3.4.8 Estimate Activity Durations• Estimate Activity is th i the process of Durations f approximating the number of work periods needed t complete i di id l activities with d d to l t individual ti iti ith estimated resources.
  26. 26. 3.4.9 Develop Schedule is the process of analyzing activity  i th• Develop Schedule f l i ti it sequences, durations, resource requirements, and  schedule constraints to create the project  h d l t i t t t th j t schedule.
  27. 27. 3.4.10 Estimate Costs is the process of developing an  i th• Estimate Costs fd l i approximati0n of the monetary resources needed  to complete project activities. t l t j t ti iti
  28. 28. 3.4.11 Determine Budget• Determine Budget i th is the process of aggregating the  f ti th estimated costs of individual activities or work  packages to establish an authorized cost baseline. k t t bli h th i d t b li
  29. 29. 3.4.12 Plan Quality• Plan quality is the process of identifying quality requirements Plan quality is the process of identifying quality requirements  and/or standards for the project and product, and documenting  how the project will demonstrate compliance.
  30. 30. 3.4.13 Develop Human Resource PIan Develop Human Resource Plan is the process of identifying• D l H R Pl is the process of identifying  and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and  required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a  required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.
  31. 31. 3.4.14 Plan Communications• Plan Communications i th is the process of determining  fd t i i project stakeholder information needs and  defining a communication approach. d fi i i ti h
  32. 32. 3.4.15 Plan Risk Management• Plan Risk Management i th is the process of defining how  f d fi i h to conduct risk management activities for a  project. j t
  33. 33. 3.4.16 ldentify Risks• identify Risks i th is the process of determining which  fd t i i hi h risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics.
  34. 34. 3.4.17 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis is the process of prioritizing• P f Q lit ti Ri k A l i is the process of prioritizing  risks for further analysis or action by assessing and  combining their probability of occurrence and impact. combining their probability of occurrence and impact.
  35. 35. 3.4.18 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis• Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis i th is the process of  f numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks  on overall project objectives. ll j t bj ti
  36. 36. 3.4.19 Plan Risk Responses• Plan Risk Responses i th is the process of developing  fd l i options and actions to enhance opportunities and  to reduce threats to project objectives. t d th t t j t bj ti•
  37. 37. 3.4.20 Plan Procurements• Plan Procurements i th is the process of documenting  fd ti project purchasing decisions, specifying the  approach, and identifying potential sellers. h d id tif i t ti l ll
  38. 38. 3.5 Executing Process Group• The Executing Process Group consist of those processes The Executing Process Group consist of those processes  performed to complete the work defined in the project  management plan to satisfy the project specifications.  management plan to satisfy the project specifications.• This process group involves coordinating people This process group involves coordinating people• and resources as well as integrating and performing the and resources, as well as integrating and performing the  activities of the project in accordance with the project  management plan (Figure 3 29). management plan (Figure 3‐29).
  39. 39. Executing Process GroupThe Executing Process Group consist of thoseprocesses performed to complete the work definedin the project management plan to satisfy theproject specifications.This process group involves coordinating people andresources, as well as integrating and performing the esou ces, e teg at g a d pe o gt eactivities of the project in accordance with thep oject a age e t p a ( gu e 3 9).project management plan (Figure 3‐29).
  40. 40. 3.5.1 Direct and Manage Project Execution• Di t and M Direct Project Execution is the process of d Manage P j t E ti performing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the projects objectives. project s
  41. 41. 3.5.2 Perform Quality Assurance• P f Quality Assurance is the process of auditing the Perform Q lit A quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.
  42. 42. 3.5.3 Acquire Project Team is the i th process of confirming• Acquire Project Team f fi i human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary t complete project assignments. t to l t j t i t
  43. 43. 3.5.4 Develop Project Team• D l Project Team is the process of improving the Develop P j t T competencies, team interaction, and the overall team environnent to enhance Project performance.
  44. 44. 3.5.5 Manage Project Team• Manage Project Team is the process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance.
  45. 45. 3.5.6 Distribute lnformation Distribute information is the process of making relevant• Di t ib t i f ti information available to project stakeholders as planned.
  46. 46. 3.5.7 Manage Stakeholder Expectations• M Manage Stakeholder St k h ld Expectations E t ti is the process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur.
