Effective Leadership as a Liberal Art


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Effective Leadership as a Liberal Art

  1. 1. Effective LeadershipAs a Liberal Art<br />From Drucker’s Lost Art of Management<br />Joseph A. Maciariello and Karen E. Linkletter<br />
  2. 2. Effective Leadership<br />Sustainably successful institutions induce in their members an intellectual and moral growth beyond a person’s original capacities. <br />Through historical analysis, one can study Drucker’s model of effective leadership through decisions made by leaders in the past.<br />
  3. 3. Interpretations of Leadership<br />The rise of large industrial organizations led to a more systematic study of leadership as part of management.<br />Practitioners and theorists have began to shift their interest from the productivity of nonhuman capital to the productivity of human capital, to knowledge workers.<br />Hawthorne Experiments<br />Chester Barnard<br />Abraham Maslow<br />Douglas McGregor<br />John MacGregor Burns<br />Robert Greenleaf<br />Jim Collins<br />
  4. 4. Hawthorne Experiments<br />Mayo and Roethlisberger’s interpretation of the Hawthorne experiments revealed that simple attention to working conditions could have an impact on productivity.<br />It was manager’s interest and concern with the workers as human beings that created the increases in production.<br />
  5. 5. Chester Barnard<br />Barnard was one of the first people to systematically document the function of leadership.<br />He foreshadowed Drucker’s concern with providing dignity and meaning in the workplace.<br />In The Functions of the Executive (1938), he attempted to formulate a theory of cooperative behavior and explain why people work in organizations and how they can do so more effectively.<br />
  6. 6. Abraham Maslow<br />Maslow sought to understand why people rallied around leaders such as Hitler and Stalin. His later work focused on human behavior within industrial organizations.<br />Maslow argued that Drucker was not only too general in his assumption but also too naïve in his view that people will not exhibit bad behavior in organizations.<br />Maslow showed that not all leaders are “enlightened” and that not all followers would be motivated by the same motivations.<br />
  7. 7. Douglas McGregor<br />In The Human Side of Enterprise (1960), McGregor defined two primary styles of management, “Theory X” and “Theory Y”, and argued that Theory Y was the preferred style.<br />Theory X<br />Theory Y<br />Theory X managers assumed that people dislike work and would avoid it as much as possible. This management style embraces command and control from above.<br />Theory Y managers assume that work is natural and that people want to be productive. This style emphasizes fostering independence and creative abilities.<br />
  8. 8. John MacGregor Burns<br />In Leadership (1978), he contrasted two styles of leadership: transactional and transformational.<br />Transactional leadership emphasizes a relationship involving a mutually beneficial exchange between two people.<br />Transformational leadership appeals to people’s higher ideals and values, which serve as motivators other than pure self interest. <br />
  9. 9. Robert Greenleaf<br />In The Servant as Leader (1970), his thesis is that effective leaders are oriented primarily to the service of those who follow them.<br />Servant Leadership is “other focused” and it usually involves providing subordinates with a considerable degree of freedom based on trust and respect.<br />
  10. 10. Jim Collins and Level 5 Leaders<br />Proposed that Level 5 leaders focus on who then what as opposed to Level 4 leaders, who focus on what then who.<br />Level 5 leaders focus on selecting the best team of people, then decisions are made about the direction, strategy or mission of the firm.<br />Level 5 leaders are more concerned with surrounding themselves with the most capable people they can and less concerned with their own personal qualities.<br />These leaders possess the quality of humility as well as attention to the mission of the organization. <br />
  11. 11. Drucker’s Model of Effective Leadership<br />Effective leadership is assuming responsibility for getting the right things done, communicating with people, uniting them behind a shared mission, and mobilizing energies toward accomplishing the purpose of an organization.<br />Drucker’s interpretation is that leadership responsibilities require that a leader seek congruency between his values and goals and the values and goals of followers.<br />Drucker believed that effective leadership is not about specific leadership qualities. Personality characteristics have nothing to do with effectiveness—in fact, charisma may be “the undoing of leaders”. <br />
  12. 12. Drucker’s 3 Requirements for Effective Leadership<br />Drucker stated that “the leader’s first task is to be the trumpet that sounds a clear sound”. The foundation of effective leadership is built upon a concise statement of the purpose or mission of an organization.<br />The acceptance of the fact that true leadership is responsibility for the mission and for support of those led. It is not primarily status and power.<br />Leaders must earn trust. Trust is earned when leaders effectively pursue the mission of their organization and are true to their word.<br />
  13. 13. Lincoln’s Congruence Between Values and Goals<br />Lincoln had an ability to mesh his goals and values with those of his constituents and therefore had the ability to find commonality in an atmosphere of divisiveness. <br />Lincoln waited for public opinion to support a national strategy to ban slavery in rebellious states before making the actual decision to abolish slavery.<br />The decision to emancipate slaves is an example of a decision that had to meet certain boundary decisions in order to be effective.<br />Drucker recognized that the identification of certain boundary conditions is a critical element in making effective decisions.<br />
  14. 14. The Irrelevance of Charisma & Relevance of Responsibility and Accountability<br />Although an effective orator, Lincoln can hardly be characterized as a charismatic leader.<br />Lincoln surrounded himself with a team of rivals, a cabinet made up of men whom he believed were best qualified to assist him in meeting challenges.<br />In selecting his cabinet members, Lincoln followed three of Drucker’s categories for executive effectiveness: focus on strengths, focus on contributions, and make decisions effectively.<br />
  15. 15. Lincoln - A Model of Good Leadership<br />Drucker considered integrity of character to be the very essence of good leadership.<br />Unlike other characteristics of effectiveness, integrity is an internal quality and not an external executive skill.<br />One cannot be trained in integrity in the classroom; a person either has integrity of does not.<br />
  16. 16. Henry Cloud’s Six Character Traits to Create Integrity <br />The ability to connect authentically<br />The ability to be oriented toward the truth<br />The ability to work in a way that gets results and finishes well<br />The ability to embrace, engage, and deal with the negative <br />The ability to be oriented toward growth<br />The ability to be transcendent <br />
  17. 17. Lincoln’s Connections, Orientation and Achievements<br />Lincoln connected authentically with his cabinet, military officers, soldiers, political rivals, and the people of the United States. This allowed him to weather the changing political climate in a remarkably difficult chapter of American history.<br />Lincoln made many decisions in a careful manner, analyzing and considering various conflicting opinions and evidence. <br />Ultimately, Lincoln achieved his two primary missions: preserving the Union and emancipating the slaves.<br />
  18. 18. Dealing with Negative Events & Orientation To Growth<br />Lincoln’s early experience with grief prepared him to deal with the trials of succession and war.<br />Lincoln’s orientation toward growth is evidenced by his early self-education, as well as his continuous personal and professional growth while serving as president.<br />Lincoln not only recognized his own limitations as chief executive, he also clearly saw himself as beholden to higher principles not of his own making.<br />
  19. 19. Lincoln on Crisis Management and Servant Leadership<br />Crisis Management<br />Drucker noted that strong leaders have the ability to either avert crisis or weather them and that effective executives must know how to make effective decision in times of crisis.<br />Fort Sumter is a prime example of Lincoln’s effectiveness as a decision maker. Lincoln shifted the decision for peace or war to the confederacy by forcing the South fire the first shot.<br />Servant Leadership<br />Servant leadership involves an understanding of the value of every contribution regardless of status, and the pivotal role of helping others within an organization<br />Lincoln in his interactions with even his ineffective officers, treated subordinates with dignity and respect<br />
  20. 20. Chapter 6 Take Aways<br />Drucker’s model of effective leadership involves not only a list of character traits or habits but also the cultivation of an attitude that leads to certain behaviors. <br />Leaders must see the relationship between the leader and followers, the leader and the mission, the leader and the organization, and the leader and his or her own values.<br />Therefore, leadership is part of management as a liberal art, emphasizing the development of human beings and their relationships with one another.<br />Lincoln’s life and career are illustrative of Drucker’s model of leadership.<br />