Published on

Fundamentals of Management, Leadership Skills, Management Skills

Published in: Leadership & Management
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1.  LEADING Fundamentals of Management Richard Daft (2005)
  2. 2. LEADING   LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Define Leadership and explain its importance for organizations Identify personal characteristics associated with effective leaders Describe the leader behaviors of initiating structure and consideration and when they should be used Describe Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory and its application to subordinate participation Explain the path-goal model of leadership Discuss how leadership fits the organizational situation and how organizational characteristics can substitute for leadership behaviors Describe transformational leadership and when it should be used Identify the five sources of leader power and how each causes different subordinate behavior Explain innovative approaches to leadership in a turbulent environment
  3. 3. I: Nature of Leadership   “LEADERSHIP is influence… It is not about titles, positions, or flowcharts. It’s about one life influencing another.” –John C. Maxwell  “LEADERSHIP is not wielding authority – it’s empowering people.” -Becky Brodin  “LEADERSHIP is the capacity to translate vision into reality.” -Warren G. Bennis
  4. 4. I: Nature of Leadership   Three aspects that stand-out when we talk about LEADERSHIP: Leadership occurs among PEOPLE, involves the use of INFLUENCE, and is used to attain GOALS.  LEADERSHIP The ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals.
  5. 5. II: Leadership versus Management  LEADER QUALITIES MANAGER QUALITIES SOUL MIND Visionary Passionate Creative Flexible Inspiring Innovative Courageous Imaginative Experimental Initiates change Personal power Rational Consulting Persistent Problem-solving Tough-minded Analytical Structured Deliberate Authoritative Stabilizing Position power
  6. 6. II: Leadership versus Management  LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT  Promotes vision, creativity,  Promotes stability, order, and and change problem-solving  A leader takes you to a new  A manager takes care of place where you are  Good leadership is needed to  Good management is needed move the organization into the future to help the organization meet current commitments
  7. 7. II: Leadership versus Management  “You manage things; you lead people.” - Grace Murray Hopper, Admiral U.S. Navy (Retired)
  8. 8. III: Leadership Traits   TRAITS Distinguishing personal characteristics, such as intelligence, values, and appearance.  Early research focused on leaders who had achieved a level of greatness, referred to as the GREAT MAN approach. This approach finds out what made people great, and select future leaders who already exhibited the same traits or could be trained to develop them.
  9. 9. III: Leadership Traits  Personal Characteristics of Leaders Physical Characteristics Personality Work-Related Characteristics Energy Physical Stamina Achievement drive, desire to excel Conscientiousness in pursuit of goals Persistence against obstacles, tenacity Self-Confidence Honesty and Integrity Enthusiasm Desire to lead Independence Intelligence and Ability Social Characteristics Social Background Intelligence cognitive ability Knowledge Judgment, decisiveness Education Mobility Sociability, interpersonal skills Cooperativeness Ability to enlist cooperation Tact, diplomacy
  10. 10. III: Leadership Traits  The 21 Indispensable Qualities of a Leader 1. CHARACTER Be a Piece of the Rock 2. CHARISMA The First Impression Can Seal the Deal 3. COMMITMENT It Separates Doers from Dreamers 4. COMMUNICATION Without It You Travel Alone 5. COMPETENCE If You Build It, They Will Come 6. COURAGE One Person With Courage Is a Majority 7. DISCERNMENT Put an End to Unsolved Mysteries
  11. 11. III: Leadership Traits  The 21 Indispensable Qualities of a Leader 8. FOCUS The Sharper It Is, The Sharper You are 9. GENEROSITY Your Candle Loses Nothing When It Lights Another 10. INITIATIVE You Won’t Leave Home Without It 11. LISTENING To Connect With Their Hearts, Use Your Ears 12. PASSION Take This Life and Love It 13. POSITIVE ATTITUDE If You Believe You Can, You Can 14. PROBLEM SOLVING You Can’t Let Your Problems Be A Problem
  12. 12. III: Leadership Traits  The 21 Indispensable Qualities of a Leader 15. RELATIONSHIPS If You Get Along, They’ll Go Along 16. RESPONSIBILITY If You Won’t Carry the Ball, You Can’t Lead the Team 17. SECURITY Competence Never Compensates for Insecurity 18. SELF-DISCIPLINE The First Person You Lead Is You 19. SERVANTHOOD To Get Ahead, Put Others First 20. TEACHABILITY To Keep Leading, Keep Learning 21. VISION You Can Seize Only What You Can See
  13. 13. III: Leadership Traits  “If a leader demonstrates competency, genuine concern for others, and admirable character, people will follow.” - T. Richard Chase
  14. 14. IV: Behavioral Approaches   Two basic leadership behaviors that have been identified as important for leadership: 1. Task-oriented behavior; and 2. People-oriented behavior  These two categories were also called metacategories. They have been found to be applicable to effective leadership in a variety of situations and time periods.
  15. 15. IV: Behavioral Approaches  A. OHIO STATE STUDIES: Researchers at the Ohio State University have identified two major behaviors, called: 1. 2. Consideration; and Initiating structure  Consideration (falls in the category of people-oriented behavior): Describes the extent to which the leader is sensitive to subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust.  Initiating structure (the degree of task behavior): Describes the extent to which the leader is task-oriented and directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment.
  16. 16. IV: Behavioral Approaches   Consideration and Initiating structure are independent of each other.  A leader may have any of four styles: 1. High initiating structure-low consideration 2. High initiating structure-high consideration 3. Low initiating structure-low consideration 4. Low initiating structure-high consideration  Researchers found that the high consideration-high initiating structure achieve better performance and greater satisfaction as compared to other style.  However, new research has found that the “high-high” style is not necessarily the best.
  17. 17. IV: Behavioral Approaches  B. MICHIGAN STUDIES: Studies at the University of Michigan took a different approach by comparing the behavior of effective and ineffective supervisors. According to them:  The most effective supervisors were those who focused on the subordinates’ human needs in order to “build effective work groups with high performance goals”.  They used the term employee-centered leaders for leaders who established high-performance goals and displayed supportive behavior toward their subordinates.  The less effective leaders were called job-centered leaders; these tended to be less concerned with goal achievement and human needs in favor of meeting schedules, keeping costs low, and achieving production efficiency.
  18. 18. IV: Behavioral Approaches  C. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS: Blake and Mouton proposed a twodimensional leadership theory called The Leadership Grid (builds on the work of the Ohio State and Michigan Studies).  LEADERSHIP GRID: A two-dimensional leadership theory that measures the leader’s concern for people and for production.
  19. 19. IV: Behavioral Approaches  The Leadership Grid® Figure High 1,9 8 Concern for People 9 Country Club Management Thoughtful attention to the needs of the people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo. 7 6 5 4 9,9 1 Low 2 Impoverished Management Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership. 1,1 3 1 Low 2 3 Middle-of-the-road Management 5,5 Adequate organization performance is possible for balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. 4 5 6 Concern for Production Team Management Work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose leads to relationship of trust and respect. Authority Compliance Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree. 9,1 7 8 9 High
  20. 20. V: Contingency Approaches   Contingency Approach: A model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations.  1. 2. 3. 4. Several models of this approach are: Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory Evans and House’s Path-Goal Theory Substitutes-for-Leadership Concept
  21. 21. V: Contingency Approaches  1. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory: A comprehensive theory of leadership that combine leadership style and organizational situation.  The basic idea: Match the leader’s style with the situation most favorable for his/her success.  Leadership Style: The extent to which the leader’s style is relationship-oriented or task-oriented.  A relationship-oriented leader is concerned with people.  A task-oriented leader is motivated by task accomplishment.  This style is measured with a questionnaire known as Least Preferred Co-worker or LPC scale.
  22. 22. V: Contingency Approaches   LPC Scale: A questionnaire designed to measure relationship-oriented versus task-oriented leadership style according to the leader’s choice of adjectives for describing the “least preferred co-worker”.  This scale has a set of 16 bipolar adjectives along an 8point scale. For example: Open - - - - - - - - Guarded Quarrelsome - - - - - - - - Harmonious Efficient - - - - - - - - Inefficient Self-Assured - - - - - - - - Hesitant Gloomy - - - - - - - - Cheerful
  23. 23. V: Contingency Approaches   SITUATION - Leadership situations can be analyzed in terms of three elements: 1. Leader-member relations: refers to group atmosphere and members attitude toward and acceptance of the leader. 2. Task structure: refers to the extent to which tasks performed by the group are defined, involve specific procedures, and have clear, explicit goals. 3. Position power: the extent to which the leader has the formal authority over subordinates.
  24. 24. V: Contingency Approaches  2. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory: A contingency approach to leadership that links the leader’s behavioral style with the task readiness of subordinates.  This theory focuses greatly on the characteristics of employees in determining appropriate leadership behavior.  A leader can adopt one or four leadership styles based on a combination of relationship (concern with people) and task (concern for production) behavior.  The four styles are: telling, selling, participating, and delegating.
  25. 25. V: Contingency Approaches  2.1 Telling style reflects a high concern for tasks and a low concern for people. 2.2 Selling style is based on a high concern for both people and tasks. 2.3 Participating style is based on a combination on high concern for people and relationships and low concern for production tasks. 2.4 Selling style reflects a low concern for both relationships and tasks.
  26. 26. V: Contingency Approaches  Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory Follower Characteristics Low readiness level Moderate readiness level High readiness level Very high readiness level Appropriate Leader Style Telling (high task – low relationship) Selling (high task - high relationship) Participating (low task – high relationship) Delegating (low task – low relationship)
  27. 27. V: Contingency Approaches  3. Evans and House’s Path-Goal Theory: A contingency approach to leadership specifying that the leader’s responsibility is to increase subordinates’ motivation by clarifying the behaviors necessary for task accomplishment and rewards.  In this theory, leaders switch their behaviors to match the situation.  This model has three sets of contingencies – leader behavior, situational contingencies, and use of rewards to meet the subordinates’ needs.
  28. 28. V: Contingency Approaches  3.1 Leader Behavior: The path-goal theory suggests a fourfold classification of leader behaviors…  Supportive leadership involves leader behavior that shows concern for subordinates’ well-being and personal needs.  Directive leadership occurs when the leader tells subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do.  Participative leadership means that the leader consults with his/her subordinates about decisions.  Achievement-oriented leadership occurs when the leader sets clear and challenging goals for subordinates
  29. 29. V: Contingency Approaches  3.2 Situational Contingencies: There are two important situational contingencies in path-goal theory: 1. 2. The Personal Characteristics of the Group Member, include such factors as ability, skills, needs, and motivation. The Work Environment, include the degree of task structure, the nature of the formal authority system, and the work group itself. 3.3 Use of Rewards: Leaders responsibility is to clarify the path to rewards for subordinates or to increase the value of rewards to enhance satisfaction and job performance.
  30. 30. V: Contingency Approaches  4. Substitutes for Leadership: This approach suggests that situational variables can be so powerful that they actually substitute for or neutralize the need for leadership.  Substitute: A situational variable that makes a leadership style unnecessary or redundant.  Neutralizer: A situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behavior.
  31. 31. V: Contingency Approaches  Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership Variable Task-Oriented People-Oriented Leadership Leadership Organizational Variables Group cohesiveness Formality Inflexibility Low position power Physical separation Substitutes for Substitutes for Neutralizes Neutralizes Neutralizes Substitutes for No effect on No effect on Neutralizes Neutralizes Task Characteristics Highly structured task Automatic feedback Intrinsic satisfaction Substitutes for Substitutes for No effect on No effect on No effect on Substitutes for Group Characteristics Professionalism Training/Experience Substitutes for Substitutes for Substitutes for No effect on
  32. 32. VI: Leading Change   Recent work on leadership has begun to distinguish leadership as something more: a quality that inspires and motivates people beyond their normal levels of performance.  Some leadership approaches are more effective than others for bringing change in the organizations. Two types of leadership that can have a substantial impact: Charismatic and Transformational.  These types of leadership are best understood in comparison with Transactional Leadership.
  33. 33. VI: Leading Change   Transactional Leadership: A leader who clarifies subordinate’s role and task requirements, initiates structure, provides rewards, and display consideration for subordinates.  Transactional leaders excel at management functions.  Their ability to satisfy subordinates may improve productivity.  They have a sense of commitment to the organization and conform to its norms and values.  This is important to all organizations, but leading change requires a different approach. . .
  34. 34. VI: Leading Change   Charismatic Leadership: A leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance.  The impact of charismatic leaders is normally from: 1. 2. 3. Stating a lofty vision of an imagined future that employees identify with Shaping a corporate value system for which everyone stands Trusting subordinates and earning their complete trust in return
  35. 35. VI: Leading Change   Charismatic Leaders are often skilled in the art of Visionary Leadership.  Visionary leaders speak to the hearts of employees, letting them be part of something bigger than themselves.  Vision is an attractive, ideal future that is credible yet not readily attainable. This is an important component of both charismatic and transformational leadership.  Charismatic leaders include: Alexander the Great, Michael Dell, Mother Theresa, Adolf Hitler, Ronald Reagan, Martin Luther King Jr., and Osama Bin Laden.
  36. 36. VI: Leading Change   TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER: A leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change.  This type of leader inspire followers not just to believe in their own potential but to imagine and create a better future for the organization.  Focuses on intangible qualities such as vision, shared values, and ideas to build relationships, give larger meaning to diverse activities, and find common ground to enlist followers in the change process.  A good example of transformational leader is Richard Kovacevich, who steered mid-sized Norwest Corp. (now Wells Fargo & Co.) through numerous acquisitions to make it one of the largest and most powerful banking companies in the United States.
  37. 37. VII: Using Power and Influence   POWER: The potential ability to influence other’s behavior (the capacity to cause a change in a person).  INFLUENCE: The effect a person’s actions have on the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior of others (this may be thought of as the degree of actual change).  There are two types of power: 1. 2. Position Power Personal Power
  38. 38. VII: Using Power and Influence  1. POSITION POWER: The manager’s position gives him or her the power to reward or punish subordinates in order to influence their behavior.  Forms of Position Power: 1. 2. 3. Legitimate Power: Power that stems from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it. Reward Power: Power that results from the authority to bestow rewards on other people. Coercive Power: Power that stems from the authority to punish or recommend punishment.  Legitimate Power and Reward Power are most likely to generate follower compliance. Coercive Power often generates resistance.
  39. 39. VII: Using Power and Influence  1. PERSONAL POWER: This power most often comes from internal sources, such as person’s special knowledge or personal characteristics.  Two types of Personal Power: 1. 2. Expert Power: Power that stems from special knowledge of or skill in the task performed by subordinates. Referent Power: Power that results from characteristics that command subordinates’ identification with, respect and admiration for, and desire to emulate the leader.  The follower reaction most often generated by these is commitment.  Leaders can increase their referent power when they share power and authority with their followers. They should empower lower employees.
  40. 40. VII: Using Power and Influence  BECOMING A PERSON OF INFLUENCE I Integrity with People N Nurtures Other People F Faith in People L Listens to People U Understands People E Enlarges People N Navigates for Other People C Connects with People E Empowers People R Reproduces Other Influencers
  41. 41. VIII: Post-Heroic Leadership for Turbulent Times   A significant influence on leadership styles in recent times is the turbulence and uncertainty of the environment in which most organizations are operating.  Five approaches:      Servant Leadership Level 5 Leadership Interactive Leadership E-leadership Moral Leadership
  42. 42. VIII: Post-Heroic Leadership for Turbulent Times  1. Servant Leadership: A leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization’s larger mission.  They give things away – power, ideas, information, recognition, credit for accomplishments, even money.  People always come before profits.  Most of them work in a non-profit world. 2. Level 5 Leadership: Transforming companies from merely good to truly great organizations.  Key characteristic is an almost complete lack of ego.  They are often seem shy and unpretentious but they accept full responsibility for mistakes, poor results, or failures.
  43. 43. VIII: Post-Heroic Leadership for Turbulent Times  The Level 5 Leadership Hierarchy Level 5: The Level 5 Leader Builds an enduring great organization through a combination of personal humility and professional resolve. Level 4: The Effective Executive Builds widespread commitment to a clear and compelling vision; stimulates people to high performance. Level 3: Competent Manager Set plans and organizes people for the efficient and effective pursuit of objectives. Level 2: Contributing Team Member Contributes to the achievement of team goals; works effectively with others group. Level 1: Highly Capable Individual Productive contributor; offers talent, knowledge, skills, and good work habits as an individual employee.
  44. 44. VIII: Post-Heroic Leadership for Turbulent Times  3. Interactive Leadership: A leadership style characterized by values such as inclusion, collaboration, relationship building, and caring.  Focus on minimizing personal ambition and developing others is also a hallmark of this style (which has been found to be common among female leaders).  This means that the leader favors a consensual and collaborative process, and influence derives from relationships rather than position power and formal authority. 4. E-Leadership: In today’s workplace, many people work from home or other remote locations, connected to the office and another via information technology.    Effective e-leaders set clear goals and timelines are very explicit about how people will communicate and coordinate their work. They are open-minded and flexible; exhibits positive attitudes focsing on solutions rather than problems. They recognized that work is accomplished through people, not technology.
  45. 45. VIII: Post-Heroic Leadership for Turbulent Times  5. Moral Leadership: Distinguishing right from wrong and choosing to do right in the practice of leadership.  Moral leaders remember that business is about values, not just economic performance.  They strive to find the moral answer or compromise, rather than taking the easy way out.  This requires courage - the ability to step forward through fear and act on one’s values and conscience.
  46. 46. The Way of the Shepherd:  7 Ancient Secrets to Managing Productive People 1. Know the Condition of Your Flock     2. Discover the Shape of your Sheep  Your choice of sheep can make flock management easier and harder.  Start with healthy sheep or your inherit someone else’s problems.  Know the SHAPE of your sheep to make sure they are in the right fold. 3. Help Your Sheep Identify with You  Build trust with your followers by modeling authenticity, integrity, and compassion.  Set high standards of performance.  Relentlessly communicate your values and sense of mission.  Define the cause for your people and tell them where they fit in.  Remember that great leadership isn’t just professional; it’s personal. Follow the status of your people as well as the status of the work. Get to know your flock, one sheep at a time. Engage your people on a regular basis. Keep your eyes and ears open, question, and follow through.
  47. 47. The Way of the Shepherd:  7 Ancient Secrets to Managing Productive People 4. Make Your Pasture a Safe Place       5. The Staff of Direction  Know where you’re going, get out in front, and keep your flock on the move.  When directing, use persuasion rather than coercion.  Give your people a freedom of movement, but make sure they know where the fence line is. Don’t confuse boundaries with bridles.  When your people get in trouble, go and get them out.  Remind your people that failure isn’t fatal. Keep your people well-informed. Infuse every position with importance. Cull chronic instigators from the flock. Regularly rotate the sheep to fresh pastures. Reassure the sheep by staying visible. Don’t give problems time to fester.
  48. 48. The Way of the Shepherd:  7 Ancient Secrets to Managing Productive People 6. The Rod of Correction  PROTECT: Stand in the gap an fight for your sheep.  CORRECT: Approach discipline as a teaching opportunity.  INSPECT: Regularly inquire about your people’s progress. 5. The Heart of the Shepherd  Great leadership is a lifestyle.  Everyday you have to decide who’s going to pay for your leadership – you or your people.  Most of all, have a heart for your sheep.
  49. 49. “Leadership development is a lifetime journey – not a quick trip.” -Dr. John C. Maxwell 
  50. 50.  To be great means to serve… THANK YOU! Ü For MM201 Presentation Prepared by: Miamarie Gerona-Estrada