Management Theory in EducationWilliam Allan Kritsonis, PhDOverviewAn investigation into the area of management theory revealed theimportance of knowing situational leadership. The authors recommended forstudy are Paul Hersey, Kenneth Blanchard and Dewey E. Johnson who, in1996, co-authored Management of Organizational Behavior. Chapters 8-10and 12-17 have been denoted as important to the comp questions.Chapter 8: Situational LeadershipChapter 9: Situational Leadership, Perception, and the Impact of PowerChapter 10: Developing Human ResourcesChapter 12: Building Effective RelationshipsChapter 13: Communicating with RapportChapter 14: Group DynamicsChapter 15: Implementing Situational Leadership: Managing People toPerformChapter 16: Implementing Situational Leadership: One Minute ManagerChapter 17: Implementing Situational Leadership: Effective Follow-Up
Specific areas in each chapter were reported to have greater relevancethan other areas. This report will highlight the designated areas of relevance.Chapter 14 was indicated as an extremely important chapter.Chapter 8: Situational LeadershipManagers must be able to identify clues in an environment, adapt theirleadership style to meet the demands of their environment and have thepersonal flexibility and range of skills necessary to vary their own behavior.Situational Leadership was developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth H.Blanchard at the Center for Leadership Studies in the late 1960s. In 1982 theoriginal Situational Leadership was modified to include diagnosticinstruments and training materials. The new approach is called SLII. Thebest description of this approach to Situational Leadership can be found inLeadership and the One Minute Manager by Kenneth Blanchard.According to Situational Leadership, there is no one best way toinfluence people. Which leadership style to use varies upon the situation andpeople involved. The following descriptions apply to the four styles:• Style 1 (S1). This leadership style is characterized by above-average amounts of task behavior and below-averageamounts of relationship behavior.
• Style 2 (S2). This leadership style is characterized by above-average amounts of both task and relationship behavior.• Style 3 (S3). This style is characterized by above-averageamounts of relationship behavior and below-averageamounts of task behavior.• Style 4 (S4). This style is characterized by below-averageamounts of both relationship behavior and task behavior.The authors state the leadership situations involving the family,schools or other settings, different words may be more appropriate than taskand relationship-for example, guidance and supportive behavior or directivebehavior and facilitating behavior-but the underlying definitions remain thesame.Figure 1: Effective Leader Behavior (page 192)Readiness level is a key factor in situational leadership and choosingwhich style to implement. Readiness levels range from high to low.Adapted from Paul Hersey, SituationalSelling (Escondido, Calif.: Center forLeadership Studies, 1985), p. 20.
• R4 (high). Able and willing or confident• R3 (moderate). Able but not willing or confident• R2 (moderate). Unable but willing or confident• R1 (low). Unable and unwilling or insecureHIGH LOWR4 R3 R2 R1Able andWillingor ConfidentAble butUnwillingorInsecureUnable butWillingorConfidentUnable andUnwillingorInsecureAdapted from Paul Hersey, Situational Selling (Escondido,Calif.: Center for Leadership Studies, 1985), p. 27.Figure 2: Continuum or Follower Readiness (page 195)Study closely the figures below:MODERATEAdapted from Paul Hersey, SituationalSelling (Escondido, Calif.: Center forLeadership Studies, 1985), p. 19.Figure 3: (page 200)
Figure 4: (page 208)Chapter 9: Situational Leadership, Perception, and the Impact of PowerPower is one of the means by which a leader influences the behaviorof followers. Power is influence potential-the resource that enables a leaderto gain compliance or commitment from others. Authority is a particulartype of power that has its origin in the position that a leader occupies.Adapted from Paul Hersey, Situational Selling (Escondido, Calif.: Center forLeadership Studies, 1985), p. 35.
