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Student:Igor Milosević-PerićProfesorica:Daniela Božić
Slobomir P Univerzitet-Filološki fakultet
Content:
Close front and close back vowels
Difference in strong and weak syllables
Syllabic l
Syllabic n
Syllabic m a...
Close front and close back vowels
 Close front vowels are i and i: and we can find them occuring:
i. In word-final positi...
Difference in strong and weak
syllables
 In strong syllables it is comparatively easy to
distinguish i from i: and, u fro...
Syllabic l
 Syllabic l is the most noticeable example of English
syllabic consonant.In words with a preceding
consonant s...
Syllabic n
 Is most commonly found after plosive and fricative
sound, in the case of t and d followed by n the plosive
is...
Syllabic m and ŋ
 We find them sometimes in words like ‘happen’ which
could be transcribed as hæpm or hæpn and upper-
mos...
Syllabic r
 In accents of the type called ‘rhotic’ such as most
American accent syllablic r is very common.
 Syllabic r ...
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English phonetics and phonology

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English phonetics and phonology

  1. 1. Student:Igor Milosević-PerićProfesorica:Daniela Božić Slobomir P Univerzitet-Filološki fakultet
  2. 2. Content: Close front and close back vowels Difference in strong and weak syllables Syllabic l Syllabic n Syllabic m and ŋ Syllabic r
  3. 3. Close front and close back vowels  Close front vowels are i and i: and we can find them occuring: i. In word-final position in words spelt with final y or ey (after one or more consonant letters) e.g ‘happy’ hæpi, valley væli and in morpheme-final words when such words haves suffixes beginning with vowels, e.g easiest i:ziəst ii. In a prefix such as those spelt ‘re’ ‘pre’ ‘de’ that precedes a vowel and is unstressed, e.g ‘react’ riækt,’proccupied’ priɒkjʊpaid iii. In the suffiexes spelt ‘ious’ ‘iate’, when they have two syllables, e.g ‘hilarious’ hileəriəs iv. In the following words when unstressed ‘he’ she’ ‘we’ ‘me’ ‘be’, and a word ‘the’ when it precedes a vowel.
  4. 4. Difference in strong and weak syllables  In strong syllables it is comparatively easy to distinguish i from i: and, u from u: , for example feet and fit, but in weak syllables it is much less easy to hear the difference.  We can see this in: Easy Busy i:zi: bizi: I:zi bizi This is not phonemic transcription in traditional sense , but it is best accepted by the native speakers.
  5. 5. Syllabic l  Syllabic l is the most noticeable example of English syllabic consonant.In words with a preceding consonant such as bottle, tunnel we have lateral release.The l is a “dark l”.  In RP we can usually find it in the words that have one or more vowel preceding suffix –le.Examples are: i. With alveolar consonant preceding ;‘cattle’ kætl ‘bottle’ bɒtl ii. With non-alveolar consonant preceding ;’couple’ kʌpl ‘trouble’ trʌbl
  6. 6. Syllabic n  Is most commonly found after plosive and fricative sound, in the case of t and d followed by n the plosive is nassaly released by lowering of the soft palate e.g. ‘eaten’ i:tn  In words where syllabic consonant is followed by ‘an’ or ‘on’ it is rarely heard e.g. wagon wægən  After bilabial consonants it is considered equally acceptable to use n or ən e.g. ‘ribbon’ ribən  After f and v , n is more usual than ən e.g ‘seven’ sevn  Clusters with nasal+plosive+syllabic nasal are very unusual e.g ‘London’ lʌndən
  7. 7. Syllabic m and ŋ  We find them sometimes in words like ‘happen’ which could be transcribed as hæpm or hæpn and upper- most could be pronounced like ʌpməust although ʌpəməust is more usual pronounciation  Examples of syllabic velar nasals are ‘thicken’ θikŋ and ‘broken key’ brəukŋ ki: where the nasal consonant occurs between velar consonant.
  8. 8. Syllabic r  In accents of the type called ‘rhotic’ such as most American accent syllablic r is very common.  Syllabic r is less common in RP and there are acceptable pronounciations without the syllabic consonant.Here are some examples: a) Where non-syllabic r is acceptable;history histri (not usually histəri) b) Where ər is also acceptable; ‘buttering’ bʌtriŋ There are couple minimal pairs in wich meaning of the word depends wether r is syllabic or not; ‘Hungary’ hʌŋgri ‘hungry’ hʌŋgri

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