  47. 47. 3.5.8 Conduct Procurements Conduct Procurements is the process of obtaining seller• C d t P t responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.
  48. 48. 3.6 Monitoring and Controlling Process GroupThe Monitoring and Controlling Process Gr0up consists of thoseprocesses required to track, review, and regulate the progress andperformance of the project; identify any areas in which changes tothe plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.The key benefit of this process group is that project performance isobserved and measured regularly and consistently to identify g y y yvariances from the project management plan.
  49. 49. Monitoring and ControllingThe Monitoring and Controlling Process Group alsoincludes:• Controlling changes and recommending preventive action in anticipation of possible problems,• Monitoring the ongoing project activities against the project management plan and the project performance baseline and baseline,• influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implemented.
  50. 50. Monitoring and ControlThis continuous monitoring provides the project team insightinto the health of the project and identifies any areasrequiring additional attention.The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group not onlymonitors and controls the work being done within a processgroup, but also monitors and controls the entire projecteffort.ln multi‐phase projects, the Monitoring and ControllingProcess Group coordinates project phases in order toimplement corrective or preventive actions to bring the p p gproject into compliance with the project management plan.
  51. 51. Monitoring and ControlThis review can result in recommended andapproved updates to the project management plan.For example a missed activity finish date may example,require adjustments to the current staffing plan,reliance on overtime or trade‐offs between budget overtime,and schedule objectives.
  52. 52. 3.6.1 Monitor and Control Project Work• Monitor and Control Project Work is the process of tracking tracking, reviewing, and regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.• Monitoring includes status reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting.• Performance reports provide information on the projects project s performance with regard to scope, schedule, cost, resources, quality, and risk, which can be used as inputs to other processes.
  53. 53. 3.6.2 Perform Integrated Change Control• Perform integrated Change Control is the process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and managing changes to the deliverables, organizati0nal process assets, project documents, and the project management plan.
  54. 54. 3.6.3 Verify Scope• Verify Scope i is the th process of f f formalizing acceptance li i t of the completed project deliverables.
  55. 55. 3.6.4 Control Scope Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of the• C t lS project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
  56. 56. 3.6.5 Control Schedule• C t l S h d l is the process of monitoring the status of Control Schedule the project to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baseline.
  57. 57. 3.6.6 Control Costs• C t l C t is the process of monitoring the status of the Control Costs project to update the project budget and managing changes to the cost baseline.
  58. 58. 3.6.7 Perform Quality Control Perform Q lit C t l is the process of monitoring and• P f Quality Control recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.
  59. 59. 3.6.8 Report Performance• R t Performance is the process of collecting and Report P f distributing performance information including status reports, progress measurements, and forecasts.
  60. 60. 3.6.9 Monitor and Control Risks• M it and C t l Ri k is the process of implementing Monitor d Control Risks risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project.
  61. 61. 3.6.1 0 Administer Procurements• Administer Procurements is the process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as needed.
  62. 62. 3.7 Closing Process GroupThe Closing Process Group consists of those processes performed tofinalize all activities across all project management process groups toformally complete the project, phase, or contractual obligations.This process group, when completed, verifies that the definedprocesses are completed within all the process groups to close theproject or a project phase, as appropriate, and formally establishesthat the project or project phase is complete.
  63. 63. Closing Process GroupAt project or phase closure, the following may occur:At project or phase closure the following may occur:• obtain acceptance by the customer 0r sponsor,• Conduct post project or phase end review Conduct post‐project or phase‐end review,• Record impacts of tailoring to any process,• DDocument lessons learned, tl l d• Apply appropriate updates to organizational process  assets, assets• Archive all relevant project documents in the Project  Management information System (PMIS) to be used  Management information System (PMIS) to be used as historical data, and• Close out procurements. Close out procurements.
  64. 64. 3.1.1 Close Project or Phase• Close Project or Phase i th is the process of finalizing all  f fi li i ll activities across all of the management process  groups to formally complete the project or phase. t f ll l t th j t h
  65. 65. 3.7.2 Close Procurements• Close Procurements i th is the process of completing each  f l ti h project procurement
  66. 66. For more information do not hesitate to contact me. Ahmad H. Maharma ‐ PMP®• Ramallah, Palestine • Phone: + (972) (2) 2968644• Mobile: + (972) (599) 001155 Mobile: + (972) (599) 001155 E‐Mail: