What is the need to learn spellings? • English spellings can be confusing especially for the non-native speakers and writers. In the following slide presentations, you will find some rules and regulations to help you. Unfortunately there are exceptions to these rules , but this summary should be helpful.
What are spellings? • “Spelling is the process ofrepresenting language by means of a writing system” ( National Council of Teachers of English, 1996. p. 51). • Spelling is the writing of one or more words with letters. it attempt totranscribe the sounds of the language into alphabetic letters.
Spelling knowledge• PHONOLOGY – how words sound• MORPHEMES – how words are constructed from meaningful elements• HOMONYMS – words that sound similar, but have different meanings and spellings
Spelling knowledge• HOMOPHONE – a word (type of homonym) that is pronounced the same as another word. The words may be spelled differently or the same.• CONTRACTION -- A word or phrase that has been shortened by leaving out some of the letters is called a contraction
Homonyms• HOMONYMS – words that sound similar, but have different meanings and spellings Examples: affect-effect;theyre-their-there; fell-fail, cite-sight- site, marry-Mary-merry, pair-pare- pear, there-their-theyre
Homophones• HOMOPHONE – a word (type of homonym) that is pronounced the same as another word. The words may be spelled differently or the same. Examples: foul (odor) / fowl (bird) , rose (flower) / rose (past tense of “rise”),
Contraction and model assimilations• CONTRACTION - An apostrophe is used to show that the letters have been omitted (won’t - will not), (o’clock - of the clock). example: : *ain’t, can’t, couldn’t, won’t, wouldn’t, shan’t, shouldn’t, *mayn’t, (mightn’t, mustn’t)• MODAL PLUS "HAVE" ASSIMILATION: coulda, mighta, shoulda, woulda• MODAL PLUS "TO" ASSIMILATION: gonna, hafta, hasta, supposta, useta
Short vowel ruleTo spell a short vowel sound, only one letter is needed:Examples: combat , shred , exit , hot , super
Long vowel rules.. To spell a long sound you usually must add a second vowel, or you may use theconsonants y or w in place of the vowel. Examples: reach , loose , soup , seize , sky
vowel – consonant – e rule• The silent e makes the vowel long. Long a – Sneaky e cake ape name Long o – Sneaky e bone hose nose
vowel – consonant – e rule• The silent e makes the vowel long. Long i – Sneaky ebike dime pile Long u – Sneaky ecube rule rude
Some other spelling rules…. • Almost no English words end in "v" exception: spiv• "q" is always written as "qu“ .It never stands by itself. Examples: quick, queen, quarrel
• "i" comes before "e" when it is pronounced " ee". EXAMPLES: brief, field , priest.• "i" before "e" except after " c “, or when sounding like "a" as in "neighbour, or weigh“. EXAMPLES: receive, deceive, ceiling
Some exceptions are EXCEPTION sovereign, seized, counterfeit, Forfeited, leisure
"able" or "ible" endings. Use "able": • After root words. e.g. available, dependable.• After root words ending in "e". e.g. desirable, believable, usable (drop the "e"). • After "i". e.g. reliable, sociable.
"able" or "ible" endings• When other forms of the root word have a dominant "a" vowel. e.g. irritable, durable, abominable.• After a hard "c" or "g". e.g. educable, navigable, practicable. Exceptions: formidable, inevitable, memorable, probable, indomitable, insuperable.
"able" or "ible" endings Use "ible"• After non-root words. e.g.audible, horrible, possible. • When the root has an immediate "ion“ form. e.g. digestible, suggestible, convertible.
"able" or "ible" endings• After a root ending in "ns" or "miss". e.g. responsible, comprehensible, permissible. • After a soft "c" or "g". e.g. legible, negligible, forcible, invincible.• Exceptions: contemptible, resistible, collapsible flexible.
SOME PHONETIC VIOLATIONSSAME PRONUNCIATION BUT DIFFERENT SPELLINGS (DIFFERENT MEANINGS): cite-sight-site, marry- Mary-merry, pair-pare-pear, there-their- theyreSAME SPELLINGS BUT DIFFERENT PRONUNCIATIONS (SAME WORD FAMILIES): nation-national, obscene- obscenity, sign-signature, go-gone, ct. soup-supper
• Keeping a constant spelling may involve the use of so- called “silent” letters.• Sign resignation, signal, signature.
• In some cases the “g” and “k” are quite empty letters.• “g” gnarled, gnat, gnome.• “K” knee, knife, knock, know.
We double "l, f, and s" after a singleshort vowel at the end of a word. EXAMPLES: EXCEPTIONS: miss us, stiff, bus, stuff. gas, call, of, tall, this, toss yes, plus, nil, pal.
For words ending in a single "l"after a single vowel, double the "l"before adding a suffix, regardless of accent. Examples: Cancelled, traveller, signalling, metallic. "all" and "well" followed byanother syllable only have one "l". Examples: also, already, although, welcome,
Silent e rule…..• When a word ends in silent - e, usually drop the -e if you are adding a suffix that begins with a vowel, but retain the - e when you are adding a suffix that begins with a consonant
Examples: • Silent -e is an -e such as the one in love, which you do not hear when love is pronounced. Since love ends in silent e and the suffix -able begins with a vowel, drop -e when joining love and -able: love + able = lovable• However, since the suffix -less begins with a consonant, retain the -e in love when joining love and -less: love + less = loveless
In words ending in -ce or -ge , -e is not dropped when you add - able or -ous: Examples are: courageous, manageable, noticeable, outrageous, peaceable, serviceable, Traceable.
When a word ends in -y, usually change the -y to -i when you are adding a suffix if the -y is preceded by a consonant, but do not change it if the -y is preceded by a vowel or if you are adding the suffix -ing. Examples study+ -ed = studied destroy + -ed = destroyed study+ -ing = studying destroy + -ing = destroying
A final Y changes to i when an ending is added. Supply become supplies Worry become worried Merry become merrier……except when that ending is ing…. Crying, studying.……..and when Y is preceded by avowel.... Obeyed , saying.
When a one-syllable word ends in the cvccombination, usually double the final consonant when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel but do not double it when adding a suffix that begins with a consonant.
Examples are........ Ship is a one-syllable word that ends in the cvc combination. ship + -ing = shipping (a suffix begins with a vowel) ship + -ment = shipment (a suffix that begins with a consonant
ASSIMILATION: PALATALIZATION• When a word that ends with a /t/ is followed by a –ual, -ial, or -ion ending, the palatal vowel <y-> changes the /t/ sound into a /č/ sound. addict addiction act actual or action part partial predict prediction
ASSIMILATION: PALATALIZATION • Because /k/ is a stop, and vowels are continuants, an affix beginning with a vowel often changes /k/ to /s/.critic criticize or criticism fanatic fanaticism romantic romanticism