Authority is the power that is legitimatized by virtue of an individualsformal role in a social organization. Position power and personal power havebeen discussed by Amitai Etzioni. Etzioni sees power as the ability to induceor influence behavior. Etzioni claimed power is derived from anorganizational office, personal influence, or both. Individuals who are ableto induce other individuals to a certain job because of their position in theorganization are considered to have position power; individuals who derivetheir power from their followers are considered to have personal power.Some individuals can have both position power and personal power.Additional bases of power include coercive power, connection power,reward power, legitimate power, referent power, information power, andexpert power. Referent and expert power were associated with the greatestsatisfaction, legitimate and reward power were intermediate, and coercivepower was associated with least satisfaction.Chapter 10: Developing Human ResourcesManagers need to devote time to nurture the leadership potential,motivation, morale, climate, commitment to objectives, and the decision-making, communication, and problem-solving skills of their people. Animportant role for managers is the development of the task-relevantreadiness of their followers.
Rensis Likert found that employee-centered supervisors who usegeneral supervision tend to have higher-producing sections than job-centeredsupervisors who use close supervision. Likert found that employeesgenerally respond well to their supervisors high expectations and genuineconfidence in them and try to justify the supervisors expectations of them.Chapter 12: Building Effective RelationshipsThe Center for Leadership Studies examined the use of LeaderEffectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD) instrument. The LEADinstrument was designed to measure three aspects of leader behavior: 1)style, 2) style range, or flexibility, and 3) style adaptability. The leadershipstyle of a person is the behavior pattern a person exhibits when attempting toinfluence the activities of others--as perceived by those others. LEAD Selfmeasures self-perception of how an individual behaves as a leader; theLEAD other reflects the perceptions of a leaders followers, supervisors, andpeers or associates.Extensive research revealed that all leaders have a primary andsecondary leadership style. A leaders primary style is defined as thebehavior pattern used most often when attempting to influence the activitiesof others. A leaders secondary style is the leadership style that a persontends to use on occasion. All leaders have one primary leadership style, but
may have up to three secondary styles as described in SituationalLeadership.Style range, or flexibility is the extent to which a leader is able to varyher or his leadership style. Leadership situations vary in the extent to whichthey make demands on flexibility.Style adaptability is the degree to which they are able to vary theirstyle appropriately to the demands of a given situation, according toSituational Leadership.A wide style range will not guarantee effectiveness; style range is notas relevant to effectiveness as style adaptability. The importance of a leadersdiagnostic ability cannot be overemphasized. It is the key to adaptability.The concept of adaptability implies that the effective leader is able to use theright style at the right time.Figure 4: (page 302)To diagnose an organization both the LEAD Self and LEAD Otherinstrument is used. Both are used to determine if there is any discrepancy
between self-perception and the perception of others. A useful frameworkdeveloped by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham is used to analyze that data andfeed it back to participating managers. This framework is called the JohariWindow and depicts leadership personality, not overall personality, as it issometimes used. The difference between leadership personality andleadership style in this context is that leadership personality includes self-perception and the perception of others; leadership style consists only of anindividuals leader behavior as perceived by others, that is supervisors,employees, associates, and so on. Thus, leadership personality equals self-perception plus perception of others.Leaders who engage in some attitudes or behaviors that theythemselves know about are referred to as known to self. Leadershippersonality that includes behaviors and attitudes known to others, as well asareas unknown to others. The arena that is known to self and also known toothers is called public arena--it is known to all (the leader and others) withinthe organizational setting. The arena that is unknown to self (the leader), butis known to others, is referred to as the blind arena. The arena that is knownto self but unknown to others is referred to as the private arena. The lastarena, unknown to self and unknown to others, is called the unknown.
Figure 5: Johari Window (page 304)Two-style profile includes either 1) a basic style that encompasses twoof the four possible configuration styles or 2) a basic style and a supportingstyle. It is important to remember that unless you have gathered specific dataon how your leadership style is perceived by others, your perception of yourown leadership style is only that--your perception.Combining establishing objectives and reaching consensus onperformance criteria in a traditional MBO program with a similar process fornegotiating the appropriate leadership style that a manger should use tofacilitate goal accomplishments in a specific task area can be accomplishedthrough the following steps:• Establish objectives and performance criteria• Reach agreement on objectives and performance criteria• Introduce Situational Leadership• Complete Readiness Style Match• Meet to share data from Readiness Style Match
One warning should be given in using the Contracting for LeadershipStyle process and the readiness style match rating forms. When managers gothrough that process, their public arena in the Johari Window becomes verylarge. If managers do not want their people to know what they think and feelabout them, then they should be careful about using the described process.Chapter 13: Communicating with RapportThe three basic competencies in influencing are 1) diagnosing--beingable to understand the situation you are attempting to influence; 2)adapting--being able to adapt your behavior, and the other things that youhave control over, to the contingencies of the situation; and 3)communicating--being able to put the message in a way that people caneasily understand and accept. This chapter is about the third competency--communicating.All the evidence clearly shows that written and oral communicationskills are critical not only in obtaining a job, but also in performingeffectively on the job. Written and oral communication skills were the twomost important factors in obtaining employment.Leaders influence from both personal power and position power. Youcan begin building personal power by establishing rapport. Part ofestablishing rapport is being able to communicate effectively in a way that is
comfortable for people you are attempting to influence. To make people feelcomfortable, you have to get in step with them--pace with them. Keyconcepts:• Rapport. Being attuned to other people verbally ornonverbally so that they are comfortable and have trust andconfidence in you.• Pacing. Establishing rapport by reflecting what others do,know, or assume to be true (doing something similar,matching some part of their ongoing experience).• Leading. Getting other people to pace with you (attemptingto influence them to consider other possibilities).• Having behavioral adaptability. Having enough range inyour own behavior to pace with the person or persons withwhom you are interacting.The secret of establishing rapport with people is pacing. To pace withother people you need to adapt to match their behavior--to get "in sync" withthem so that they feel comfortable with you. This means getting inalignment with their words, their voice characteristics, and their nonverbals.When you have established rapport with people, they are more apt to followyour lead. The general pattern can be thought of in this way:
Pace LeadWhen youre interacting with other people, youre either pacing--doingsomething similar--or leading--having them pace with you. If your primaryobjective is to gain acceptance, then pacing may be enough. But if yourobjective is to influence them to consider other alternative, then you mustalso lead. Managers can sometimes lead first and then pace to get results,since they often have position power.Chapter 14: Group DynamicsNo matter how much we value and protect our individuality, almostall of our goals can be achieved only in a group. Labor and managementmust have shared values, and yet in most cases they dont. Anotherimportant impediment to achieving group effectiveness is a lack ofleadership skill. Brian Dumaine suggests there are five species in thekingdom of teams:• Problem-solving teams. Attack a problem and then disband• Management teams. Coordinate work from differentfunctions.• Work teams, including the most advanced species, Self-managed teams. Do the daily work.
• Virtual teams. Use advanced communications to exchangeideas and roles.• Quality circles. Consist of workers and supervisors whomeet periodically to address problems. This species may bebecoming extinct.Dumaine offers four guidelines for the most effective use of teamsincluding 1) Use the right team for the job 2) Create a hierarchy of teams 3)Build trust 4) Address "people" issues. An important term is a group as twoor more individuals.What is the teams readiness in the situation?• Readiness Level 1. The group resembles "Pick-up Sticks" interms of their orientation toward the specific objective. Inthis "forming" stage, uncertainty and lack of goals and roleclarity are evidenced by a strong need for definition of theobjective. The entire group is unable and unwilling orinsecure in reference to the specific objective.• Readiness Level 2. This group is "coming around," butgroups at this "storming" stage are often divided withintragroup dissonance and competition for recognition and
influence. The group as a whole is unable, but willing andconfident, in reference to the specific objective.• Readiness Level 3. This group is "coming together," withgroup cohesion very important at this "norming" stage.Adjustments are made between individuals and factions, andinformal leaders and experts emerge. The group itself isnow demonstrating ability with modest accomplishments,but it is still unwilling or insecure in its efforts towardaccomplishing the objective.• Readiness level 4. This team acts "as one" and shows strongevidence of functional role-relatedness, esprit, synergy, andhigh levels of performance. The group is now a team: able,willing, and confident in relation to the objective.
Figure 6 (page 366)Chapter 15: Implementing Situational Leadership: Managing People toPerformThe most fundamental issue of how a leadership or managementconcept might appear to be is, Does it contribute to organizationalproductivity?A strategy is a broad integrated plan of action to accomplishorganizational goals; in our frame of reference, the goal is to improve humanproductivity. Performance is defined as achieving or surpassing business orsocial objectives and responsibilities from the perspective of the judgingparty.Seven factors of performance, designed by Clary Carr, include: 1)Goals 2) Standards 3) Feedback 4) Means 5) Competence 6) Motive7) Opportunity.Source: Used by permission of the copyright holder, The Center forLeadership Studies, Escondido, Calif. 92025. All rights reserved.
Paul Hersey and Marshall Goldsmith designed the ACHIEVE model.ACHIEVE represents ability, clarity, help, incentive, evaluation, validity,environment. Hersey and Goldsmith isolated these seven variables related toeffective performance management. Performance management builds uponthe basic philosophy of Situational Leadership. There is no one best way tosolve human resource problems. The manager should use the problem-solving strategy that best fits the needs of followers in their uniquesituations.Chapter 16: Implementing Situational Leadership: One MinuteManagementSpencer Johnson and Kenneth Blanchard attempted to overcomesome of the objections to the academic nature of behavior modification intheir best-selling book, The One Minute Manager. The book, and thischapter, focus on three powerful concepts derived from behaviormodification principles: one minute goal setting, one minute praisings, andone minute reprimands. The notion of a "one minute manager" wasdeveloped to encourage managers to take an extra minute to make sure theyare focusing on those things that have the most impact in obtaining desiredperformance from workers.
Limit the number of goals. It is advised that you set goals, setpriorities, use measurable indicators, have standards of performance, includeincentives and benefits, identify obstacles to goal accomplishment, identifyaction steps, praise and reward, and use reprimands and redirection ifnecessary.Good goals are SMART: Specific, Measurable, Attainable,Relevant, Trackable.If reprimands are necessary, reprimand the action, not the person.Dont forget the one minute apology when you are wrong. Talk specifics,build people up, hear people out and improve your own communicationskills.Chapter 17: Implementing Situational Leadership: Effective Follow-UpThe book by Hersey and Blanchard, Putting the One MinuteManager to Work is the focus in this chapter. The "ABCs of management,"which stands for activators, behaviors, and consequences. Activators arethings you have to do before you can expect good performance. Behavior isthe performance you want. Consequences are what follow behavior.
Figure 7 (page 419)The PRICE system is a five-step productivity improvement systemdeveloped by Robert Lorber and his associates. PRICE stands for pinpoint,record, involve, coach, and evaluate.The most important thing about any management concept is whetherit works on a day-to-day basis. The proof is in the application (Hersey &Blanchard, 1996).SummaryIn anticipation of the comps question, it is my suggestion that weknow situational leadership, its levels, and the numerous ways it can beSource: Kenneth Blanchard and Robert Lorber, Putting the One MinuteMananger to Work (New York: Morrow, 1984).
applied and implemented in any situation. So as far as putting this inquestion format, "How can situational leadership be applied in the followingscenarios?"LinksI strongly suggest that cohort members go online and search under"Situational Leadership" for numerous sites. The first search resulted in1600 sites. There are a variety of applications and food for thought in areasthat are currently using situational leadership.www.performancelearning.net (programs information)www.bsu.edu (has links to pertinent sites)www.qualitytalk.com (prof. development)www.getfeedback.net (good)
ReferencesHersey, Paul, Blanchard, Kenneth H., Johnson, Dewey E. 1996.Management of Organizational Behavior: utilizing human resources.Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.