Skk Leadership


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Skk Leadership

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>SUNIL K KOHLI, IDAS ndc </li></ul>
  2. 2. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Leadership is the most important factor in the sustenance and progress of an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Traits as signposts in the march towards attaining effective leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is a type of human behaviour – can be developed </li></ul><ul><li>In government an Officer gets formal sanction to play the leader’s role through his appointment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Leadership is the ability of a person to mobilize and direct the efforts of his group members for solving group problems by relating himself to the characteristics of the group and sensitizing himself about the nature of the problem situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership behaviour based on “the need today is to know ourself, accept ourselves and act ourselves”. </li></ul>
  4. 4. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Leadership gives a positive direction to the use of human resources and brings out the best in a man. Leadership is also a natural phenomenon of a man’s work-life. It is related to the principle of gradation and hierarchy which is a universal order of the things created by God and man. </li></ul><ul><li>Any person who is more than ordinarily efficient leader In carrying successful psychological stimuli to Others and is thus effective in conditioning Collective response.—Bernard, 1926 </li></ul>
  5. 5. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>The functional relation in leadership exists when a leader is perceived by a group, as Controlling means for the satisfaction of their needs. The Activity of persuading people to cooperate in the achievement of a common objective. --Bocker Knicker, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>To lead is to engage in an act that initiates a structure in the interaction as past of the process of solving a mutual problem and working with and through men.—Hemphill ( Matrix 9,5) </li></ul>
  6. 6. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>LEADERSHIP: Is it behaviour, traits or actions? </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders make every effort to keep improving their knowledge and performance on a continuing basis. </li></ul><ul><li>All human activities require primarily two things for their successful completion: WILL & SKILL. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership, like many other behavioral concepts, derives its meaning more from the CONTEXT than from the CONTENT. </li></ul><ul><li>“ All men are sheep – they need a shepherd”. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Development of Leadership Concepts <ul><li>Concepts of leadership remained person oriented and were understood more in terms of leader’s background and his in-born personal qualities. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership as a dynamic process – a three pronged interactive process between leader, group and situation, rather than as merely the role and activities performed by leader or characters that inspires confidence. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Development of Leadership Concepts <ul><li>Leadership is the projection of personality. It is the combination of persuasion, compulsion and example that makes other people do what you want them to do (Field Marshal Slum) </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is the knack of getting somebody to do something you want done, because he want to do (Gen Eisenhower) </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour of leader from Positional authority </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is the ability of a person to mobilize and direct the efforts of his group members </li></ul>
  9. 9. Leadership and Management <ul><li>The problem with many organizations, especially the ones that are falling, is that they tend to be over-managed and under-led. </li></ul><ul><li>Management deals with Management aids; Manager supervises people, Quantitative aids, material resources, Logistic support systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership emphasizes the human dimensions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Leadership and Management <ul><li>Leadership is a broader concept than Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of head and heart make an effective leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership – Art of persuation and other methods of eliciting compliance and cooperation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP <ul><li>  TRAIT THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>1) TRAITS: A trait is any distinguishable, relatively enduring way in which an individual differs from others. </li></ul>
  12. 12. APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP <ul><li>  TRAIT THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>a) Fredrick the great was a frightful Bully. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Alexander the Great was full of youthful buoyancy. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Nelson was known for his affection for junior Officers and sailors. </li></ul><ul><li>d) Napoleon was highly assertive and egoistic. </li></ul><ul><li>e) Montgomery was conservative. </li></ul>
  13. 13. APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP <ul><li>  TRAIT THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>f) Patton was a showman. </li></ul><ul><li>g) Lord-Mountbatten achieved his success through personal charms magnetism. </li></ul><ul><li>2) These differences refer to varied types of situational requirements of human behaviour. </li></ul>
  14. 14. APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP <ul><li>  TRAIT THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>3) Traits are: Drive, honesty, integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability, knowledge, creativity, flexibility, courage. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Leadership motivation is the desire to exercise influence over others to reach shared goals. </li></ul><ul><li>5) In realm of leadership, the individual does matter. </li></ul><ul><li>6) Courage is the quality that guarantees all others. </li></ul><ul><li>7) Assumptions: Individual rather than situational circumstances that makes the difference. </li></ul>
  15. 15. BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH <ul><li>1) What leaders are but how they behave. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Hemphill (1977): states, “Leadership may be defined as the behaviour of an individual while he is involved in directing group activities”. </li></ul>
  16. 16. BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH <ul><li>3) Types of Behaviour: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Symbolic : </li></ul><ul><li>i) Ranks, Medals etc: They are the apparent signs of his authority, power, Competence and concern for group members. </li></ul><ul><li>ii)         A gram of example is worth a kg of exhortation. Personal example, inspire etc. </li></ul>
  17. 17. BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH <ul><li>b) Decision making: </li></ul><ul><li>i) It is his prerogative and his responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>ii)         Decision making ability is rooted in his: </li></ul><ul><li>(1)Self concept, </li></ul><ul><li>(2)Risk taking ability, </li></ul><ul><li>(3)Tolerance for ambiguity, and </li></ul><ul><li>(4)Internal vs. External control. </li></ul>
  18. 18. BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH <ul><li>c) Concern for men: </li></ul><ul><li>i) Based on noble human values of loyalty, fidelity, and integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>d) Concern for task: </li></ul><ul><li>(1)                     Leadership is sine quo non of task performances. </li></ul><ul><li>(2)                     They tend to ignore human consideration, drive the group members instead of leading them. </li></ul>
  19. 19. STYLES OF LEADERSHIP: <ul><li>Continuum of leadership: </li></ul><ul><li>i) The focus on Observed Behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>ii)         A broad range styles emerges as a continuum from authoritarian on one end to democratic behaviour on other end. </li></ul><ul><li>iii)   Authoritarian (concern for task) </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic (concern for others): Leadership works with persuasion than with positional authority and coercive power </li></ul>
  20. 20.        GRID APPROACH OF LEADERSHIP : BLAKE AND MOUTON:Two Dimensional Model <ul><li>It was primarily developed for assessing the personality of a leader based on </li></ul><ul><li>i)           CONCERN FOR TASK </li></ul><ul><li>ii)    CONCERN FOR PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>b)                       Let us now discuss one of these areas and their related leadership styles: </li></ul>
  21. 21.        GRID APPROACH OF LEADERSHIP : BLAKE AND MOUTON:Two Dimensional Model <ul><li>i)9,1 Style (Task): Mission oriented leader </li></ul><ul><li>(1)”I get the job done inspite of my group members”. </li></ul><ul><li>ii)9,9 Style (Team): </li></ul><ul><li>(1)“People support what they help to create”. </li></ul><ul><li>iii)1,9 Style (Country Club) </li></ul><ul><li>(1)“A happy team produces the best results”. </li></ul>
  22. 22.        GRID APPROACH OF LEADERSHIP : BLAKE AND MOUTON:Two Dimensional Model <ul><li>iv)1,1 Style (Impoverished) </li></ul><ul><li>(1)“Sab chalta hai or chalne do”. </li></ul><ul><li>v)   5,5 Style (Middle Road) </li></ul><ul><li>(1)“Firm but fair” </li></ul><ul><li>vi) 9,5 Style (Military Leadership) </li></ul><ul><li>This approach does not take into consideration environment in which leaders and followers have to function. The need for today is to KNOW OURSELVES, ACCEPT OURSELVES AND ACT OURSELVES”. </li></ul>
  23. 23. SITUATIONAL APPROACH: <ul><li>1) Emphasis on situation than trait: Challenges the implied omnipotence of the born leader </li></ul><ul><li>2) John Adair: Change the situation – change the leader </li></ul><ul><li>a) Not necessarily physical change of leader; Can be change of leadership style </li></ul>
  24. 24. SITUATIONAL APPROACH: <ul><li>b) Skill development: Three main aspects of a leader which helps him in solving problems:- </li></ul><ul><li>c) Position of the leader. </li></ul><ul><li>d) Personality of the leader. </li></ul><ul><li>e) Knowledge (technical and professional) and behavioral skills. </li></ul>
  25. 25. SITUATIONAL APPROACH: <ul><li>3) REDDIN (1970): To meet the requirement of a new situation, leader must learn to develop the following behavioural skills:- </li></ul><ul><li>a) Situational sensitivity – an ability to read a situation by analyzing its interactive elements. It’s a diagnostic skill. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Style flexibility – Applied skills. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Situational management skill – applied skills </li></ul>
