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Leadership types


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Leadership types

  3. 3.  #“the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.” Chemers, M. M. (2002).  # Leadership is "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal."  # Leadership is the ability to influence people towards the attainment of organizational goals, (Richard L. Daft, 2006)
  4. 4. There cannot be one, all-encompassing definition of leadership. This is because;  Leadership involves using a whole range of skills, attitudes and behaviours and  The way in which people perceive leadership varies from person to person and from organization to organization. (University of Leicester, 2002)
  5. 5. We would define Leadership as “the process of directing the behaviour of others in a co-ordinated effort towards The accomplishment of some common objectives”. As an element in social interaction, leadership is a complex activity involving:  a process of influence  actors who are both leaders and followers  a range of possible outcomes; the achievement of goals, but also the commitment of individuals to such goals and the enhancement of group cohesion.
  6. 6.  2.1 EARLY HISTORY (TRAIT THEORY) It was once common to believe that leaders were born rather than made. Galton (1869) concluded that leadership was inherited. In other words, leaders were born, not developed
  7. 7.  2.1 EARLY HISTORY (TRAIT THEORY For decades, this trait-based perspective dominated empirical and theoretical work in leadership. Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). Using early research techniques, researchers conducted over a hundred studies proposing a number of characteristics that distinguished leaders from nonleaders:  Intelligence  Dominance  Adaptability  Persistence  Integrity  Socioeconomic status  Self-confidence just to name a few(Bass, B.M. & Bass, R. 2008)
  8. 8.  2.2 RISE OF ALTERNATIVE THEORIES In the 1940-1950s, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. In reviewing the extant literature, Stogdill and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies, the overall evidence suggested that persons who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations. Subsequently, leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait, as situational approaches posited that individuals can be effective in certain situations, but not others. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades.
  9. 9.  2.3 REEMERGENCE OF TRAIT THEORY New methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately re-establish the trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership Additionally, during the 1980s statistical advances allowed researchers to conduct meta-analyses, in which they could quantitatively analyze and summarize the findings from a wide array of studies. This advent allowed trait theorists to create a comprehensive and parsimonious picture of previous leadership research rather than rely on the qualitative reviews of the past.
  10. 10. Equipped with new methods, leadership researchers revealed the following:  Individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks. (Kenny, D.A. & Zaccaro, S.J., 1983)  Significant relationships exist between leadership and such individual traits
  11. 11. Specifically, Zaccaro (2007) noted that trait theories still: 1. Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as Big Five personality, to the neglect of cognitive abilities, motives, values, social skills, expertise, and problem-solving skills. 2. Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes 3. Do not distinguish between those leader attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by, and bound to, situational influences 4. Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioural diversity necessary for effective leadership
  12. 12.  2.4 ATTRIBUTE PATTERN APPROACH In contrast to the traditional approach, the leader attribute pattern approach is based on theorists' arguments that the influence of individual characteristics on outcomes is best understood by considering the person as an integrated totality rather than a summation of individual variables In other words, the leader attribute pattern approach argues That combinations of individual differences may explain substantial variance in both leader emergence and leader effectiveness beyond that explained by single attributes, or by additive combinations of multiple attributes
  13. 13.  2.5 STYLE THEORIES Theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviours, evaluating the behaviour of 'successful' leaders, determining behaviour taxonomy and identifying broad leadership styles. Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lipitt, and Ralph White developed in 1939 the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. They evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision making, praise and criticism (feedback), and the management of the group tasks (project management) according to three styles: (1) authoritarian, (2) democratic and (3) laissez- faire.
  14. 14.  2.6 BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES B.F. Skinner is the father of Behaviour Modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to behaviour, increasing the likelihood of that behaviour in the future. (Miltenberger, R.G., 2004). Organizations such as Frito-Lay, 3M, Goodrich, Michigan Bell, and Emery Air Freight have all used reinforcement to increase productivity
  15. 15. The managerial grid model is based on a behavioural theory. The model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in 1964 and suggests five different Leadership styles, based on the leaders' concern for people and their concern for goal achievement.
  16. 16.  2.7 SITUATIONAL AND CONTINGENCY THEORIES Situational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership This falls under; • Fiedler contingency model • Vroom-Yetton decision model • Path-goal theory • Hersey-Blanchard situational theory
  17. 17.  2.8 FUNCTIONAL THEORY Functional leadership theory is a particularly useful theory for addressing specific leader behaviours expected to contribute to organizational or unit effectiveness. A leader can be said to have done their job well when they have contributed to group effectiveness and cohesion
  18. 18. Morgeson(2005), Klein, Zeigert, Knight, and Xiao (2006) observed five broad functions a leader performs when promoting organisation's effectiveness. These functions include: 1. environmental monitoring 2. organizing subordinate activities 3. teaching and coaching subordinates, 4. motivating others 5. intervening actively in the group's work.
  19. 19.  2.9 TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL THEORIES Eric Berne analyzed the relations between a group and its leadership in terms of; • Transactional Analysis. • Transformational Analysis
  20. 20.  The transactional leader (Burns, 1978) is given power to perform certain tasks and reward or punish for the team's performance. It gives the opportunity to the manager to lead the group and the group agrees to follow his lead to accomplish a predetermined goal in exchange for something else
  21. 21.  The transformational leader (Burns, 1978) Motivates its team to be effective and efficient. Communication is the base for goal achievement focusing the group on the final desired outcome or goal attainment. This leader is highly visible and uses chain of command to get the job done.
  22. 22.  2.10 EMOTIONS Leadership can be perceived as a particularly emotion- laden process, with emotions entwined with the social influence process. (George J.M. 2000). In an organization, the leader's mood has some effects on his/her group. These effects can be described in 3 levels: • The mood of individual group members. Group members with leaders in a positive mood experience more positive mood than do group members with leaders in a negative mood. • The affective tone of the group. Group affective tone is an aggregate of the moods of the individual members of the group and refers to mood at the group level of analysis. • Group processes like coordination, effort expenditure, and task strategy. Public expressions of mood impact how group members think and act.
  23. 23.  2.11 NEO-EMERGENT THEORY The Neo-emergent leadership theory (from the Oxford school of leadership) espouses that leadership is created through the emergence of information by the leader or other stakeholders, not through the true actions of the leader himself. In other words, the reproduction of information or stories form the basis of the perception of leadership or by the majority In modern society, the press, blogs and other sources report their own views of a leader, which may be based on reality, but may also be based on a political command, a payment, or an inherent interest of the author, media or leader. Therefore, it can be contended that the perception of all leaders is created and in fact does not reflect their true leadership qualities at all.
  24. 24.  2.12 ENVIRONMENTAL LEADERSHIP THEORY The Environmental leadership model describes leadership from a Group dynamics perspective incorporating group psychology and self awareness to nurture "Environments" that promote self sustaining group leadership. Environmental Leadership is not about changing the mindset of the group or individual, but in the cultivation of an environment that brings out the best and inspires the individuals in that group It is not the ability to influence others to do something they are not committed to, but rather to nurture a culture that motivates and even excites individuals to do what is required for the benefit of all.
  25. 25.  A good leader must have the discipline to work toward his or her vision single-mindedly, as well as to direct his or her actions and those of the team toward the goal. Action is the mark of a leader. A leader does not suffer “analysis paralysis” but is always doing something in pursuit of the vision, inspiring others to do the same.
  26. 26. Beyond these basic traits, leaders of today must also possess traits which will help them motivate others and lead them in new directions. Leaders of the future must be able to envision the future and convince others that their vision is worth following. To do this, they must have the following personality traits:
  27. 27.  High energy  Intuitiveness  Maturity  Team orientation  Empathy  Charisma. However the list is ever growing and no definitive list is possible. Intrinsic traits such as intelligence, good looks, height and so on are not necessary to become a leader. Anyone can cultivate the proper leadership traits.
  28. 28.  4.1 ORGANIZATIONS The bureaucratic structure forms the basis for the appointment of heads or chiefs of administrative subdivisions in the organization and endows them with the authority attached to their position. In contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit, a leader emerges within the context of the informal organization that underlies the formal structure. The informal organization expresses the personal objectives and goals of the individual membership. Their objectives and goals may or may not coincide with those of the formal organization.
  29. 29.  4.2 MANAGEMENT Over the years the philosophical terminology of "management" and "leadership" have, in the organisational context, been used both as synonyms and with clearly differentiated meanings. Debate is fairly common about whether the use of these terms should be restricted, and generally reflects an awareness of the distinction made by Burns (1978) between "transactional" leadership (characterised by e.g. emphasis on procedures, contingent reward, management by exception) and "transformational" leadership (characterised by e.g. charisma, personal relationships, creativity).
  30. 30.  4.3 GROUP LEADERSHIP In contrast to individual leadership, some organizations have adopted group leadership. In this situation, more than one person provides direction to the group as a whole. Some organizations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity, reducing costs, or downsizing. A common example of group leadership involves cross-functional teams. A team of people with diverse skills and from all parts of an organization assembles to lead a project. A team structure can involve sharing power equally on all issues, but more commonly uses rotating leadership. The team member(s) best able to handle any given phase of the project become(s) the temporary leader(s). Additionally, as each team member has the opportunity to experience the elevated level of empowerment, it energizes staff and feeds the cycle of success.
