Transactional Analysis and Communction


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Transactional Analysis and Communction

  1. 1.  Transactional analysis, commonly known as TA to its adherents, is a model for explaining why and how:  People think like they do  People act like they do  People interact/communicate with others  TA was developed by Canadian-born US psychiatrist Eric Berne during the late 1950s.
  2. 2.  Everyone has three ego states that are based on childhood experiences and role model.  Each ego state is separate and distinct source of behavior. PARENT ADULT CHILD
  3. 3.  Set of feelings, thinking and behavior that we have copied from our parents or parental figures.  There are 2 types 1. Controlling or Critical 2. Nurturing PARENT ADULT CHILD
  4. 4.  Not related to person’s age.  Oriented towards current reality and the objective gathering of information.  Organized, adaptable, intelligent and tests reality estimating probabilities. PARENT ADULT CHILD
  5. 5.  All the impulses that come naturally to an infant.  How you responded to earlier experiences and the positions you took about others and yourself.  Feelings of happiness, anxiety, fear, withdrawal etc. PARENT ADULT CHILD
  6. 6. There are basically three kinds of transactions: Reciprocal/Complementary (the simplest) Crossed Duplex/Covert (the most complex)
  7. 7.  A simple, reciprocal transaction occurs when both partners are addressing the ego state the other is in. These are also called complementary transactions.  Example:  A: "Would you like to skip this meeting and go watch a film with me instead?" (Child to Child) B: "I'd love to - I don't want to work anymore, what should we go and see?" (Child to Child)
  8. 8.  Communication failures are typically caused by a 'crossed transaction' where partners address ego states other than that their partner is in. Consider the above examples jumbled up a bit.  A: "Have you been able to write that report?" (Adult to Adult) B: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent) This is a crossed transaction likely to produce problems in the workplace.
  9. 9.  It is a state in which single person shows more than one kind of ego state at the same time.  Example :  A: "I need you to stay late at the office with me." (Adult words) B: "Of course." (Adult response to Adult statement), winking or grinning (Child accepts the hidden motive).
  10. 10.  Another concept in TA is that of strokes which are only acts of recognition.  A stroke is a unit of recognition. Positive strokes (compliments, praise) satisfy most. Negative strokes (criticism, ridicule) are more satisfying than no strokes at all.  Many workers have become recalcitrant because they were ignored at work and got no strokes at all. Many marriages are threatened after a few years, because each spouse takes the other for granted and does not provide strokes.
  11. 11.  A stroke is satisfying and is therefore a reward. Like any other reward, strokes also, if given indiscreetly, may misdirect. One must not provide a positive stroke at the time of an undesirable behaviour.
  12. 12.  In TA theory, "Life Position" refers to the general feeling about life (specifically, the unconscious feeling, as opposed to a conscious philosophical position) that colours every dyadic (i.e. person-to- person) transaction. Initially four such Life Positions were proposed: 1."I'm Not OK, You're OK" (I-U+) 2."I'm Not OK, You're Not OK" (I-U-) 3."I'm OK, You're Not OK" (I+U-) 4."I'm OK, You're OK" (I+U+)
  13. 13.  However, lately, an Australian TA analyst has claimed that in order to better represent the Life Position behind disorders that were not, allegedly, as widespread and/or recognized at the time when TA was conceptualized as they are now the list requires alteration. Also, two additional Life Positions are proposed:[8] 1."I'm not-OK, You're OK" (I-U+) 2."I'm not-OK, You're not-OK" (I-U-) 3."I'm not-OK, But You're Worse" (I-U--) 4."I'm not-OK, You're Irrelevant" (I-U?) 5."I'm a Bit More OK Than You Are" (I++U+) 6."I'm OK, You're OK" (I+U+) 7."I'm OK, You're Irrelevant" (I+U?) The difference between one's own OK-ness and other's OK-ness captured by description "I'm OK, You're not-OK" is proposed to be substituted by description that more accurately captures one's own feeling (not jumping to conclusions based only on one's perceived behavior), therefore stating the difference in a new way: "I'm not-OK, but You're worse" (I-,U--), instead.
  14. 14. Every time we speak, we choose and use one of four basic communication styles: assertive, aggressive, passive and passive- aggressive. Assertive Communication  The most effective and healthiest form of communication is the assertive style. It's how we naturally express ourselves when our self-esteem is intact, giving us the confidence to communicate without games and manipulation.  When we are being assertive, we work hard to create mutually satisfying solutions. We communicate our needs clearly and forthrightly. We care about the relationship and strive for a win/win situation. We know our limits and refuse to be pushed beyond them just because someone else wants or needs something from us. Surprisingly, assertive is the style most people use least.
  15. 15. Assertive Communication  You choose and make decisions for you.  You are sensitive and caring with your honesty  You are direct  You are self-respecting, self expressive and straight forward.  You convert win-lose situations to win-win ones.  You are willing to compromise and negotiate.  You feel confident, self-respecting, goal-oriented, valued. Later you may feel a sense of accomplishment.  Others feel valued and respected.  Others view you with respect, trust and understand where you stand.  The outcome is determined by above-board negotiation. Your rights and others are respected.  Your underlying belief is that you have a responsibility to protect your own rights. You respect others but not necessarily their behaviour.
  16. 16. Aggressive Communication Aggressive communication is a style in which individuals express their feelings and opinions and advocate for their needs in a way that violates the rights of others. It is a method of expressing needs and desires that do not take in to account the welfare of others. Those who communicate in an aggressive manner are generally perceived as selfish and unwilling to compromise. In agressive communication we simply want our needs met - and right now!
  17. 17. Aggressive communication  choose and make decisions for others.  direct and forceful  try to dominate others  use humiliation to control others  You demand your own way.  You feel righteous, superior, controlling  be very impulsive  have low frustration tolerance  speak in a loud, demanding, and overbearing voice  act threateningly and rudely  not listen well  interrupt frequently  Others feel humiliated, defensive, resentful and hurt around you.
  18. 18. PASSIVE COMMUNICATION Passive communication is based on compliance and hopes to avoid confrontation at all costs. In this mode we don't talk much, question even less, and actually do very little. We just don't want to rock the boat. Passives have learned that it is safer not to react and better to disappear than to stand up and be noticed.
  19. 19. Passive communication  You allow others to choose and make decisions for you.  You are emotionally dishonest  You are indirect and self denying.  You are inhibited.  If you get your own way, it is by chance  You feel anxious, ignored, helpless, manipulated, angry at yourself and/or others.  Others feel guilty or superior and frustrated with you.  Others view you in the exchange as a pushover and that you don’t know what you want or how you stand on an issue.  The outcome is that others achieve their goals at your expense. Your rights are violated.  Your underlying belief is that you should never make someone uncomfortable or displeased except yourself
  20. 20. Passive-Aggressive Communication A combination of styles, passive-aggressive avoids direct confrontation (passive), but attempts to get even through manipulation (aggressive). If you've ever thought about making that certain someone who needs to be "taught a thing or two" suffer (even just a teeny bit), you've stepped pretty close to (if not on into) the devious and sneaky world of the passive-aggressive. This style of communication often leads to office politics and rumour-mongering.
  21. 21. Passive Aggressive Communication  You allow others to choose and make decisions for you.  You appear honest but underlying comments confuse.  You tend towards indirectness with the air of being direct.  You are self-enhancing but not straight forward about it.  In win-lose situations you will make the opponent look bad or manipulate it so you win  If you don’t get your way you’ll make snide comments or pout and be the victim.  You feel confused, unclear on how to feel, you’re angry but not sure why. Later you possibly feel guilty.  Others feel confused, frustrated, not sure who you are or what you stand for or what to expect next.  Others view you in the exchange as someone they need to protect themselves from and fear being manipulated and controlled.
  24. 24. There are many different types of Communication but they can be classified into four basic types of communication. Types of Communication Based on Communication Channels  Verbal Communication  Non-Verbal Communication Types of Communication Based on Style and Purpose  Formal Communication  Informal Communication
  25. 25. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONS Some of the barriers to effective communication are 1. Organizational Barriers.  The classical organization structure with a scalar chain of command restrict free and frequent communication.  Too many levels intervene causing delay in transmission and distortion in the message.  When the message has to pass through several hands of causing the filtering communication.  Successive transmissions of the same message are decreasingly accurate. 2. Status Barrier.  Since every organization has some kind of status system, persons of lower status do not feel free to talk superiors.  They pass on only what superior would like to hear and hold back unpleasant facts.
  26. 26. 3.Semantic Barriers.  Semantic is the study of meaning of words and symbols.  Words and symbols used to communicate facts and feelings may mean different things to different people.  Badly expressed messages ,faulty translations, unclarified assumptions add to the barriers. 4. Inattention barrier.  An inattentive receiver does not pay complete attention to the message, making it ineffective.  A person may be inattentive when he consider the message as superficial or uninteresting.  He may be pre-occupied with other more important matters. 5. Perceptual Barriers.  Perception means the mental and sensory process used by an individual to interpret the received information.  As every individual has specific areas of interest he may hear, read or see only that part of the message which is valuable to him
  27. 27.  People see what they want to see and consider it a reality.  Perception leads to filtering of message unconsciously. 6. Information Overload.  Managers are flooded with information from various sources.  They may not always be able to regulate the flow of information.  Effectiveness of communication is reduced when managers allow themselves to be in undaunted with information.  They may ignore or misinterpret some of the message.  Time pressure may also create communication problems. 7. Premature Evaluation.  Communication is hampered when the receiver evaluates the message before getting the complete information.  In such case he does not have an open mind.  He may not be receptive to new ideas.  He jumps to conclusions without logical deductions from the objective situation.
  28. 28. 8. Channel Distortions.  Many people talking simultaneously, inaudible telephone lines, electronic disturbances, wrong transcriptions in telex messages , noise are some of the examples of channel distortions. MEASURES FOR OVERCOMING BARRIERS. 1. Clarity of Idea.  Clarity of thought is the first essential of good communication.  The message must be perfectly clear and free from all ambiguity.  The language used must be simple and precise which receiver can understand easily. 2. Completeness.  Incomplete message create misunderstanding and delays action.  Every individual should be provided with required information for proper discharge of his duties
  29. 29. 3. Brevity.  All communications should be brief.  The flow of information should be regulated to avoid misunderstanding. 4. Timeliness.  The message should reach the receiver at the right time.  Message sent in improper time is useless.  The media used should be proper. 5. Compassion.  In order to communicate effectively, the communicator must understand the intelligence level and back ground of the receiver.  He must know what information the receiver exactly needs and in what form. 6. Integrity.  Messages sent must be consistent with the objectives, policies and programs of the organization.  Actions speaks louder than words.  The actions and behavior of the sender must also support his communication.
  30. 30.  Communication is a two way process.  There should be follow up actions to ensure that the message is rightly understood.  All efforts should be made to ensure feedback.  Feedback enables the communicator to know whether the receiver has properly understood the message, 8. Attention.  Careful listening is essential for effective communication.  Communicator should try to secure the undivided attention of the communicate.  He should convey the message in such a way that the emotions and sentiments of the receiver are not hurt.  Empathetic listening and open mind are necessary for this purpose. 9. Strategic use of Grapevine.  A manager should make use of the grapevine to supplement the formal channels of communication.  For this purpose he must understand the informal communication networks and should make their intelligent use to fill up the gaps in formal communication system