  26. 26. SITUATIONAL APPROACH: <ul><li>4) Effectiveness as Third Dimension: Leadership lies in function and not in person. The grid prepared by BLAKE and MOUTON will have third dimension of effectiveness besides concern for task and concern for people. </li></ul>
  27. 27. SITUATIONAL APPROACH: <ul><li>5) STYLES OF LEADERSHIP: The twelve style of Leadership are:- </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Style </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Style </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective Style </li></ul>
  28. 28. SITUATIONAL APPROACH: <ul><li>STYLES OF LEADERSHIP: </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated </li></ul><ul><li>Benevolent Autocrat </li></ul><ul><li>Autocrat </li></ul>
  29. 29. SITUATIONAL APPROACH: <ul><li>STYLES OF LEADERSHIP: </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Compromiser </li></ul>
  30. 30. SITUATIONAL APPROACH: <ul><li>STYLES OF LEADERSHIP: </li></ul><ul><li>Related </li></ul><ul><li>Developer </li></ul><ul><li>Missionary </li></ul>
  31. 31. SITUATIONAL APPROACH: <ul><li>STYLES OF LEADERSHIP: </li></ul><ul><li>Separated </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucrat </li></ul><ul><li>Deserter </li></ul>
  32. 32. DISCUSSION OF STYLE OF LEADERSHIP <ul><li>1) Dedicated Leader (HTLW) : </li></ul><ul><li>a) Verbal directions </li></ul><ul><li>b) His time perspective is immediate. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Deals with conflicts by suppressing them & other stressful situation by domination. </li></ul><ul><li>d) The two dimensions of this basic style are:- </li></ul>
  33. 33. DISCUSSION OF STYLE OF LEADERSHIP <ul><li>i) Benevolent Autocrat: Effective Dimension. </li></ul><ul><li>(1)High task oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>(2)Result oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Style of functioning is in consonance with the characteristics of the group and the nature of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Believes in efficacy of reward and punishment and practices to the extent possible. </li></ul>
  34. 34. DISCUSSION OF STYLE OF LEADERSHIP <ul><li>ii)Autocrat: Ineffective dimension </li></ul><ul><li>(1)Main stance is based on threat and punishment </li></ul><ul><li>(2)Decisions arbitrary and subjective </li></ul>
  35. 35. DISCUSSION OF STYLE OF LEADERSHIP <ul><li>2) Integrated Leader (HTHW) : </li></ul><ul><li>a) Leader likes o become a “part of things” </li></ul><ul><li>b) Team man and future oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>c) The two dimensions of this basic style are:- </li></ul>
  36. 36. DISCUSSION OF STYLE OF LEADERSHIP <ul><li>i) Executive: Effective Dimension </li></ul><ul><li>(1)Uses participative management as the basis of functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>ii)   Compromiser: Ineffective Dimension </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Distorted vision and ambiguous work values. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Little influence on group members and fails to motivate them to work. </li></ul>
  37. 37. DISCUSSION OF STYLE OF LEADERSHIP <ul><li>3) Related leader: (LTHW) </li></ul><ul><li>a) Treat organizations as social systems </li></ul><ul><li>b) Suited for training and development work. </li></ul><ul><li>c) The two dimensions of this basic style are:- </li></ul>
  38. 38. DISCUSSION OF STYLE OF LEADERSHIP <ul><li>i) Developer: Effective Dimension </li></ul><ul><li>ii)         Missionary: Ineffective Dimension </li></ul><ul><li>4) Separated: (LTLW) </li></ul><ul><li>a) Concerned about correcting deviations. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Tends to write than talk. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Time perspective is often related to the past- “How did we do it last time?” </li></ul><ul><li>d) Greater interest in rules and procedures. </li></ul>
  39. 39. DISCUSSION OF STYLE OF LEADERSHIP <ul><li>i) Bureaucrat: Effective Dimension </li></ul><ul><li>(1)Impersonal in his behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Fair and just behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>(3)Status Quo Approach </li></ul>
  40. 40. DISCUSSION OF STYLE OF LEADERSHIP <ul><li>ii)Deserter: Ineffective Dimension </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Avoids responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Uncommunicative. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Leadership and motivation <ul><li>a) A leader or Manager is not just a doer but is also a person who gets others to work efficiently towards a common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Maintaining a high level of morals is the prime responsibility of a leader. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Motivation is a function of needs. Morale – of freedom or restraint towards a particular goal. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Leadership and motivation <ul><li>d) Motivation deals with propensity for particular behavioral pattern. Morale describes a state of complex attitude and feeling about work situations. </li></ul><ul><li>e) Morale reflects motivation and motivation, in turn, provides potential for Morale. </li></ul>