  31. 31.  4.4 PRIMATES Mark van Vugt and Anjana Ahuja in Naturally Selected: The Evolutionary Science of Leadership present evidence of leadership in nonhuman animals, from leadership in ants and bees to baboons and chimpanzees; They suggest that leadership has a long evolutionary history and that the same mechanisms underpinning leadership in humans can be found in other social species too. Many animals beyond apes are territorial, compete, exhibit violence, and have a social structure controlled by a dominant male (lions, wolves, etc.), suggesting Wrangham and Peterson's evidence is not empirical. However, we must examine other species as well, including elephants (which are matriarchal and follow an alpha female), meerkats (who are likewise matriarchal), and many others.
  32. 32. Leadership style refers to a leader's behaviour. It is the result of the philosophy, personality and experience of the leader. In "Patterns of aggressive behaviour in experimentally created social climates", Journal of Social Psychology 10: 271–301, Kurt Lewin and colleagues identified different styles of leadership:  Autocratic  Participative or democratic  Laissez-Faire
  33. 33.  5.1 AUTOCRATIC OR AUTHORITARIAN STYLE The classical approach • Manager retains as much power and decision making authority as possible • Does not consult staff, nor allow them to give any input • Staff expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations • Structured set of rewards and punishments
  34. 34. Autocratic leaders: • Rely on threats and punishment to influence staff • Do not trust staff • Do not allow for employee input
  35. 35.  • Sometimes the most effective style to use When: 􀂉 New, untrained staff do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow 􀂉 Effective supervision provided only through detailed orders and instructions 􀂉 Staff do not respond to any other leadership style 􀂉 Limited time in which to make a decision 􀂉 A manager’s power challenged by staff 􀂉 Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization
  36. 36.  Should not be used When: 􀂉 Staff become tense, fearful, or resentful 􀂉 Staff expect their opinions heard 􀂉 Staff depend on their manager to make all their decisions 􀂉 Low staff morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage
  37. 37.  Democratic Leadership Style Also known as participative style • Encourages staff to be a part of the decision making • Keeps staff informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities.
  38. 38.  The leader A coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff before making a decision. • Produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time • Staff like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale
  39. 39.  The democratic leader Develops plans to help staff evaluate their own performance • Allows staff to establish goals • Encourages staff to grow on the job and be promoted • Recognizes and encourages achievement
  40. 40.  Not always appropriate • Most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced staff or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems
  41. 41.  Most effective When: 􀂉 Wants to keep staff informed about matters that affect them. 􀂉 Wants staff to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties. 􀂉 Wants to provide opportunities for staff to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction. 􀂉 A large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve 􀂉 Changes must be made or problems solved that affect staff 􀂉 Want to encourage team building and participation
  42. 42.  Democratic leadership should not be used when … • Not enough time to get everyone’s input • Easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision • Can’t afford mistakes • Manager feels threatened by this type of leadership • Staff safety is a critical concern
  43. 43.  Laissez-Faire Leadership Style Also known as the “hands-off¨ style • The manager provides little or no direction and gives staff as much freedom as possible • All authority or power given to the staff and they determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own
  44. 44.  An effective style to use … • Staff highly skilled, experienced, and educated • Staff have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own • Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants used • Staff trustworthy and experienced
  45. 45.  Should not be used … • Staff feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager • The manager cannot provide regular feedback to staff on how well they are doing • Managers unable to thank staff for their good work • The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and hoping the staff cover for him or her
  46. 46.  Bureaucratic Leadership Style Manages “by the book¨ • Everything done according to procedure or policy • If not covered by the book, referred to the next level above A police officer not a leader Enforces the rules
  47. 47.  Most effective When: 􀂉 Staff performing routine tasks over and over 􀂉 Staff need to understand certain standards or procedures. 􀂉 Safety or security training conducted 􀂉 Staff performing tasks that require handling cash
  48. 48.  Ineffective When: 􀂉 Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful 􀂉 Staff lose their interest in their jobs and in their co-workers 􀂉 Staff do only what is expected of them and no more
  49. 49.  Transformational Leadership • Creates and sustains a context that maximizes human and organizational capabilities; • Facilitate multiple levels of transformation; and • Align them with core values and a unified purpose To respond to a dynamic environment
  50. 50.  Transactional Leadership • Emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo • In opposition to transformational leadership • “By the book" approach - the person works within the rules • Commonly seen in large, bureaucratic organizations
  51. 51.  Creative Leadership • Ability to uniquely inspire people, • To generate shared innovative responses and solutions. To complex and readily changing situations
  52. 52.  Corrective Leadership • Empowers staff to facilitate collaborative and synergism • Working with and through other people instead of bowing to authoritarianism
  53. 53.  Change Leadership • Endorses alteration • Beyond thinking about individuals and individual organization, single problems and single solutions • Rethinking systems to introduce change on parts of the whole and their relationship to one another
  54. 54.  Intelligence Leadership • To navigate the future by embracing ambiguity and reframing problems as opportunities • A proactive stance in taking their organizations into uncharted territory
