Synonym is the state or
phenomenon in which
the words that sound
different, but have the
same or identical meaning,
as another word or phrase.
Synonyms can be nouns,
verbs, adverbs or
adjectives, as long as both
are the same part of
Antonym is the state or phenomenon in which the words have
the sense relation which involve the opposite of meaning.
O In many languages, including English, you can sometimes
make antonyms by adding a prefix: real – unreal, flexible –
O The word pairs of antonym can be divided into several
types: 1. Gradable antonyms
2. Complementary antonyms
3. Relational antonyms .
1. Gradable antonyms.
Graded antonyms are word pairs that have variations
between the two opposites. For example : Sane and crazy, cool
and hot, wet and dry, late and early, ignorant and educated
Rich and Poor
2. Relational antonyms.
Relational antonyms are pairs that have a relationship.
Each word wouldn’t exist without the other. For example :
Servant and master, borrow and lend, come and go, toward
and away, divisor and dividend, parent and child.
Parent and Child
3. Complimentary antonyms.
antonyms are word pairs that
have no degree of meaning.
There are only two opposite
possibilities. For example :
Leave and arrive, pre and post,
question and answer, single and
married, hired and fired, brother
and sister, before and after, male
alive and dead.
4. Adding a Prefix.
Sometimes, an antonym can be easily made by adding a
Examples of antonyms that were made by adding the prefix
“un” are: Likely and unlike, able and unable.
By adding the prefix “non” you can make these pairs: Entity
and nonentity, conformist and nonconformist.
Lastly, adding the prefix “in” can make the following pairs:
a. Tolerant and intolerant
b. Decent and indecent
c. Discreet and indiscreet
d. Excusable and inexcusable
Hyponyms are words that all can
be placed into the same category.
Example : red, yellow, green,
blue, purple, black is hyponym of
color. Clarinet, guitar, piano,
trumpet, violin, are hyponyms of