  55. 55.  Multicultural Leadership • Fosters team and individual effectiveness • Drives for innovation by leveraging multicultural differences • Teams work harder in an atmosphere of understanding and mutual respect
  56. 56.  Pedagogical Leadership • Paradigm shift from leader/teacher centered "orientation" to an interactive, connective organizational system using a democratic • learning and communicative style An alternative to instructional leadership by enabling the learning and intellectual growth of those led
  57. 57.  Servant Leadership • A practical philosophy focusing on people who choose to serve first and then lead as a way of expanding service Servant leaders are "servants first" with the object of making sure that other people's highest priority needs are being served • Leaders put the needs of their followers first; these leaders rare in business
  58. 58.  Bridging leadership Fostering synergy and reinforcing behavior and motivation through the use of communication to create climate of trust and confidence Projection of confidence on the face of a difficult challenge
  59. 59.  Purposeful Leadership Leader and the community share a common purpose to develop or provide the drive, authority and commitment to undertake projects
  60. 60.  Mandela has won a number of political hearts for as indicated earlier, four most frequent. That is; 1. National political activist 2. Continental diplomat 3. The conscience of the globe 4. A combination of philanthropist and social development practitioner  
  61. 61.  KWAME NKRUMAH Kwame Nkrumah’s ambition soared above that of all others. Having successfully challenged the might of British rule in Africa and opened the way to independence for a score of other African countries, he saw himself as a messianic leader destined to play an even greater role.
  62. 62.  JULIUS NYERERE Nyerere joined the Tanganyika African Association. Under Nyerere's leadership the organization espoused peaceful change, social equality, and racial harmony and rejected tribalism and all forms of racial and ethnic discrimination. He was a strong advocate of economic and political measures in dealing with the apartheid policies of South Africa. Nyerere was chairman of a group of five frontline African presidents who advocated the overthrow of white supremacy in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), South Africa, and South West Africa now Namibia.
  63. 63.  ROBERT MUGABE Indeed Mugabe’s intransigence maybe precisely because Zimbabwean’s opposition to Zanu-PF is more deeply democratic than in most of Africa. Pose against the ruling party not democratic enough to have developed an evolutionary and ordered succession procedures (one reason Mugabe does not leave), the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) and its base may not allow Mugabe, the compromises facilitating many African presidents’ departures. They would not allow a truth and justice commission to slide away (note the word “justice” rather than “reconciliation” Mugabe’s critics do not want him to gain amnesty for his crimes).
  64. 64.  OTHER AFRICAN LEADERS Inamdi Azikewe’s value based leadership allows him to delegate power and authority when need be. He does not Apart from Mandela, Khama and Ramgoolam, African leaders and elites did not establish political systems that bore any resemblance to indigenous systems. By the end of the 1980s, not a single African head of state in three decades had allowed himself to be voted out of office. Out of some 150 heads of state who had trodden the African stage, only six had managed to voluntarily relinquish power. Seretse Khama, like Dawda Jawara, and Ramgoolam, preached the gospel of inclusive democracy, and he aptly showed his commitment to democratic principles
  65. 65. Attila embarked immediately upon a series of wars extending Hun rule from the Rhine across the north of the Black Sea as far as the Caspian Sea Finally, Attila forged an alliance with the Franks and Vandals and in Spring 451 unleashed his long-threatened attack into the heart of Western Europe. Near Troyes the opposing forces joined battle at Chalons in one of the decisive battles of European history. Though the margin of victory was slim, the Western army prevailed, precipitating Attila's withdrawal back across the Rhine and avoiding a decisive shift in the course of political and economic development in Western Europe
  67. 67.  Varying Leadership Style We believe that three factors that influence which leadership style use in an organization. 1.0 The manager’s personal background: What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have? What does he or she think will work? 2.0 Staff being supervised: Staff individuals with different personalities and backgrounds; the leadership style used will vary depending on the individual staff and what he or she will respond best to. 3.0 The organization: The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the organization influence how a manager acts
  68. 68.  Determining the best leadership Style   Different situations call for different leadership styles. In an emergency when there is little time to converge on an agreement and where a designated authority has significantly more experience or expertise than the rest of the team, an autocratic leadership style may be most effective; however, in a highly motivated and aligned team with a homogeneous level of expertise, a more democratic or laissez-faire style may be more effective. The style adopted should be the one that most effectively achieves the objectives of the group while balancing the interests of its individual members. Managers need to be leaders. . .
  69. 69.  Final thoughts A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Some examples include:  Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job; the leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for the employee.  Using a participative style with a team of workers who know their job; the leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information. The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team.  Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than you; you cannot do everything and the employee needs to take ownership of her job! In addition, this allows you to be at other places, doing other things.  Using all three; telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian), asking for their ideas and input on creating a new procedure (participative), then delegating tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative).